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PEBD difusor nas características produtivas e fisiológicas de pimenteiro enxertado em função da densidade de plantas

Sandri, Miguel Angelo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 71 f. : gráfs, tabs.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.223486%
Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Horticultura) - FCA; As condições ambientais são fundamentais para se produzir hortaliças com qualidade e com o uso do cultivo em ambiente protegido, passou-se a manejar o ambiente em favor da planta. Desde então, muitos produtores, no mundo todo, passaram a utilizar esta tecnologia, que possibilita a produção com maior qualidade e produtividade, o que tem sido atribuído em parte à maior quantidade de radiação solar difusa que ocorre neste ambiente. O polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD), principal material utilizado na cobertura, transforma parte da radiação solar direta em difusa ao transmití-la para o interior do ambiente. Esta radiação é considerada mais eficiente. Visando-se explorar melhor este benefício, a indústria desenvolveu o plástico difusor de luz, que tem como principal característica transformar a radiação solar direta em difusa ao transmití-la para o interior do ambiente. No entanto, há poucos estudos com relação ao uso deste material, principalmente, quanto à transformação da radiação direta em radiação difusa e à densidade de plantas a ser utilizada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar algumas características fisiológicas e a produção de plantas de pimentão enxertado sob o plástico difusor de luz e em diferentes densidades de planta. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental de Pesquisa e Produção (FEPP) da UNESP/Botucatu em São Manuel – SP. Plantas de pimentão do híbrido Melina foram enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto AF-8253 e foram transplantadas em três ambientes (PEBD comum (PEBDc)...

Filme aditivado : avaliação dos elementos agrometeorologicos, de produtividade, envelhecimento em campo e viabilidade economica para o cultivo da Rosa hybrida (CV. "Vega"); Greenhouse addictive films : evaluation of agro meteorological elements, productivity, on field aging parameters and economic viability for Hybrid Rose (CV "Vega") production

Jose Luis Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/11/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.95755%
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um filme para cobertura de casa de vegetação através dos aspectos de produção e qualidade; elementos micrometeorológicos e de envelhecimento do filme plástico, sob as condições impostas pela cobertura plástica com diferentes anos de uso. Para a produção e qualidade foram selecionados 15 vãos de estufa, com plástico de ano de início de uso 1998, 1999, 2002 e 2003 e mais a testemunha com três repetições cada. Dois manejos de produção foram utilizados para a avaliação: o manejo comercial usado na propriedade (primeira etapa) e um manejo específico (segunda etapa) em que houve um corte raso, no início do experimento, em uma área de 1m2 realizado no intuito de avaliar o desenvolvimento do botão floral da poda até a haste comercial pronta. Na primeira etapa foram realizadas 4 coletas ao longo do período do experimento (nos dias 01/03/2004, 17/03/2004, 26/03/2004 e 05/04/2004). Na segunda etapa foi avaliado o aparecimento dos botões florais dos novos brotos em quatro datas (20/02/2004, 07/03/2004, 26/03/2004 e na semana de 28/03 a 06/04/2004) até a formação completa da haste floral comercial. Na primeira etapa foram coletadas 4 hastes florais por tratamento em 5 tratamentos totalizando 60 flores por data de coleta. Na segunda etapa foram coletadas 13 hastes florais por tratamento em 4 tratamentos totalizando 52 hastes florais. Não houve diferença estatística entre os plásticos de ano de início de uso de 1998...

Exposure to volatile organic compounds, particulate matter and fungi in a composting plant

Viegas, Susana; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.231519%
Composting is an important process of solid waste management and it can be used for treatment of a variety of different wastes (green waste, household waste, sewage sludge and more). This process aims to: 1. Reduce the volumes of waste and; 2. Create a valuable product which can be recycled as a soil amendment in agriculture and gardening. A natural self-heating process involving the biological degradation of organic matter under aerobic conditions. The handling of waste and compost is responsible for the release of airborne microorganisms and their compounds in the air. Possible contaminants: a) Dust; b) Mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms; c) Volatile organic compounds; d) Endotoxins and mycotoxins…. Aim: assess exposure/contamination to: a) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs); b) Particulate matter (PM); c) Fungi. In a composting plant located in Lisbon. An additional goal was to identify the workplace with higher level of contamination. In a totally indoor composting plant. The composting operations consisted: 1º Waste already sorted is unloaded in a reception area; 2º Pretreatment - remove undesirable materials from the process (glass, rocks, plastics, metals…); 3º Anaerobic digestion; 4º Dehydration; 5º Open composting with forced aeration. All the process takes thirteen weeks.

Estudo da biodegradabilidade de bioplásticos numa cultura de ciclo longo - morango

Costa, Raquel Alexandra Cardoso
Fonte: ISA/UTL Publicador: ISA/UTL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.231519%
Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The use of plastic mulch in agriculture had its beginning in the middle of last century and since then its use has been intensified and the costs of send this residue to appropriate final destination lead it often to be left or burned in open field, causing huge environmental concerns. The biodegradable mulch films, which can be incorporated in the soil at the end of the crop appear as a possible solution for this problem. The goal of this work was to test the biodegradability of 5 plastic mulches, made from biodegradable polymers, comparing to conventional Polyethylene (PE). The biodegradability was tested in laboratory by means of a respirometric test that followed the standard EN ISO 17 556, and in field conditions, by observation and calculation of the percentage of area lost, along the time, in net frames containing the various biodegradable plastics. The field trials to assess fruit productivity and quality were performed during two years. One of the biodegradable mulches stands out for its good performance and seems as a very promising mulch that may be a viable replacement for conventional polyethylene.

Compostagem de resíduos sólidos urbanos e avaliação da qualidade dos produtos obtidos - caso de estudo Amarsul S.A.

Sequeira, Liliana Lopes
Fonte: ISA Publicador: ISA
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.200913%
Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Tecnologias Ambientais - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The composting has proven a good alternative in the management, treatment and valorization of municipal solid waste. Depending on the raw materials used for its production, the product may be considered organic fertilizer/corrective to be used in agriculture activities. The present work was developed aiming the evaluation of the MSW composting evolution, by the determination of physical, physical-chemical and biological parameters, in biomass collected along the process, as well as the assessment of stability/maturation degree of the final compost. For each collected sample it was also introduced two different types of biodegradable/compostable plastics, each sample corresponding to a particular phase of stability/curing of composting process in order to evaluate the influence of these plastics in the samples that was obtained and the possible occurrence of biodegradation of plastics in the several phases analyzed. The results showed that the parameters fulfilled the existing literature, allowing the compound the designation of matured/stabilized. The biological characterization of the final compost showed that it presents phytotoxicity...

Estudo da gestão eficiente da água na cultura do pimento com filmes de cobertura do solo

Barata, Maria do Carmo Canas Fernandes Temudo
Fonte: ISA/UL Publicador: ISA/UL
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.231519%
Mestrado em Engenharia do Ambiente - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The use of plastic films in agriculture is expanding worldwide over the last decades because of their benefits on crop growth and yield, increasing economic benefit. However, its utilization causes a serious disadvantage with massive quantities of waste. The introduction of biodegradable films, which can be disposed directly into the soil, can be one possible solution to this problem. Biodegradable plastics for mulching practices appeared on the market and now they are considered an appropriate solution for such a problem. In the present research results of experimental tests carried out on biodegradable films used in Bell-pepper protected cultivation are presented. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the performance of biodegradable mulch films with the conventional polyethylene ones in relation to water use efficiency. The water vapour permeability was also evaluated in laboratorial experiments with both kinds of films. Water supply is a major constraint to crop production in the Mediterranean region. Efficient use of water by irrigation is becoming increasingly important and so the objective of this study was to evaluate the water use efficiency by using biodegradable mulches in horticulture

Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

Matos,Elena; Vilensky,Marta; Boffetta,Paolo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.234229%
The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2), sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4), chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2), and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6). Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4), rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4), metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4), motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2), workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5), and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0). Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

Congenital defects and work in pregnancy.

McDonald, A D; McDonald, J C; Armstrong, B; Cherry, N M; Côté, R; Lavoie, J; Nolin, A D; Robert, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1988 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.556604%
The risk of congenital defect was examined in 47,913 pregnancies of women employed for 15 hours a week or more at time of conception. The rate of defects of all types per 1000 births in this series was 25.0; 1.8 from defects classified as chromosomal (group A), 10.8 as developmental (group B), and 12.5 as musculoskeletal (group C). Some evidence of an excess in the risk ratio (p less than 0.05) was found in the services sector and in four occupations--agriculture and horticulture (2.61), telephone and postal clerks (1.74), a miscellaneous group of service jobs (1.68), and receptionists and information clerks (1.47); excesses of lower statistical significance (p less than 0.1) were found in those engaged in plastics and rubber manufacture (2.02) and in child minders (1.84). There were two cases of tracheo-oesophageal fistula--a rare defect--among eight defects (1.32 expected) in agriculture and horticulture. Overall, the distribution of risk ratios in the 60 occupations examined was not significantly heterogeneous. Analysis of chemical exposure profiles for each occupational group showed no evidence of any increased risk, perhaps due to lack of sensitivity and discrimination in this method of exposure estimation. In 152 pregnancies of doctors and nurses who had administered antineoplastic drugs in the first month eight defects...

Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.707742%
The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals—that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens...

Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture

Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6867%
Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation...

Biodegradation of plastics in soil and effects on nitrification activity. A laboratory approach

Bettas Ardisson, Giulia; Tosin, Maurizio; Barbale, Marco; Degli-Innocenti, Francesco
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.207583%
The progressive application of new biodegradable plastics in agriculture calls for improved testing approaches to assure their environmental safety. Full biodegradation (≥90%) prevents accumulation in soil, which is the first tier of testing. The application of specific ecotoxicity tests is the second tier of testing needed to show safety for the soil ecosystem. Soil microbial nitrification is widely used as a bioindicator for evaluating the impact of chemicals on soil but it is not applied for evaluating the impact of biodegradable plastics. In this work the International Standard test for biodegradation of plastics in soil (ISO 17556, 2012) was applied both to measure biodegradation and to prepare soil samples needed for a subsequent nitrification test based on another International Standard (ISO 14238, 2012). The plastic mulch film tested in this work showed full biodegradability and no inhibition of the nitrification potential of the soil in comparison with the controls. The laboratory approach suggested in this Technology Report enables (i) to follow the course of biodegradation, (ii) a strict control of variables and environmental conditions, (iii) the application of very high concentrations of test material (to maximize the possible effects). This testing approach could be taken into consideration in improved testing schemes aimed at defining the biodegradability of plastics in soil.

Elaboração de biofilmes de fécula de mandioca e avaliação do seu uso na imobilização de caulinita intercalada com ureia

Petrikoski, Ana Paula
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.239688%
The study for the use of biofilms in replacing conventional plastic destined to some specific applications has been gaining strength and getting considerable attention in the scenario of renewable resources. Among the numerous applications of biofilms it can be cited its use in the coating of slow release fertilizers. Normally, most of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer in the soil is lost due to processes in which it is subjected to leaching by rain water and volatilization by heat. These losses, in addition to causing injuries to farmers, also cause contamination of soil and water due to excess nutrients leached. With this, it is observed that the slow release fertilizers of nitrogen are a more economical alternative to agriculture and less aggressive to the environment because they can reduce such losses. In this sense, the present work aims to produce a slow release nitrogen material through the lining of kaolinite intercalated with urea using biofilms produced from cassava starch. Biofilms were produced by casting using different concentrations of starch and adding sorbitol. The intercalation of urea in kaolinite was by mechanochemical reaction for 7 hours. Its coating was made from the homogenization of the filmogenic solution of starch with kaolinite intercalated with urea and subsequent dehydration of the material. The heating and leaching tests were performed to determine the nitrogen content in the material. The results obtained from the characterization by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy...

The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic : Short and Medium Term Estimates for Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.236404%
The 2014 outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa has taken a horrible human toll. Although the outbreak originated in rural Guinea, it has hit hardest in Liberia and Sierra Leone, in part because it has reached urban areas in these two countries, a factor that distinguishes this outbreak from previous episodes elsewhere. As of September 10, 2014, there had been 2,281 recorded deaths out of 4,614 suspected or confirmed cases of Ebola. Experts fear that the true numbers may be two to four times larger, due to underreporting. Misery and suffering have been intense, especially in Liberia where doctors have had to turning patients away for lack of space in Ebola treatment centers. Inevitably, before the outbreak is contained the human impacts will increase considerably over these numbers. Epidemiological estimates are acknowledged as highly uncertain and are not the subject of this note. What is certain is that limiting the human cost will require significant financial resources and a concerted partnership between international partners and the affected countries. Particularly in Liberia and Sierra Leone...

Leveraging Oil and Gas Industry for the Development of a Competitive Private Sector in Uganda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.550977%
The study represents a background study for the proposed Uganda Country Economic Memorandum (CEM), which seeks to address the issue of efficient use of oil resources and examine synergies between the oil industry and the rest of the economy, through growth poles or linkages. The oil industry can help Uganda to promote robust growth in the economy. However, it is important to keep in mind that it will take a number of years until oil revenues start flowing into Uganda s economy. After the Final Investment Decision (FID) is reached, it will take time to develop the oil fields and start oil production. In the meantime, there are immediate opportunities opening up for Uganda s businesses to supply the oil industry with goods and services. In most cases, Uganda s suppliers, especially micro, small and medium enterpises (MSMEs), are not expected to become first tier contractors to the International Oil Company (IOCs). The main objective of this study is to provide recommendations to the Government of Uganda (GoU) on policies and strategies of leveraging the oil discoveries for the development of the national economy in order to transform the oil resources into sustained growth. The study reviews the typology of policies for local sourcing used in the world. It includes ample examples of other countries experiences with developing their local content policies and providing support to priority sectors to boost local content which could be useful for Uganda from the standpoint of lessons learned. The study conducts a detailed analysis of the binding constraints faced by domestic oil and gas suppliers in Uganda...

Comparative Analysis of Certain Requirements of Food Legislation in the European Union and the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.234229%
This report presents a comparative analysis of the food legislation requirements of the European Union (EU) and the Customs Union. Its purpose is to guide food business operators and public authorities engaged in reforming national food safety systems in the peculiarities of EU and Customs Union legal requirements and help them evaluate their capabilities in meeting those requirements. This report supports the International Finance Corporation’s efforts to facilitate the opening of new markets for the producers in emerging markets. This report compares the most critical aspects of food legislation of the EU and the Customs Union, such as: requirements and arrangements of food control; requirements to food quality; requirements to food labeling; food and food-related articles and materials that require special authorization; and laboratory control and food safety criteria. Ensuring food safety and consumer protection increasingly occupy the agendas of governments, which are looking to expand their trade networks. Likewise...

Supplement to mechanical properties of plastic laminates

Werren, Fred; Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.); University of Wisconsin
Fonte: United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory; United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis ) Publicador: United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory; United States Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory ( Madison, Wis )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 5, [17] p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
Publicado em // Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.505386%
(Additional Physical Form) Also available in electronic format.; (Statement of Responsibility) by Fred Werren.; Caption title.; "Original report dated 1953"--Cover.; "Information reviewed and reaffirmed 1960"--Cover.; "In cooperation with the University of Wisconsin"--Cover.

Natural Disaster Risk Management in the Philippines : Enhancing Poverty Alleviation Through Disaster Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.228062%
The Philippines by virtue of its geographic circumstances is highly prone to natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tropical cyclones and floods, making it one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. This report seeks to document the impacts of natural disasters on the social and economic development of the Philippines; assess the country's current capacity to reduce and manage disaster risk; and identify options for more effective management of that risk. The Philippine institutional arrangements and disaster management systems tend to rely on a response, or reactive approach, in contrast to a more effective proactive approach, in which disasters are avoided, by appropriate land-use planning, construction and other pre-event measures which avoid the creation of disaster-prone conditions. To evolve to a more proactive role, it is important that a national framework for comprehensive disaster risk management be prepared and implemented. The framework should incorporate the essential steps of integrated risk management, which include risk identification, risk reduction, and risk sharing/financing. The study identified some specific areas under these key themes that would need to be addressed to improve the current system...

What is the Potential for More Copper Fabrication in Zambia?

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.217148%
The copper fabrication industry lies between: (1) the industry that produces copper (as a commodity metal from mined ores as well as from recycling), and (2) the users of copper in finished products such as electronic goods. Copper fabrication involves the manufacture of products such as copper wire, wire rod, low-voltage cable, and other copper based semi-manufactures. Copper is clearly a major input into the copper fabrication industry. However, aside from this supply relationship, the copper mining and refining and copper fabrication industries are almost completely separate, with different drivers, competitive forces, structures, and economics. The former produces a fungible commodity which can be sold anywhere and (in most cases) has a market of last resort in the metal exchanges, while the latter is highly dependent on customer demands and needs, stockholding patterns, and technical requirements. The Government and population of Zambia have long looked to copper fabrication as a potential opportunity for adding more value to the country's copper. Zambia has long held a desire to add more value to its copper...

The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic : Short and Medium Term Estimates for West Africa

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.239688%
The 2014 outbreak of the Ebola virus disease in West Africa has taken a devastating human toll. Although the outbreak originated in rural Guinea, it has hit hardest in Liberia and Sierra Leone, in part because it has reached urban areas in these two countries, a factor that distinguishes this outbreak from previous episodes elsewhere. As of October 3, 2014, there had been 3,431 recorded deaths out of 7,470 probable, suspected, or confirmed cases of Ebola. This report informs the response to the epidemic by presenting best-effort estimates of its macroeconomic and fiscal effects. Any such exercise is necessarily highly imprecise due to limited data and many uncertain factors, but it is still necessary in order to plan the economic assistance that must accompany the immediate humanitarian response. The goal is to help affected countries to recover and return to the robust economic growth they had experienced until the onset of this crisis. This document presents the World Bank's preliminary estimates of the economic impact of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa for 2014 (short term impact) and 2015 (medium term impact). Section 2 presents a single set of 2014 estimates for Liberia...

Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

Matos,Elena; Vilensky,Marta; Boffetta,Paolo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.234229%
The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2), sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4), chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2), and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6). Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4), rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4), metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4), motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2), workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5), and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0). Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.