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Challenges in the Application of Smart Power and Public Diplomacy in European Union - People’s Republic of China Relations

Martins, Marco
Fonte: International Journal of Arts & Sciences Publicador: International Journal of Arts & Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In order to establish and expand China’s influence as a BRICS member, the political centre core has developed a new strategy that integrates the combination of the use of hard with soft power whose result takes the form of smart power and public diplomacy in response to present challenges that require transnational solutions such as global financial stability, climate change, the issue of energy insecurity and terrorism. In fact, this article analyzes how smart power and public diplomacy are interlinked as it regards the People’s Republic of China.

Human rights in Sino-American relations

Day, Jana R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 94 p.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Over the past decade, numerous issues largely ignored during the era of Sino-American strategic cooperation emerged to complicate U.S.-China relations. Key among these has been human rights, which both countries view differently. Whereas the United States emphasizes individual civil and political liberties, the People's Republic of China (PRC) primarily advocates economic, social, and cultural rights. This has provided a major source of conflict as Washington has attempted to compel Beijing to provide civil and political liberties to the Chinese people, which Beijing has long withheld in order to preserve power. These differences, combined with a lack of consensus in Washington regarding China policy, the influence of competing interests groups, and the dilemma policymakers face between protecting national interests and upholding American values, makes human rights difficult to address. This thesis offers recommendations regarding a more effective approach to human rights improvements in China. The United States should emphasize China's obligation, as a responsible member of the international community, to comply with international human rights standards. Most importantly, Washington must maintain a strong and consistent stance on the issue. This is particularly true given Beijing's recent attempts to use the international war on terrorism to legitimize its repressive policies in Xinjiang.; First Lieutenant...

Economic growth in the People's Republic of China

Bethke, Steven G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 88 p.;28 cm.
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This thesis studies the Chinese economy, analyzing the economic growth China has experienced since Deng Xiaoping instituted reforms in 1978. An autoregressive- distributed lag method with an error correction model was used to forecast GNP growth. Three scenarios were constructed using high, medium, and low growth patterns. Sino-US relations are in the high end of a cyclical pattern. Economic policy is used as a tool for developing foreign policy in areas such as weapons proliferation and human rights. President Clinton's administration is using economic interaction to pursue a policy of engagement that is designed to work with PRC leaders, fostering a move away from Communism, toward a free market economy and democracy. PRC leaders demonstrated sound macroeconomic policies, despite the Asian economic crisis and the resulting decrease in market demand. PRC growth stems from increases in productivity and has taken advantage of underemployed workers as well as the opening of trade. The PRC faces substantial problems both from within and outside its borders. The country has a history of such problems and disruptions, yet it still realizes economic growth. The conclusion of this thesis is that the economic growth that the PRC has demonstrated is sustainable.; NA; US Navy (USN) author.

The American factor in the evolution of China's maritime doctrine

Malin, Douglas A.
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: ix, 114 p. ;|c28 cm.
Português
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Since the birth of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, American military strategy, foreign policy, and naval presence in East Asia, have all had a significant effect on the evolution of China's naval development, strategy, and maritime doctrine. This thesis will explore the roles, direct and indirect, the United States played in the development of China's maritime doctrine. China is quickly becoming a regional maritime power and will continue to be a significant factor in the strategic equation of the Western Pacific. The commonly held perception, that China is primarily a continental power, is no longer true as the Chinese navy and merchant marine fleet are today among the largest in the world. As China's national interests expand beyond the Asia-Pacific region, understanding the natural maritime component of those interests will be necessary in the evaluation of China's global aspirations and national strength. This research will be relevant in the assessment of China's maritime doctrine in the 1990s and will allow planners of the Asia-Pacific region to better understand China's often pragmatic approach to naval development and strategy. It will be up to the planners and strategists alike to build on this study and make their own interpretations and applications to policy-making as the future unfolds.; Lieutenant...

Evolution in the Civil-Military Relationship in the People's Republic of China and the Potential Impact on the Recent Endeavor to Professionalize the People's Liberation Army

Jones, Randall D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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In this thesis, I analyze how civil-military relations in the PRC have evolved during previous efforts to professionalize the military and examine the implications on contemporary analysis of civil-military relations. Current approaches to understanding civil-military relations in the PRC have focused on the professionalization of the military. However, lessons learned from similar episodes of professionalization in the PLAs past have not been fully incorporated into the current analyses. I develop two case studies chosen at times when there was a prominent shift in the relationship between the CCP and PLA that negatively affected the push toward increased professionalization of the military. The first case study traces the growth and reversal to professionalization in the late 1950s while the second case study follows the professionalization trend through the 1980s and its dramatic reversal in the aftermath of the 1989 Tiananmen Square incident. By comparing the key linkages between the CCP and PLA that allowed for the previous reversals of professionalization in the military, I highlight the consistencies among the different episodes in the PRC's civil-military history. Lastly, I expand on the implication of these findings on contemporary civil-military relations and its potential impact on current professionalization of the PLA.; Lieutenant...

The Export Administration Act of 1979 and computer exports to China

Perez, Elizabeth D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Thesis; Thesis Formato: xvi, 113p. : ill. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The importance of computers to the US military and national defense is significant and multifaceted. The statute that regulates computer exports, the Export Administration Act of 1979 (EAA79), has been interpreted both strictly and loosely by policymakers, executive agencies, and export control regimes. The result has been a persistent struggle in balancing the competing interests of national security and commerce. An urgent need exists to rewrite EAA79, yet Congress has not been able to come to a consensus due to overlapping and conflicting committee interests within and across the chambers. While Congress continues to debate rewriting EAA79, the President has been able to adjust the impact of US export control laws on foreign countries, utilizing export controls as means of advancing US foreign policy abroad. In the case of the People's Republic of China, the White House has loosened export controls for high-performance computers to that country in order to encourage free trade and private enterprise.; Captain, United States Marine Corps

United States security interests in China: beyond the China Card

Bouchard, Joseph Frederick
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 475 p.: ill.;28 cm.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; The relationship between the United States and the People's Republic of China is developing rapidly in the realm of military and security affairs. The thesis of this paper is that, although the Sino-American relationship has been founded upon a mutual interest in opposing the Soviet military threat, the long-term development of the relationship will depend on the extent to which the scope of mutual interests can be broadened and the many latent sources of tension between China and America alleviated. A broad definition of national security, encompassing political and economic as well as military factors, and an alternative conceptual framework for analyzing international politics are proposed for defining security interests. Security issues examined include the Soviet threat to China; the U.S. interest in the security of China; China's role in Soviet-American relations, cooperation on world order issues, and Asian security; and American interests in a military relationship with China, including naval operations; http://archive.org/details/unitedstatessecu00bouc; Lieutenant, United States Navy

United States-People's Republic of China military-to-military relations: prospects for progress

Bolen, Michael Todd
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 81 p.
Português
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; American military relations with the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) have been in a constant state of flux since their rocky beginnings during the Second World War. Since the Tiananmen Square incident of June 1989, efforts to reestablish a positive working relationship between the U.S. Department of Defense and the PLA have been restrained by domestic political pressures within both polities and a number of crises which increased political tensions between both nations' governments. Due to reactive policies implemented by both governments, engagement programs between the United States and PRC have yielded few tangible benefits to either side in the past fifteen years. This thesis addresses the history of U.S. military engagement with the PRC and discusses past American policies of "containment" and "engagement" of China. Case studies concerning American engagement with Taiwan and Thailand reveal the benefits of close links with partners in Asia and provide programs for possible emulation in the U.S.-PRC relationship. Through managed engagement programs such as systematic security summits, educational exchanges and partnership operations initiatives, a stable defense dialogue between American and Chinese militaries can yield significant results in reducing tensions between their two governments and averting future crises through improved communication and cooperation.; Major (Select)...

Official ideology in the People's Republic of China - evolution and impact on foreign policy

Harper, Gerald F., Jr.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 110 p.;28 cm.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; After the demise of Soviet communism, the People's Republic of China (PRC) is often considered an anachronism and relic of a failed philosophy and system. Moreover, Chinese leaders are )assumed to be abandoning their communist roots in all but official rhetoric as the country pursues economic modernization. In fact, the Chinese form of communism has evolved significantly. Struggle has given way to stability, austerity to prosperity, and hostility to peaceful co-existence. This transition has had tremendous ramifications for PRC foreign and security policies. What was once a highly articulated and systematic ideology, providing a distinct and accurate guide to policy choices in the international arena, has become more akin to a set of general principles to guide behavior in an increasingly complex system. This thesis asserts, however, that while many of the specific tenets of Maoism have fallen to the wayside or been modified, many of the concepts, language, and thought processes of Chinese communism continue to form the thinking of Chinese policy-makers, thus they interpret and justify foreign policy choices in ideological terms. Consequently, ideology is more relevant to political processes in China than is commonly recognized; http://www.archive.org/details/officialideology00harp; Major...

Insiders’ Entitlements: Formation of the Household Registration (huji/hukou) System (1949-1959)

Deng, Jie
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The distinctive household registration (hukou or huji) system of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) divides the population into two groups whose political rights and legal status are unequal. This thesis focuses on Shanghai to examine the establishment of the hukou system in the 1950s in the course of the rural and urban reforms led by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Although the system has been explained as a result of the CCP’s industrialization strategy, my investigation has led me to conclude that the hukou system was an indirect rather than direct consequence of industrialization. My examination also shows that “rural” and “urban” in the PRC are essentially neither residential nor occupational categories; rather they are closely connected with political privileges. The first part of this study focuses on the consequences of the CCP’s land reform and collectivization campaigns after 1949. During this period, a large number of people who had moved freely between urban and rural areas, playing active roles in both, were uprooted from the countryside. At the same time, the CCP carried out a series of expulsions from Shanghai and other cities. Hundreds of thousands of urban residents, particularly those lacking secure employment...

THE OCTOBER HANDSHAKE OF 1970: Making Sense of Canada's Recognition of the People's Republic of China

Li, Simon Ka Ho
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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After two decades of a disappointing relationship between Canada and the People's Republic of China (PRC)-- seriously damaged during the Korean War and relieved by wheat sales after the Great Leap-- Pierre Trudeau's government wanted to end China's isolation. The new prime minister was determined to ensure that his country could recognize the Communist regime. Even more surprisingly, Ottawa's opening of relations with Beijing would soon be followed by Washington. Such words as "rapprochement" were therefore repeated in North America as this extraordinary diplomatic event began to unfold in the late 1960s. In hindsight, Sino-Canadian rapprochement seems full of contradictions: at a time when Canada's closest ally was still fighting in Vietnam, and when the Chinese were shouting anti-imperialist slogans during the Cultural Revolution, how could it be possible that Ottawa and Beijing wished to become friends? The central question this thesis poses and answers is why the two governments suddenly shifted positions at such a politically sensitive moment. Offering different ways to understand this thirty-year-old question, the thesis re-examines Trudeau's and Maoist China's remarkable, but often forgotten, diplomatic breakthrough. Indeed...

Circulation of Diverse Genotypes of Tahyna Virus in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

Lu, Zhi; Fu, Shi-Hong; Wang, Feng-Tian; Nasci, Roger S.; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-Dong
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/2011 Português
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Tahyna virus (TAHV) is widely distributed in Europe and Asia. A previous study reported a high level of conservation of the TAHV genome in isolates from Europe. During 2006 and 2007, three Tahyna virus isolates from mosquitoes were obtained from various locations in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. We analyzed the complete coding sequence of full-length small, medium, and large segments of these isolates. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the three complete TAHV genomes showed that sequence identity between isolates from China and Europe was more divergent, and an unexpected level of medium segment diversity was found among isolates from China compared with high levels of sequence conservation for the small and large segments. This study indicated that effects of genotypic diversity on the ecology, transmission, and pathogenicity of TAHV in China should be studied.

Mental Health Law of the People's Republic of China (English translation with annotations): Translated and annotated version of China's new Mental Health Law

Chen, HH; Phillips, MR; Cheng, H; Chen, QQ; Chen, XD; Fralick, D; Zhang, YE; Liu, M; Huang, J; Bueber, M
Fonte: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry Publicador: Editorial Department of the Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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The following document is a translation of the first national mental health law of the People's Republic of China, which was adopted by the National People's Congress on October 26, 2012. The original Chinese version of the law is available at the official government website: http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2012-10/26/content_2252122.htm. The translation was completed by a team of translators at the Shanghai Mental Health Center at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. The translators have added footnotes at the end of the document that explain their choices in sections where alternative translations are possible and that provide background information for sections that may be confusing to readers unfamiliar with China. This translation should be cited as follows:

Are biomedical exchange programs inside The People's Republic of China feasible: report of a six-month study at Hubei Provincial Medical College.

Henderson, G. E.; Cohen, M. S.
Fonte: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Publicador: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1981 Português
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Between November 1979 and April 1980 we lived at Hubei Provincial Medical College (HPMC) in Wuchang, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China, in order to organize an exchange program on behalf of the Infectious Disease Section at Yale University School of Medicine. HPMC consists of a medical college, two affiliated Western-style medical hospitals, and a dental hospital. This institution and the living and working conditions arranged on our behalf are described. Ultimately our work centered on epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF), a disease with a high incidence in Southern China; the study of EHF may serve as a focal point for ongoing collaborations. Our results suggest that institution-to-institution exchange programs are feasible and will probably become more common in the future.

Reduction Patterns of Acute Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China

Li, Shi-Zhu; Zheng, Hao; Abe, Eniola Michael; Yang, Kun; Bergquist, Robert; Qian, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Xu, Jing; Guo, Jia-Gang; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
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99.10241%
A retrospective study on the incidence of acute schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) was performed, in order to assess the new integrated control strategy that was implemented through the national control program from 2005 to 2012. The lake and marshland regions have been identified as high risk areas as shown by the nine spatio-temporal clusters that we found in the transmission period between June and November each year. When a total of 1,047 reported cases of acute schistosomiasis were analyzed, a reduction in prevalence of 97.7% between 2005 and 2012 was found. In contrast, imported cases of acute schistosomiasis increased between 2011 and 2012. These findings support the approach and effectiveness of the new integrated strategy in the reduction of schistosomiasis morbidity.

Japanese Encephalitis Disease Burden and Clinical Features of Japanese Encephalitis in Four Cities in the People's Republic of China

Yin, Zundong; Wang, Huanyu; Yang, Jinye; Luo, Huiming; Li, Yixing; Hadler, Stephen C.; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Fischer, Marc; Jiang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Zhenguo; Liu, Guifang; Li, Li; Johnson, Barbara W.; Liang, Xiaofeng;
Fonte: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Publicador: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/10/2010 Português
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The incidence rate of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in the People's Republic of China has decreased substantially with the wide use of JE vaccine, but the accuracy of JE reporting is uncertain. We established active surveillance for acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in four prefectures in China during 2006–2008 and performed JE laboratory testing on AMES cases identified from six sentinel hospitals in each prefecture. We estimated JE incidence for each prefecture by applying age-adjusted and season-adjusted JE positivity rates from sentinel hospitals to the total AMES resident cases. We identified 4,513 AMES cases, including 3,561 (79%) among residents of four prefectures. Among 2,294 AMES cases from sentinel hospitals, we identified 213 (9.2%) laboratory-confirmed JE cases. Adjusted estimates of JE incidence per 100,000 persons ranged from 0.08 in Shijiazhuang to 1.58 in Guigang. Active surveillance and laboratory confirmation provides a better estimate of the actual JE disease burden and should be used to further refine JE prevention strategies.

Three Cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People's Republic of China

Chanawong, Aroonwadee; M'Zali, Fatima Hannachi; Heritage, John; Xiong, Jian-Hui; Hawkey, Peter Michael
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2002 Português
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99.47184%
Of 15 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae collected from the First Municipal People's Hospital of Guangzhou, in the southern part of the People's Republic of China, 9 were found to produce CTX-M ESBLs, 3 produced SHV-12, and 3 produced both CTX-M and SHV-12. Eleven isolates produced either TEM-1B or SHV-11, in addition to an ESBL. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 12 isolates carrying blaCTX-M genes revealed that they harbored three different blaCTX-M genes, blaCTX-M-9 (5 isolates), blaCTX-M-13 (1 isolate), and blaCTX-M-14 (6 isolates). These genes have 98% nucleotide homology with blaToho-2. The blaCTX-M genes were carried on plasmids that ranged in size from 35 to 150 kb. Plasmid fingerprints and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the dissemination of the blaCTX-M genes through transfer of different antibiotic resistance plasmids to different bacteria, suggesting that these resistance determinants are highly mobile. Insertion sequence ISEcp1, found on the upstream region of these genes, may be involved in the translocation of the blaCTX-M genes. This is the first report of the occurrence of SHV-12 and CTX-M ESBLs in China. The presence of strains with these ESBLs shows both the evolution of blaCTX-M genes and their dissemination among at least three species of the family Enterobacteriaceae...

A política externa brasileira no regime militar,1964-1985. Um estudo de Caso:Angola, China E Cuba.; A política externa brasileira no regime militar, mil novecentos e sessenta e quatro - mil novecentos e oitenta e cinco. Um estudo de caso:Angola, China E Cuba.

Ribeiro, Amanda Pereira
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
Português
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O processo de diversificação de parceria brasileira, observada a partir de 1974, o universalismo reforçado em busca de novas parcerias, dado a conjuntura do cenário internacional e as relações do Brasil com países de cunho socialista, são objetos deste estudo. O trabalho tem por hipótese que o comércio foi a mola propulsora dessas relações, analisa o reconhecimento da independência da República de Angola, o rompimento das relações diplomáticas com a República de Cuba e com a República Popular da China, e ,por fim, o reatamento diplomático com os países acima descritos e conclui que em cada relação bilateral houve características próprias, não se atendo somente ao comércio.; The brazilian process of partnership diversification watched after 1974, the reinforced universalism in search for news partners considering the conjuncture of international scenery and the relationship of Brazil with socialist countries are seen in this study. This work have a hypothesis that the commerce is the only reason to these relations, analyze the recognition of Republic of Angola independency, the rupture of diplomatic relations with Republic of Cuba and with People’s Republic of China; and finally the re-establishment diplomatic with the countries above mentioned. The conclusion is that witch relation have one’s characteristic...

Implementing information systems in local government: A case study of the People's Republic of China.

Huang, Minyi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Despite the considerable potential and significant efforts to use information systems to improve public administration, their implementation remains a challenging task, especially in developing countries. This research addresses the difficulties of implementating information systems at the local government level to achieve administrative reform within the People's Republic of China. Giddens's structuration theory is used to provide a conceptual framework to understand the interaction between the administrative reform policies at the central government level and the rich social contexts at the local level. In the Chinese context, the reform objectives include: changing from an all-round government to a service government; from respect for authority to respect for law; and from extreme egalitarianism to a performance-based reward system. The framework is used to analyse a case study of the implementation of a computerised personnel and salary management system in Foshan, a middle-sized city. This Chinese central government initiative was aimed at solving the "ghost worker" problem and improving transparency and efficiency in personnel and public finance management by the use of information technology. The study shows the difficulties of inter-organisational co-operation between local government stakeholders during system development. In the existing literature...

The European Community’s opening to the People’s Republic of China, 1969-1979: internal decision-making on external relations

Chenard, Marie
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2012 Português
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This thesis analyses the decision-making within the European Community on opening to the People’s Republic of China between 1969 and 1979. The three main research themes, which this thesis will make a contribution to, are the EC’s decision-making in foreign policy, European integration in the 1970s, and the intersection of European integration and the Cold War. Neither the historiography of the Cold War nor of European integration have dealt with the EC-PRC relationship. This research addresses that deficiency. This is the first detailed, systematic historical study of the origins of the Community’s response to China that bases on archival sources released according to the 30-year rule. The study takes a Community-centred perspective, focusing on how the interests of the EC member states, those of the EC intergovernmental and supranational actors came together in Brussels, Strasbourg and Luxembourg to shape the EC’s response to the PRC. It is based on extensive multi-archival and multinational research, including records of the Community institutions, the French, British and German governments, personal papers, and interviews. The thesis argues that the Commission was the principal architect and motor behind the EC’s opening to China. Sir Christopher Soames...