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Planejando uma rede escolar municipal para reduzir custos de deslocamentos.; Planning the distribution of schools in an urban area for reducing travel costs.

Dutra, Nadja Glheuca da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/1998 Português
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Este trabalho visa definir possíveis arranjos de localização de escolas de primeiro grau, situadas na cidade de São Carlos, analisando-se os custos de deslocamento casa-escola. Neste estudo, serão abordados os custos de deslocamentos decorrentes de uma reforma escolar, presenciada no Estado de São Paulo. Segundo esta reforma, os alunos de primeiro grau menor (1ª a 4ª séries) ficaram separados fisicamente dos demais níveis. Tal separação visou a melhorias na qualidade de ensino, com conseqüente diminuição de desperdício de recursos financeiros. Este estudo se utiliza dos Sistemas de Informações Geográficas como ferramenta capaz de gerar e analisar estes custos, comparando-se o que se tinha antes da reforma, o que se tem hoje, e o que se poderia ter quando da aplicação de um planejamento orientado por este ferramental. Para se procederem a estas análises, foram criados cenários (alguns deles hipotéticos) que permitiram simulações, as quais tinham o objetivo principal de apontar a melhor solução (ou melhores soluções) para o sistema, com conseqüente diminuição do custo médio de deslocamento. Os resultados encontrados indicam que o método proposto pode auxiliar as autoridades competentes na definição de localização para novas escolas ou na realocação de matrículas...

Avaliação de protocolos sanitários para a espécie Papagaio-de-peito-roxo (Amazona vinacea - Kuhl, 1820) em cativeiro e análise de programas de relocação populacional; Health survey protocols for the Vinaceous Amazon (Amazona vinacea - Kuhl, 1820) in captivity and analysis of relocation projects

Saidenberg, André Becker Simões
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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Um componente da conservação de animais selvagens é a relocação de espécies comumente referida como projetos de soltura. Para que esta seja bem sucedida os candidatos do projeto devem estar livres de patógenos considerados de importância para a espécie. Segundo a Instrução Normativa 179 oficializada pelo IBAMA em 25/06/2008, determinou-se a realização de exames laboratoriais como medidas a se prevenir a introdução de agentes infecciosos no ambiente, e garantir a sobrevivência a longo prazo dos animais em questão. No Brasil encontra-se a maior quantidade em espécies de psitacídeos, e das 84 espécies, 13 são vulneráveis a criticamente ameaçadas de extinção. Diversos projetos de relocação de animais silvestres, incluindo vários já bem sucedidos com psitacídeos, vêm sido realizados em território nacional além dos existentes do exterior. O Papagaio-de-peito-roxo (Amazona vinacea) tem suas populações severamente afetadas, sendo classificada no estado de São Paulo como criticamente ameaçada e como ameaçada a nível mundial. Apesar das dificuldades para a conservação dos recursos naturais, existem remanescentes de habitat protegido e em regeneração que podem abrigar espécies que historicamente ocupavam estes locais...

Relocation in labour-intensive sectors from Southern Europe: a threat or a forward looking strategy?

Cesário, M.; Noronha, Teresa de
Fonte: Polish Academy of Sciences – Committee for Spatial Economy and Regional Planning Publicador: Polish Academy of Sciences – Committee for Spatial Economy and Regional Planning
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Notwithstanding the present context of economic globalisation, we admit the role of territorial agglomerations for the competitiveness of regions and firms and we ask about the impact of firms’ technological adjustment strategies to the territories themselves, namely in terms of regional employment and income perspectives? In order to empirically test if technical changes are associated with the variation of employment levels and skills, a survey application to a sample of 167 SMEs from textile, clothes and leather (TCL) sectors located in Southern Europe is used. Using statistical procedures, the importance of several predictor variables to the variation of firms’ employment was evaluated. The results confirm that technical change is both skill-biased as well as positively associated with employment growth. Firms investing in new plant and equipment and firms investing in the development of new products are more likely to increase employment than the others. Also, firms hiring in these sectors, look for adequate qualifications, in particular regarding the ability to work with internet tools. We argue that delocalisation can be transformed in a positive strategic reality if TCL firms are able to lower production costs and logistics in order to make the necessary technological investments.

Towards a Tipping Point in Responding to Change: Rising Costs, Fewer Options for Arctic and Global Societies

Huntington, Henry P.; Goodstein, Eban; Euskirchen, Eugénie
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Climate change incurs costs, but government adaptation budgets are limited. Beyond a certain point, individuals must bear the costs or adapt to new circumstances, creating political-economic tipping points that we explore in three examples. First, many Alaska Native villages are threatened by erosion, but relocation is expensive. To date, critically threatened villages have not yet been relocated, suggesting that we may already have reached a political-economic tipping point. Second, forest fires shape landscape and ecological characteristics in interior Alaska. Climate-driven changes in fire regime require increased fire-fighting resources to maintain current patterns of vegetation and land use, but these resources appear to be less and less available, indicating an approaching tipping point. Third, rapid sea level rise, for example from accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet, will create a choice between protection and abandonment for coastal regions throughout the world, a potential global tipping point comparable to those now faced by Arctic communities. The examples illustrate the basic idea that if costs of response increase more quickly than available resources, then society has fewer and fewer options as time passes.

Locating Mobile Servers on a Network with Markovian Processes

Berman, Oded; Odoni, Amedeo R.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Operations Research Center Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Operations Research Center
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1746 bytes; 1294112 bytes; application/pdf
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The median problem has been generalized to the case in which facilities can be moved, at a cost, on the network in response to changes in the state of the network. Such changes are brought about by changes in travel times on the links of the network due to the occurrence of probabilistic events. For the case examined here, transitions among states of the network are assumed to be Markovian. The problem is examined for an objective which is a weighted function of demand travel times and of facility relocation costs. It is shown that when these latter costs are a concave function of travel time, an optimal set of facility locations exists solely on the nodes of the network. The location-relocation problem is formulated as an integer programming problem and its computational complexity is discussed. An example illustrates the basic concepts of this paper.

Industrial Location in Developing Countries

Deichmann, Uwe; Lall, Somik V.; Redding, Stephen J.; Venables, Anthony J.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Despite a diminishing role in industrial countries, the manufacturing sector continues to be an engine of economic growth in most developing countries. This article surveys the evidence on the determinants of industry location in developing countries. It also employs micro data for India and Indonesia to illustrate recent spatial dynamics of manufacturing relocation within urban agglomerations. Both theory and empirical evidence suggest that agglomeration benefits, market access, and infrastructure endowments in large cities outweigh the costs of congestion, higher wages, and land prices. Despite this evidence, many countries have tried to encourage industrial firms to locate in secondary cities or other lagging areas. Cross-country evidence suggests that fiscal incentives to do so rarely succeed. They appear to influence business location decisions among comparable locations, but the result may be a negative-sum game between regions and inefficiently low tax rates, which prevent public goods from being funded at sufficiently high levels. Relocation tends to be within and between agglomerations rather than from large cities to smaller cities or lagging regions. Rather than provide subsidies and tax breaks, policymakers should focus on streamlining laws and regulations to make the business environment more attractive.

Poverty and Regional Development in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Dillinger, William
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
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This paper is focused only on this objective: the alleviation of regional concentrations of poverty. There are several reasons. First, judging from the public documents of multilaterals and governments, poverty reduction is often the primary objective of regional development efforts in the ECA region. It is also the primary objective of the World Bank, the sponsor of this paper. Second, the environmental and social objectives of regional development are difficult to analyze through an economic lens. While some may argue that cities are too big, others argue that large cities are crucial to economic growth and merely need to be better managed. By the same token, the social costs of out-migration are difficult to weigh against the economic benefits of labor mobility. The analysis of the tradeoffs between the environmental and social objectives of regional development on one hand, and economic objectives of regional development on the other, is better done on a case-by-case basis than in a regional survey paper. This report is the first of a series of papers on regional issues in the ECA region.

Agglomeration, Transport, and Regional Development in Indonesia

Deichmann, Uwe; Kaiser, Kai; Lall, Somik V.; Shalizi, Zmarak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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How effective are public interventions in addressing significant regional disparities in formal manufacturing concentration in a developing economy? The authors examine the aggregate and sectoral geographic concentration of manufacturing industries for Indonesia, and estimate the impact of factors influencing location choice at the firm level. They distinguish between natural advantage, including infrastructure endowments, wage rates, and natural resource endowments, and production externalities, arising from the co-location of firms in the same or complementary industries. The methodology pays special attention to empirically distinguishing the impact of measured production externalities from unobserved local characteristics. Depending on the sector, the authors find that a mix of both forms of regional advantage explains the geographic distribution of firms. Based on the estimated location choice model, they illustrate the potential impacts of policy interventions on manufacturing distribution by simulating the effectiveness of transport improvements on relocation of firms. Their findings suggest that improvements in transport infrastructure may only have limited effects in attracting industry to secondary industrial centers outside of Java...

East Asia Integrates : A Trade Policy Agenda for Shared Growth

Krumm, Kathie; Kharas, Homi
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
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Rapid and sustained growth in international trade has long been a hallmark of successful growth and development strategies in East Asia. Some success stories are well known: those of the newly industrializing economies (NIEs) such as the Republic of Korea, as well as middle-income economies such as Malaysia and the transition economy of China. More recent entrants to world markets that have seen rapid export growth include low-income economies such as Cambodia and Vietnam. Trade has been an important factor in growth in the region, enabling progress in poverty reduction. Although the 1997-98 financial crisis interrupted this progress, recovery since then has brought poverty rates in every emerging economy in the region to record lows, and in economies like that of Vietnam, trade growth has brought with it a rapid reduction in poverty. Intraregional trade in East Asia has grown faster than trade with any other market, and while the largest economies account for the bulk of this trade, the regional trade of most smaller economies has also grown. Trade integration has been marketled...

Involuntary Resettlement Sourcebook : Planning and Implementation in Development Projects

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The book clarifies many policy, and technical issues that confront resettlement policymakers, and practitioners. It provides guidance on resettlement design, implementation, and monitoring, and, it discusses resettlement issues particular to development projects in different sectors, such as urban development, natural resource management, and the building of dams. Construction of infrastructure, a prerequisite for sustained socioeconomic growth, often requires the acquisition of land, and therefore, the physical relocation, and economic displacement of people. If such impacts, collectively characterized as involuntary resettlement, are not identified, and adequately mitigated, some already vulnerable populations are likely to be further impoverished, thereby undermining the objectives of the development process. Integration of involuntary resettlement issues into development projects facilitates expeditious project implementation, and improves incomes and living standards of affected populations.

Re-assigning homeports for United States Coast Guard medium and high endurance cutters

McCarty, Robert T
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Cutter Assignment Model (CAM) is an optimization based decision aid that recommends relocation of cutters to homeports in order to maximize combined benefits less relocation costs. In 1996, the Chief of Coast Guard Operations identified port assignments of medium and high endurance cutters as an area where the Coast Guard can improve quality of service. A Strategic Homeports Study Team has been formed and has evaluated candidate ports with respect to a variety of criteria, ranging from proximity to mission areas to shore services. The availability and quality of support and services at a port directly influence mission performance. The Coast Guard seeks cutter reassignments to improve those benefits and others associated with clustering like cutters (collocating) while minimizing costs. CAM prescribes optimal assignments for a complete Pacific or Atlantic operating area scenario in a few minutes using commercial software on a personal computer. CAM also accommodates and optimally completes partial restrictions of assignment scenarios to reflect human judgment or some non quantifiable considerations

Optimization and simulation of one-way carsharing operations

Jorge, Diana Rita Ramos
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Carsharing is a transportation option with great potential, allowing people to use a private vehicle without having to own it. Nowadays carsharing systems are implemented almost all over the world, being the round-trip system the most predominant. However, the implementation of one-way systems has been expanded considerably since 2008. Despite the proliferation of carsharing, there are few analytical studies addressing its management. One-way systems offer users more flexibility. Contrarily to the typical round-trip systems, one-way systems allow users to pick up the vehicles at one station and deliver them to a different station from the one where they were picked up. This flexibility poses added management complexities which have never been solved completely. Most of the existing studies cannot accurately represent the reality of these systems, due to algorithmic, structural, and functional complexities. Therefore, carsharing is an interesting topic to be addressed under an operations research perspective. This thesis has two main objectives. The first objective consists in assisting one-way carsharing companies to plan and manage their systems in a more profitable way while at the same time offering users a good quality of service. The second objective targets helping round-trip carsharing companies to start offering one-way trips...

Home artificial nutrition : costs and consequences : a systematic literature review

Andrade, Daniel Abreu Almeida
Fonte: FEUC Publicador: FEUC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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Malnutrition affects health clinical status and health outcomes, occurring both in hospital and community setting. Despite recognized as a health care concern, it still is not adequately diagnosed and treated. Home Artificial Nutrition had its turning point with changes in hospital healthcare reimbursement system and development of home care technologies. Objectives: This thesis aims a better understanding of the health economics related to this home nutritional therapy, assessing the current evidence, namely on costs and consequences. Material and Methods: A systematic review of literature was made using several databases and different keyword combinations related to the subject. Complementary search was made in general search engines and other websites related with Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. The following steps were removal of article duplication, Title and Abstract evaluation and the final selected ones were subject to full reading. Starting with an initial pool of 583 articles, 116 we were mentioned in this work. Results: Home Artificial Nutrition programs are increasingly at use around the world. Outcomes rely heavily on the underlying disease and patient Quality of Life is difficult to assess due to the differences of home nutrition programs and lack of specific tools able to measure and follow-up changes over treatment. Costs vary significantly according to countries and nutritional therapy and most of the times calculated from a payer perspective. Few studies relate costs and consequences simultaneously and most are developed from a National Health Service or Insurance perspective with a limited evaluation of a wider societal benefit. The existence of a multidisciplinary nutrition support team is crucial for the successful implementation of this therapy. Conclusions: Home Artificial Nutrition is a valid clinical alternative for clinically stable patients...

Supply chain analysis of Gabilan Manufacturing Inc.

Darnell, Andrew; Hodgson, Daniel; Fouts, Miguel; Kachenchai, Daniel; Neuman, James; Darnell, Andrew; Hodgson, Daniel; Fouts, Miguel; Kachenchai, Daniel
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: viii, 123 p. : col. ill.; 28 cm.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The purpose of this MBA Project was to investigate and provide alternative supply chain management strategies to assist Gabilan Manufacturing Inc. in reducing supply chain costs. This project was conducted with the sponsorship and assistance of Gabilan Manufacturing Inc. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to identify and document the impact of forecasting errors in an environment where customer forecasts are available to the vendor. The second was to investigate the costs associated with relocating cutting operations as well as the procurement impact of a new cutting machine. Both of these goals relate directly to the overall effort to reduce supply chain costs without a loss of service level to Gabilan's customer.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy

A Fair Go: Evaluating Australian student income support policies in the context of recent reforms

Mokosch, Gunnar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The Australian higher education sector will play an increasingly important role in the future development of the country. For the economy to remain competitive internationally and to maintain and enhance living standards, a larger share of Australians with tertiary qualifications will be required. At the same time, people from low socioeconomic as well as those from rural and regional backgrounds are largely underrepresented in the student body. Student income support is crucial in achieving the goals of equity in tertiary education and of increased general participation levels in Australia. Following a comprehensive review of the Australian higher education sector in 2008, the Federal Government made significant changes to its student income support policies in 2009, parts of which were amended a year later. More students whose parents cannot support them financially now receive income support. What is more, these students from low socioeconomic backgrounds concurrently receive newly introduced scholarships that help deal with the relocation and the start-up costs of studying. In addition to many other changes, the criteria for receiving income support as independent from one's parents were tightened for urban and some regional students...

Is Better Information Always Good News? International Corporate Strategy and Regulation

Kitzmuller, Markus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper develops a simple model to analyze the interaction between strategic corporate public good provision, international firm location and national regulation. An information-based strategic corporate public good provision mechanism is proposed to shed light on recent firm behavior within different regulatory environments. The main insight derived is that in the presence of firms with geographic flexibility (multinational enterprises) and market provision of an international public credence good, unilateral (non-cooperative) regulatory scope depends on (1) the absolute probabilities to verify firms' corporate public good provision levels within different geographic and institutional environments, and (2) the differential between these probabilities across countries. The relative information asymmetry determines not only the market levels of the public good produced under autarky, but also the relocation incentives of multinational enterprises. A firm trades off lower production costs, which increase its competitiveness in pricing...

Impact de la nouvelle loi sur le contrat du travail (dite «loi de 2008») sur les stratégies de gestion des multinationales étrangères en chine

Cai, Yini
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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En Chine la croissance économique observée durant ces trois dernières décennies, s’est accompagnée d’importants changements sociaux. Jusqu’en 2008, le droit du travail hérité de l’ère socialiste et inadapté à l’économie de marché, servait les intérêts de la croissance au détriment de ceux des travailleurs. La nouvelle loi sur le contrat de travail de 2008 a pour ambition de corriger cette situation en rééquilibrant les relations du travail dans un contexte de redistribution plus juste des nouvelles richesses. L’objectif de ce mémoire est de comprendre comment les entreprises étrangères présentes en Chine appréhendent ce changement institutionnel. Cela impacte-t-il leur gestion et leur stratégie de localisation ? Cette question est traitée, à travers l’étude du cas d’une entreprise étrangère implantée à Shanghai depuis 10 ans. Le premier effet observé est une professionnalisation du secteur des ressources humaines. L’augmentation des coûts de fonctionnement à laquelle la nouvelle loi participe a également pour effet une relocalisation des activités de production dans des régions à moindres coûts dans le centre de la Chine. L’expertise spécifiquement acquise localement est une des raisons majeures interdisant une délocalisation dans un pays tierce.; China's economic growth observed over the past three decades has been accompanied by some significant social changes. Until 2008...

Bangladesh; More and Better Jobs to Accelerate Shared Growth and End Extreme Poverty

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Country Focus :: Country Assistance Strategy Document
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Situated in a fertile low-lying river delta, Bangladesh combines high vulnerability to floods, tropical cyclones, earthquakes, and climate change with one of the world’s highest population densities, with around 159 million people living in less than 150,000 sq. km. With the world’s second lowest per capita income in 1975, it was labeled ‘the test case for development’ in view of the formidable development challenges it faced. Nevertheless, Bangladesh has proven to be remarkably resilient, developing well beyond initial expectations, and has made very good progress with poverty reduction. GNI per capita has grown from around US$100 in 1972 to US$1,314 in 2015, and the country crossed the World Bank threshold for the lower-middle-income group in 2015. As highlighted in the Seventh Five Year Plan background paper on ending extreme poverty, the agricultural labor market in Bangladesh tightened significantly in the decade of 2000s, which led to an increase in the real agricultural wage rate. Three main channels were the primary contributors: (a) relocation of farm labor to rural non-farm sectors; (b) relocation of rural labor to urban activities through the ‘pull effects’ of urbanization...

A Coordinated Relocation Strategy for Enhancing Case Management of Lead Poisoned Children: Outcomes and Costs

McLaine, Pat; Shields, Wendy; Farfel, Mark; Chisolm, J. Julian; Dixon, Sherry
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Controlling residential lead hazards is critical for case management of lead poisoned children. To attain this goal, permanent relocation of the family is sometimes necessary or advisable for many reasons, including poor housing conditions; extensive lead hazards; lack of abatement resources, landlord compliance and local enforcement capacity; and family eviction. During 1996–1998, the Kennedy Krieger Institute implemented a unique capitated program for case management of Baltimore City children with blood lead concentrations (PbB) >19 μg/dL. The Program provided financial, housing, and social work assistance to facilitate relocation as a means of providing safer housing. Nearly half of the Program families relocated with direct assistance, and 28% relocated on their own. The Program evaluation examined the costs and benefits of relocation. Average relocation cost per child was relatively inexpensive (<$1,500). Average relocation time of 5 months (range <2 months to >12 months) was less than the 8-month average time to complete lead hazard control work in 14 city and state programs funded by U.S. HUD. Relocation was associated with (1) a statistically significant decrease in dust lead loadings on floors, windowsills and window troughs that persisted for one year...

La Garantía del empleo en la nueva regulación del despido colectivo

Fusté Miquela, Josep M.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Les reformes laborals de 2012 han incidit intensament en el règim jurídic de l'extinció del contracte de treball. Les causes, procediments i costos indemnitzatoris han estat modificats amb la intenció, manifestada pel legislador, d'establir una regulació més flexible per a les empreses. La regulació de l'acomiadament col·lectiu ha sofert importants canvis que afecten l'entitat de les causes que el justifiquen, el procediment que ha de seguir l'empresari per materialitzar-lo i l'eliminació de l'autorització administrativa prèvia. En la nova regulació la garantia de l'ocupació en projectes empresarials d'acomiadaments col·lectius ha passat des de la intervenció intensa de l'administració fins a la potenciació de les consultes que ha de realitzar l'empresari amb els representants dels treballadors, que es configuren ara com el centre de gravetat de l'acomiadament col·lectiu, tal com ja han assenyalat les primeres resolucions judicials que han interpretat la reforma. Les consultes constitueixen un veritable procés de negociació que pretén la consecució d'un acord, en el qual ambdues parts han de negociar sota el principi de la bona fe, amb la finalitat de pactar mesures per evitar o reduir els acomiadaments, així com mesures pal·liatives a adoptar en favor dels treballadors afectats...