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Esteróis vegetais e colesterol : Monografia : Plant sterols and cholesterol

Medeiros, Susana da Silva
Fonte: Porto : edição de autor Publicador: Porto : edição de autor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 vols.(tese + relatório); 30 cm
Português
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Resumo da tese: As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são actualmente uma das principais causas de morte nos países desenvolvidos e a hipercolesterolemia é um dos principais factores de risco no desenvolvimento dessas doenças. Os esteróis vegetais (EV) diminuem o risco de DCV pois provocam reduções dos níveis séricos de colesterol LDL na ordem dos 10 a 15%, reduzindo assim a formação de placas de aterosclerose. Estes efeitos verificam-se para doses diárias de cerca de 2g, ingeridas a uma das refeições principais. Quando associados a uma dieta pobre em colesterol e gordura saturada os EV podem provocar diminuições do colesterol LDL de cerca de 20%, tendo esta combinação um efeito aditivo, que também se verifica com alguns fármacos hipolipidemiantes. Os EV competem com o colesterol a nível intestinal, impedindo a sua absorção, podendo provocar também reduções na absorção de vitaminas lipossolúveis e dos carotenóides. Assim sendo, é importante recomendar o aumento da ingestão de fruta e hortícolas, aquando da ingestão destes compostos. Apesar de existirem algumas referências sobre os efeitos aterogénicos dos EV, não existem, para já, resultados conclusivos, logo estes compostos parecem ser uma forma relativamente segura...

Differential effects of plant sterols on water permeability and on acyl chain ordering of soybean phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

Schuler, I; Milon, A; Nakatani, Y; Ourisson, G; Albrecht, A M; Benveniste, P; Hartman, M A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/1991 Português
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To gain some insight into the structural and functional roles of sterols in higher plant cells, various plant sterols have been incorporated into soybean phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) bilayers and tested for their ability to regulate water permeability and acyl chain ordering. Sitosterol was the most efficient sterol in reducing the water permeability of these vesicles and stigmasterol appeared to have no significant effect. Vesicles containing 24zeta-methylcholesterol exhibited an intermediate behavior, similar to that of vesicles containing cholesterol. Cycloartenol, the first cyclic biosynthetic precursor of plant sterols, reduced the water permeability in a very effective way. Of two unusual plant sterols, 24-methylpollinastanol and 14alpha,24zeta-dimethylcholest-8-en-3beta-ol, the former was found to be functionally equivalent to sitosterol and the latter was found to be relatively inefficient. 2H NMR experiments have been performed with oriented bilayers consisting of soybean PtdCho with sitosterol, stigmasterol, or 24-methylpollinastanol. The results provided clear evidence that sitosterol and 24zeta-methylpollinastanol exhibit a high efficiency to order PtdCho acyl chains that closely parallels their ability to reduce water permeability. By contrast...

Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis by plant sterols

Yang, Chendong; Yu, Liqing; Li, Weiping; Xu, Fang; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2004 Português
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The ABC transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 limit absorption and promote excretion of dietary plant sterols. It is not known why plant sterols are so assiduously excluded from the body. Here we show that accumulation of plant sterols in mice lacking ABCG5 and ABCG8 (G5G8–/– mice) profoundly perturbs cholesterol homeostasis in the adrenal gland. The adrenal glands of the G5G8–/– mice were grossly abnormal in appearance (brown, not white) due to a 91% reduction in cholesterol content. Despite the very low cholesterol levels, there was no compensatory increase in cholesterol synthesis or in lipoprotein receptor expression. Moreover, levels of ABCA1, which mediates sterol efflux, were increased 10-fold in the G5G8–/– adrenals. Adrenal cholesterol levels returned to near-normal levels in mice treated with ezetimibe, which blocks phytosterol absorption. To determine which plant sterol(s) caused the metabolic changes, we examined the effects of individual plant sterols on cholesterol metabolism in cultured adrenal cells. Addition of stigmasterol, but not sitosterol, inhibited SREBP-2 processing and reduced cholesterol synthesis. Stigmasterol also activated the liver X receptor in a cell-based reporter assay. These data indicate that selected dietary plant sterols disrupt cholesterol homeostasis by affecting two critical regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism.

Influence of Plant Sterols on the Phase Properties of Phospholipid Bilayers 1

McKersie, Bryan D.; Thompson, John E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1979 Português
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The effects of stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol, and cholesterol on the phase properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers have been compared by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. The sterols were equally effective at progressively reducing the cooperativity and the enthalpy of the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine phase transition as their concentrations in the bilayer were increased. Moreover, both differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction indicated that the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine transition was eliminated by each of the sterols when they were present at a concentration of 33 mole%. This indicates that the interaction between phospholipid and both plant and animal sterols is stoichiometric, each sterol associating with two phospholipid molecules. At concentrations above 33 mole% the sterols were no longer completely solvated by the phospholipid, and sterol-sterol interaction resulted. Cholesterol, even at concentrations as high as 50 mole%, did not disrupt the lamellar structure of the bilayer. When these high concentrations of plant sterols were intercalated into the phospholipid, crystallinity, which presumably derives from sterol-sterol interaction, was detectable in the bilayer by x-ray diffraction. This observation is consistent with previous reports to the effect that the C17 chains of the plant sterols render them less soluble in phospholipid than is cholesterol. It is clear that this solvation difference is of insufficient magnitude to affect the stoichiometry of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine-sterol interaction...

Plant Sterols as Dietary Adjuvants in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risk: Theory and Evidence

Patch, Craig S; Tapsell, Linda C; Williams, Peter G; Gordon, Michelle
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plant sterol-enriched foods are an effective dietary adjuvant in reducing cardiovascular risk by lowering total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in serum by up to ∼15%. The mechanism of action of plant sterols is different from those of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors (statins) and thus their effect is additive. Combining plant sterols with other dietary components known to reduce cholesterol in a portfolio approach has proven to be most effective for reduction of hypercholesterolemia and provide an alternative treatment option for clinicians. Plant sterol-enriched foods provides clinicians with a relatively cheap, safe, and effective way to help patients manage their cardiovascular risk.

Plant Sterols and Stanols: Their Role in Health and Disease

Patel, Shailendra B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2008 Português
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Mammalian physiological processes, and likely any organism with a biliary tree, can distinguish between dietary cholesterol and non-cholesterols, retaining very little of the non-cholesterol in their bodies. Historically, the distinction between plant sterols and cholesterol has been known about for a century or more. That plants sterols were not ‘absorbed’ has been investigated for almost half a century. Indeed, the oral of plant sterols in gram quantities was shown to interfere with cholesterol absorption and is one of the oldest pharmacological therapies for hypercholesterolemia. Although the basis for the latter was shown to be caused by exclusion of cholesterol from intestinal micelles by plant sterols, it was not until the identification of the a rare genetic disease, sitosterolemia, first described in 1974, that led to the hypothesis that specific molecular mechanism(s) governed both the entry and excretion of sterols by the body. This talk will cover the physiology of dietary sterol metabolism, genetics and pathophysiology of sitosterolemia. Additionally, the role of plant sterols in normal and abnormal metabolism in humans as well as selected animal models will be discussed.

TLR2 Activation Is Essential to Induce a Th1 Shift in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Plant Stanols and Plant Sterols

Brüll, Florence; Mensink, Ronald P.; van den Hurk, Karin; Duijvestijn, Adriaan; Plat, Jogchum
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plant sterols may induce a Th1 shift in humans. However, whether plant stanols have similar effects as well as the underlying mechanism are unknown. We have now shown that (like sitosterol) sitostanol, both 4-desmethylsterols, induces a Th1 shift when added in vitro at physiological concentrations to human PBMCs. This conclusion was based on a higher IFNγ production, with no change in the production of IL-4 and IL-10. α-Amyrin, a 4.4-dimethylsterol, had comparable effects. Because 4.4-dimethylsterols cannot activate transcription factor LXR, this finding indicates that LXR activation was not involved. Sitosterol and sitostanol did not alter the production of IL-12 and IL-18 in PBMCs as well as in monocyte-derived U937 cells, suggesting that plant sterols directly affect T-helper cells, without activating APCs. However, in PBMCs treated with a TLR2 blocker (T2.5), IFNγ production was completely inhibited, whereas blocking TLR4 with HTA125 had no such effect. To confirm these findings, PBMCs from TLR2−/− mice were cultured in the presence of sitosterol and sitostanol. In these cells, no Th1 shift was observed. Our results, therefore, indicate that TLR2 activation is essential to induce a Th1 shift in human PBMCs by plant stanols and plant sterols.

The associations of cholesterol metabolism and plasma plant sterols with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality[S]

Silbernagel, Guenther; Fauler, Guenter; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Lütjohann, Dieter; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; März, Winfried
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2010 Português
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Moderately elevated levels of plasma plant sterols have been suspected to be causally involved in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plant sterols and other markers of sterol metabolism predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular health (LURIC) study. A total of 1,257 individuals who did not use statins and at baseline had a mean (± SD) age of 62.8 (± 11.0) years were included in the present analysis. Lathosterol, cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol were measured to estimate cholesterol synthesis and absorption. The mean (± SD) time of the follow-up for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was 7.32 (± 2.3) years. All-cause (P = 0.001) and cardiovascular (P = 0.006) mortality were decreased in the highest versus the lowest lathosterol to cholesterol tertile. In contrast, subjects in the third cholestanol to cholesterol tertile had increased all-cause (P < 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.010) compared with individuals in the first tertile. The third campesterol to cholesterol tertile was associated with increased all-cause mortality (P = 0.025). Sitosterol to cholesterol tertiles were not significantly related to all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. The data suggest that high absorption and low synthesis of cholesterol predict increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in LURIC participants.

Cerebral Accumulation of Dietary Derivable Plant Sterols does not Interfere with Memory and Anxiety Related Behavior in Abcg5−/− Mice

Vanmierlo, Tim; Rutten, Kris; van Vark - van der Zee, Leonie C.; Friedrichs, Silvia; Bloks, Vincent W.; Blokland, Arjan; Ramaekers, Frans C.; Sijbrands, Eric; Steinbusch, Harry; Prickaerts, Jos; Kuipers, Folkert; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mulder, Monique
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Plant sterols such as sitosterol and campesterol are frequently applied as functional food in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Recently, it became clear that plasma derived plant sterols accumulate in murine brains. We questioned whether plant sterols in the brain are associated with alterations in brain cholesterol homeostasis and subsequently with brain functions. ATP binding cassette (Abc)g5−/− mice, a phytosterolemia model, were compared to Abcg5+/+ mice for serum and brain plant sterol accumulation and behavioral and cognitive performance. Serum and brain plant sterol concentrations were respectively 35–70-fold and 5–12-fold increased in Abcg5−/− mice (P < 0.001). Plant sterol accumulation resulted in decreased levels of desmosterol (P < 0.01) and 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol (P < 0.01) in the hippocampus, the brain region important for learning and memory functions, and increased lanosterol levels (P < 0.01) in the cortex. However, Abcg5−/− and Abcg5+/+ displayed no differences in memory functions or in anxiety and mood related behavior. The swimming speed of the Abcg5−/− mice was slightly higher compared to Abcg5+/+ mice (P < 0.001). In conclusion, plant sterols in the brains of Abcg5−/− mice did have consequences for brain cholesterol metabolism...

Plant sterols and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis†

Genser, Bernd; Silbernagel, Günther; De Backer, Guy; Bruckert, Eric; Carmena, Rafael; Chapman, M. John; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Rietzschel, Ernst R.; Dias, Karen C.; März, Winfried
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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The impact of increased serum concentrations of plant sterols on cardiovascular risk is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether there is an association between serum concentrations of two common plant sterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We systematically searched the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COCHRANE for studies published between January 1950 and April 2010 that reported either risk ratios (RR) of CVD in relation to serum sterol concentrations (either absolute or expressed as ratios relative to total cholesterol) or serum sterol concentrations in CVD cases and controls separately. We conducted two meta-analyses, one based on RR of CVD contrasting the upper vs. the lower third of the sterol distribution, and another based on standardized mean differences between CVD cases and controls. Summary estimates were derived by fixed and random effects meta-analysis techniques. We identified 17 studies using different designs (four case–control, five nested case–control, three cohort, five cross-sectional) involving 11 182 participants. Eight studies reported RR of CVD and 15 studies reported serum concentrations in CVD cases and controls. Funnel plots showed evidence for publication bias indicating small unpublished studies with non-significant findings. Neither of our meta-analyses suggested any relationship between serum concentrations of sitosterol and campesterol (both absolute concentrations and ratios to cholesterol) and risk of CVD. Our systematic review and meta-analysis did not reveal any evidence of an association between serum concentrations of plant sterols and risk of CVD.

Dietary intake of plant sterols stably increases plant sterol levels in the murine brain

Vanmierlo, Tim; Weingärtner, Oliver; van der Pol, Susanne; Husche, Constanze; Kerksiek, Anja; Friedrichs, Silvia; Sijbrands, Eric; Steinbusch, Harry; Grimm, Marcus; Hartmann, Tobias; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; de Vries, Helga E.; Mulder, Monique; Lü
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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Plant sterols such as sitosterol and campesterol are frequently administered as cholesterol-lowering supplements in food. Recently, it has been shown in mice that, in contrast to the structurally related cholesterol, circulating plant sterols can enter the brain. We questioned whether the accumulation of plant sterols in murine brain is reversible. After being fed a plant sterol ester-enriched diet for 6 weeks, C57BL/6NCrl mice displayed significantly increased concentrations of plant sterols in serum, liver, and brain by 2- to 3-fold. Blocking intestinal sterol uptake for the next 6 months while feeding the mice with a plant stanol ester-enriched diet resulted in strongly decreased plant sterol levels in serum and liver, without affecting brain plant sterol levels. Relative to plasma concentrations, brain levels of campesterol were higher than sitosterol, suggesting that campesterol traverses the blood-brain barrier more efficiently. In vitro experiments with brain endothelial cell cultures showed that campesterol crossed the blood-brain barrier more efficiently than sitosterol. We conclude that, over a 6-month period, plant sterol accumulation in murine brain is virtually irreversible.

Lipid-altering effects of a dietary supplement tablet containing free plant sterols and stanols in men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial

Maki, Kevin C; Lawless, Andrea L; Reeves, Matthew S; Dicklin, Mary R; Jenks, Belinda H; Shneyvas, ED; Brooks, James R
Fonte: Informa Healthcare Publicador: Informa Healthcare
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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This randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial assessed the lipid-altering efficacy of a dietary supplement (tablet form) providing 1.8g/day free (non-esterified) plant sterols and stanols versus placebo for 6 weeks as part of a therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) diet in 32 men and women with primary hypercholesterolaemia. Mean ± SE baseline (end of a 5-week TLC diet lead-in) lipid concentrations (mmol/1) were total cholesterol (TC), 5.88 ± 0.08; non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), 4.71 ± 0.09; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 4.02 ± 0.08; HDL-C, 1.17 ± 0.06 and triglycerides (TGs), 1.51 ± 0.12. Differences from control in responses (plant sterol/stanol — control) were significant (p < 0.05) for LDL-C (− 4.9%), non-HDL-C (− 3.6%) and TC (− 2.8%). HDL-C and TG responses were not significantly different between treatment conditions. These results indicate that 1.8g/day free plant sterols/stanols administered in a tablet produced favourable lipoprotein lipid changes in men and women with hypercholesterolaemia.

Plasma plant sterols serve as poor markers of cholesterol absorption in man[S]

Jakulj, Lily; Mohammed, Hussein; van Dijk, Theo H.; Boer, Theo; Turner, Scott; Groen, Albert K.; Vissers, Maud N.; Stroes, Erik S. G.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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The validation of the use of plasma plant sterols as a marker of cholesterol absorption is frail. Nevertheless, plant sterol concentrations are routinely used to describe treatment-induced changes in cholesterol absorption. Their use has also been advocated as a clinical tool to tailor cholesterol-lowering therapy. Prior to wider implementation, however, the validity of plant sterols as absorption markers needs solid evaluation. Therefore, we compared plasma plant sterol concentrations to gold-standard stable isotope-determined cholesterol absorption. Plasma campesterol/TC concentrations (camp/TC) were measured in a population of 175 mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (age: 59.7 ± 5.6 years; BMI: 25.5 ± 2.9kg/m2; LDL-C: 4.01 ± 0.56 mmol/l). We compared cholesterol absorption according to the plasma dual-isotope method in subjects with the highest camp/TC concentrations (N = 41, camp/TC: 2.14 ± 0.68 μg/mg) and the lowest camp/TC concentrations (N = 39, camp/TC: 0.97 ± 0.22 μg/mg). Fractional cholesterol absorption did not differ between the groups (24 ± 12% versus 25 ± 16%, P = 0.60), nor was it associated with plasma camp/TC concentrations in the total population of 80 individuals (β = 0.13; P = 0.30, adjusted for BMI and plasma triglycerides). Our findings do not support a relation between plasma plant sterol concentrations and true cholesterol absorption and...

Plant Sterols as Anticancer Nutrients: Evidence for Their Role in Breast Cancer

Grattan, Bruce J.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2013 Português
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While many factors are involved in the etiology of cancer, it has been clearly established that diet significantly impacts one’s risk for this disease. More recently, specific food components have been identified which are uniquely beneficial in mitigating the risk of specific cancer subtypes. Plant sterols are well known for their effects on blood cholesterol levels, however research into their potential role in mitigating cancer risk remains in its infancy. As outlined in this review, the cholesterol modulating actions of plant sterols may overlap with their anti-cancer actions. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women and there remains a need for effective adjuvant therapies for this disease, for which plant sterols may play a distinctive role.

LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies

Ras, Rouyanne T.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Trautwein, Elke A.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Phytosterols (PS, comprising plant sterols and plant stanols) have been proven to lower LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The dose–response relationship for this effect has been evaluated in several meta-analyses by calculating averages for different dose ranges or by applying continuous dose–response functions. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages. So far, the calculation of averages for different dose ranges has not been done for plant sterols and stanols separately. The objective of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the combined and separate effects of plant sterols and stanols when classified into different dose ranges. Studies were searched and selected based on predefined criteria. Relevant data were extracted. Average LDL-cholesterol effects were calculated when studies were categorised by dose, according to random-effects models while using the variance as weighing factor. This was done for plant sterols and stanols combined and separately. In total, 124 studies (201 strata) were included. Plant sterols and stanols were administered in 129 and fifty-nine strata, respectively; the remaining used a mix of both. The average PS dose was 2·1 (range 0·2–9·0) g/d. PS intakes of 0·6–3·3 g/d were found to gradually reduce LDL-cholesterol concentrations by...

The effect of a low-fat spread with added plant sterols on vascular function markers: results of the Investigating Vascular Function Effects of Plant Sterols (INVEST) study12345

Ras, Rouyanne T; Fuchs, Dagmar; Koppenol, Wieneke P; Garczarek, Ursula; Greyling, Arno; Keicher, Christian; Verhoeven, Carole; Bouzamondo, Hakim; Wagner, Frank; Trautwein, Elke A
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Plant sterols (PSs) lower LDL cholesterol, an established risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). No direct evidence is available supporting a reduced risk of CAD for foods with added PSs. Endothelial dysfunction is seen as an early indicator of atherosclerotic damage.

Plant Sterols, Stanols, and Sitosterolemia

Ajagbe, Bridget O.; Othman, Rgia A.; Myrie, Semone B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Phytosterolemia (sitosterolemia) is a rare autosomal recessive sterol storage disease caused by mutations in either of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter genes; (ABC)G5 or ABCG8, leading to impaired elimination of plant sterols and stanols, with their increased accumulation in the blood and tissues. Thus the disease is characterized by substantially elevated serum plant sterols and stanols, with moderate to high plasma cholesterol levels, and increased risk of premature atherosclerosis. Hematologic abnormalities including macrothrombocytopenia, stomatocytosis and hemolysis are frequently observed in sitosterolemia patients. Currently, ezetimibe, a sterol absorption inhibitor, is used as the routine treatment for sitosterolemia, with reported improvement in plant sterol levels and hemolytic parameters. This review summarizes the research related to the health impact of plant sterols and stanols on sitosterolemia.

Lowering cholesterol: A review on the role of plant sterols

Clifton, P.
Fonte: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners Publicador: Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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BACKGROUND: Plant sterols are an important but underused dietary component in the treatment of elevated blood cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: This review discusses the background to plant sterol use and reviews evidence about its use in clinical practice. DISCUSSION: When consumed in the recommended amounts, sterols alone decrease low density lipoprotein cholesterol; in combination with other dietary changes, low density lipoprotein can be further lowered. Most patients, whether they are on cholesterol lowering drugs or not, would benefit from using plant sterols, which are now available in milk and yoghurt as well as spreads. In animal models, plant sterols have been shown to reduce atherosclerosis despite an elevation in the blood level, however there is no hard end point data for this in humans.; Peter Clifton

Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2004 Português
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Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status.

Food Sources and Chemistry of Plant Sterols and Stanols

Guiné, Raquel
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Viseu
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2015 Português
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A wide range of plants have phytosterols in their composition, both strerols and stanols, being however the stanols present in considerably smaller quantities when compared to sterols. Among the most abundant plant sterols are sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. As to plant stanols, they are present in the diet in small amounts, being one of the most important the sitostanol. Some food sources that are rich in phytosterols include for example: fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes and vegetable oils. It is therefore important to know what are the food sources of these bioactive compounds and what amounts are present. This is one of the goals of the present chapter, which aims to revise the most recent scientific literature to look for updates regarding the food sources of phytosterols, as a complement to the information more generally available. Both stanols and sterols are essential components of plant cell membranes and structurally resemble cholesterol. In fact, cholesterol is also a sterol, but, unlike plant sterols, it is predominantly of animal origin, being synthesized in the human liver. Because the bioactive effects of phytosterols are much associated to their chemical structure, also this aspect is addressed in the present chapter...