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Estimativa do prêmio pelo risco país com a aplicação do modelo AEG; Brazilian country risk premium estimation applying the AEG valuation model

Belloque, Guilherme Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2008 Português
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A crescente integração econômica e mobilidade de capital levam a uma maior exposição dos investidores a riscos externos. Com isso, ganha relevância a discussão sobre como se considerar, no cálculo do custo de capital, possíveis prêmios requeridos pelos riscos adicionais da realização de negócios em mercados emergentes. A existência de um adicional de risco é relativamente evidente, podendo ser constatada pela maior volatilidade que grande parte dos mercados acionários emergentes possuem em relação a mercados maduros, como o norte-americano. Entretanto, a existência de um prêmio requerido por esse risco adicional é menos óbvia e sua observação empírica, por dados passados, usualmente não gera resultados conclusivos. Nesse contexto, a presente pesquisa aborda o prêmio pelo risco país no mercado acionário brasileiro, apresentando as formas mais usualmente aplicadas para estimá-lo e discutindo sobre a possibilidade de eliminá-lo através da diversificação dos investimentos. A maior contribuição realizada está na aplicação do modelo de valoração de ativos AEG (Abnormal Earnings Growth) para se estimar esse prêmio. O AEG torna viável o cálculo do custo de capital implícito nas as expectativas de resultados futuros divulgadas por instituições financeiras em mídias especializadas. O prêmio pelo risco país foi...

What drives corporate default risk premia? Evidence from the CDS market

Díaz, A.; Groba, J.; Serrano, P.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2011 Português
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This paper studies the evolution of the default risk premia for European firms during the years surrounding the recent credit crisis. We employ the information embedded in Credit Default Swaps (CDS) and Moody’s KMV EDF default probabilities to analyze the common factors driving this risk premia. The risk premium is characterized in several directions: Firstly, we perform a panel data analysis to capture the relationship between CDS spreads and actual default probabilities. Secondly, we employ the intensity framework of Jarrow et al. (2005) in order to measure the theoretical effect of risk premium on expected bond returns. Thirdly, we carry out a dynamic panel data to identify the macroeconomic sources of risk premium. Finally, a vector autoregressive model analyzes which proportion of the co-movement is attributable to financial or macro variables. Our estimations report coefficients for risk premium substantially higher than previously referred for US firms and a time varying behavior. A dominant factor explains around 60% of the common movements in risk premia. Additionally, empirical evidence suggests a public-to-private risk transfer between the sovereign CDS spreads and corporate risk premia.

Idiosyncratic risk really drives stock returns; Spanish evidence

Miralles Marcelo, José Luis; Miralles Quirós, María del Mar; Miralles Quirós, José Luis
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
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Following the theoretical model of Merton (1987), we provide a new perspective of study about the role of idiosyncratic risk in the asset pricing process. More precisely, we analyze whether the idiosyncratic risk premium depends on the idiosyncratic risk level of an asset as well as the vatriation in the market-wide measure of idiosyncratic risk. As expected, we obtain a net positive risk premium for the Spanish stock market over the period 1987-2007. Our results show a positive relation between returns and individual indiosyncratic risk levels and a negative but lower relation with the aggregate measure of idiosyncratic risk. These findings have important implications for portfolio and risk management and contribute to provide a unified and coherent answer for the main and still unsolved question about the idiosyncratic risk puzzle: whether or not there exists a premium associated to this kind of risk and the sign for this risk premium.

Term and equity premium in economies with habit formation

Budría, Santiago; Díaz, Antonia
Fonte: CEEAplA Publicador: CEEAplA
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
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In this paper we investigate the size of the risk premium and the term premium in a representative agent exchange model economy where households preferences are subject to habit formation. As a novel feature, we develop theoretical measures for risk premium and term premium that can be used even when the consumption growth process is serially autocorrelated. We find that habit formation increases risk aversion significantly but increases much more the aversion to variations of consumption across dates. This induces a substantial increase in the precautionary demand of short term assets and a significant fall in the precautionary demand of long term assets. As a result, the term premium increases substantially with habit formation. Next we calibrate our model economy and examine the quantitative predictions of our theoretical measures of equity premium, risk premium and term premium. In line with previous literature, we show that it is possible to find a reasonable calibration for which the equity premium is that observed in the data. However, we find that around 70 percent of the equity premium is just term premium. That is, a very large fraction of the increase in the equity premium is due to the asymmetric effect that habit formation has on the precautionary demand of an asset depending on its maturity.

Essays on human capital formation

Castex Hernandez, Gonzalo A. (1974 - ); Chang, Yongsung (1966 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xi, 99 leaves
Português
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Economics, 2010.; I analyze two issues on the efficiency of schooling choice. The first chapter analyzes changes in the distribution of college enrollment rates that occurred between 1980 and 2000. It aims not only to explain the 69% increase in the overall college enrollment rates, but also changes in the distribution of college attendees by their ability and financial status. College attendance increased by 27% less than the overall trend for individuals in the lowest quartile of the joint family income and ability distribution. However, it increased by 12% more than the trend for individuals in the highest quartile. To explain these changes, I construct a quantitative life-cycle model of labor supply and human capital formation. The model is calibrated to match schooling patterns and labor market outcomes for the 1980 and 2000 cohorts. I explicitly model four potential driving forces to explain the observed changes. First, college wage premium increased during the 1980 - 2000 period. This increase had a positive effect on enrollment across all profiles and the largest gain was for the low-ability and low-income groups. Second, there was a merit-oriented reform in distribution of grants which mostly increased college attendance of high-ability students. Third...

Pricing Currency Risk: Facts and Puzzles from Currency Boards

Schmukler, Sergio L.; Servén, Luis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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The authors investigate the patterns and determinants of the currency risk premium in two currency boards-Argentina and Hong Kong. Despite the presumed rigidity of currency boards, currency premium is almost always positive and at times very large. Its term structure is usually upward sloping, but flattens out or even becomes inverted at times of turbulence. Currency premia differ across markets. The forward discount typically exceeds the currency premium derived from interbank rates, particularly during times of crisis. The large magnitude of these cross-market differences can be the consequence of unexploited arbitrage opportunities, market segmentation, or other risks embedded in typical measures of currency risk. The premium and its term structure depend on domestic and global factors related to devaluation expectations and risk perceptions.

The forward premium anomaly : can sticky-price models generate volatile foreign exchange risk premia?

Moon, Seongman
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 Português
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Fama’s (1984) volatility relations show that the risk premium in foreign exchange markets is more volatile than, and is negatively correlated with the expected rate of depreciation. This paper studies these relations from the perspective of goods markets frictions. Using a sticky-price general equilibrium model, we show that near-random walk behaviors of both exchange rates and consumption, in response to monetary shocks, can be derived endogenously. Based on this approach, the paper provides quantitative results that might explain the forward premium anomaly, which is one of the most important puzzles in international finance.

Pricing forward contracts in power markets by the certainty equivalence principle : explaining the sign of the market risk premium

Benth, Fred Espen; Cartea, Álvaro; Kiesel, Rüdiger
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/submittedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/12/2007 Português
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In this paper we provide a framework that explains how the market risk premium, defined as the difference between forward prices and spot forecasts, depends on the risk preferences of market players and the interaction between buyers and sellers. In commodities markets this premium is an important indicator of the behavior of buyers and sellers and their views on the market spanning between short-term and long-term horizons. We show that under certain assumptions it is possible to derive explicit solutions that link levels of risk aversion and market power with market prices of risk and the market risk premium. We apply our model to the German electricity market and show that the market risk premium exhibits a term structure which can be explained by the combination of two factors. Firstly, the levels of risk aversion of buyers and sellers, and secondly, how the market power of producers, relative to that of buyers, affects forward prices with different delivery periods

Pricing forward contracts in power markets by the certainty equivalence principle: Explaining the sign of the market risk premium

Benth, Fred Espen; Cartea, Álvaro; Kiesel, Rüdiger
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In this paper we provide a framework that explains how the market risk premium, defined as the difference between forward prices and spot forecasts, depends on the risk preferences of market players and the interaction between buyers and sellers. In commodities markets this premium is an important indicator of the behavior of buyers and sellers and their views on the market spanning between short-term and long-term horizons. We show that under certain assumptions it is possible to derive explicit solutions that link levels of risk aversion and market power with market prices of risk and the market risk premium. We apply our model to the German electricity market and show that the market risk premium exhibits a term structure which can be explained by the combination of two factors. Firstly, the levels of risk aversion of buyers and sellers, and secondly, how the market power of producers, relative to that of buyers, affects forward prices with different delivery periods

Risk premium, variance premium and the maturity structure of uncertainty

Feunou, Bruno; Fontaine, Jean-Sébastien; Taamouti, Abderrahim; Tédongap, Roméo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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Theoretical risk factors underlying time-variations of risk premium across asset classes are typically unobservable or hard to measure by construction. Important examples include risk factors in Long Run Risk [LRR] structural models (Bansal and Yaron 2004) as well as stochastic volatility or jump intensities in reduced-form affine representations of stock returns (Duffie, Pan, and Singleton 2000). Still, we show that both classes of models predict that the term structure of risk-neutral variance should reveal these risk factors. Empirically, we use model-free measures and construct the ex-ante variance term structure from option prices. This reveals (spans) two risk factors that predict the bond premium and the equity premium, jointly. Moreover, we find that the same risk factors also predict the variance premium. This important contribution is consistent with theory and confirms that a small number of factors underlies common time-variations in the bond premium, the equity premium and the variance premium. Theory predicts that the term structure of higher-order risks can reveal the same factors. This is confirmed in the data. Strikingly, combining the information from the variance, skewness and kurtosis term structure can be summarized by two risk factors and yields similar level of predictability (i.e....

Semi-Parametric Weak Instrument Regressions with an Application to the Risk-Return Trade-off

PERRON, Benoit
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2337970 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Recent work shows that a low correlation between the instruments and the included variables leads to serious inference problems. We extend the local-to-zero analysis of models with weak instruments to models with estimated instruments and regressors and with higher-order dependence between instruments and disturbances. This makes this framework applicable to linear models with expectation variables that are estimated non-parametrically. Two examples of such models are the risk-return trade-off in finance and the impact of inflation uncertainty on real economic activity. Results show that inference based on Lagrange Multiplier (LM) tests is more robust to weak instruments than Wald-based inference. Using LM confidence intervals leads us to conclude that no statistically significant risk premium is present in returns on the S&P 500 index, excess holding yields between 6-month and 3-month Treasury bills, or in yen-dollar spot returns.; Des recherches récentes démontrent qu'une corrélation faible entre les instruments et les variables explicatives peut mener à de sérieux problèmes d'inférence dans les régressions avec variables instrumentales. Nous étendons l'analyse locale à zéro des modèles avec instruments faibles aux modèles avec des instruments et régresseurs estimés et avec de la dépendance dans les moments supérieurs. Ainsi...

The Shape of the Risk Premium: Evidence from a Semiparametric Garch Model.

LINTON, Olivier; PERRON, Benoit
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 834100 bytes; application/pdf
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We examine the relationship between the risk premium on the S&P 500 index return and its conditional variance. We use the SMEGARCH - Semiparametric-Mean EGARCH - model in which the conditional variance process is EGARCH while the conditional mean is an arbitrary function of the conditional variance. For monthly S&P 500 excess returns, the relationship between the two moments that we uncover is nonlinear and nonmonotonic. Moreover, we find considerable persistence in the conditional variance as well as a leverage effect, as documented by others. Moreover, the shape of these relationships seems to be relatively stable over time.; Nous étudions la relation entre la prime de risque sur l'indice S&P 500 et sa variance conditionnelle. Nous utilisons le modèle SMEGARCH - Semiparametric-Mean EGARCH - selon lequel la variance conditionnelle suit un processus EGARCH, alors que la moyenne est une fonction arbitraire de la variance conditionnelle. Pour les rendements excédentaires mensuels sur l'indice S&P 500, la relation que nous trouvons est non linéaire et non monotone. De plus, nous trouvons beaucoup de persistance dans la variance conditionnelle ainsi qu'un effet de levier, tel que documenté par plusieurs autres auteurs.

Essays in macro finance and monetary economics

Somé, Modeste Yirbèhogré
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Les questions abordées dans les deux premiers articles de ma thèse cherchent à comprendre les facteurs économiques qui affectent la structure à terme des taux d'intérêt et la prime de risque. Je construis des modèles non linéaires d'équilibre général en y intégrant des obligations de différentes échéances. Spécifiquement, le premier article a pour objectif de comprendre la relation entre les facteurs macroéconomiques et le niveau de prime de risque dans un cadre Néo-keynésien d'équilibre général avec incertitude. L'incertitude dans le modèle provient de trois sources : les chocs de productivité, les chocs monétaires et les chocs de préférences. Le modèle comporte deux types de rigidités réelles à savoir la formation des habitudes dans les préférences et les coûts d'ajustement du stock de capital. Le modèle est résolu par la méthode des perturbations à l'ordre deux et calibré à l'économie américaine. Puisque la prime de risque est par nature une compensation pour le risque, l'approximation d'ordre deux implique que la prime de risque est une combinaison linéaire des volatilités des trois chocs. Les résultats montrent qu'avec les paramètres calibrés, les chocs réels (productivité et préférences) jouent un rôle plus important dans la détermination du niveau de la prime de risque relativement aux chocs monétaires. Je montre que contrairement aux travaux précédents (dans lesquels le capital de production est fixe)...

A systematic component of the jump-risk premium in an AJD model

Maya, Livio Cuzzi
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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We develop an affine jump diffusion (AJD) model with the jump-risk premium being determined by both idiosyncratic and systematic sources of risk. While we maintain the classical affine setting of the model, we add a finite set of new state variables that affect the paths of the primitive, under both the actual and the risk-neutral measure, by being related to the primitive's jump process. Those new variables are assumed to be commom to all the primitives. We present simulations to ensure that the model generates the volatility smile and compute the "discounted conditional characteristic function'' transform that permits the pricing of a wide range of derivatives.; Desenvolvemos um model afim com saltos com o prêmio pelo risco dos saltos determinado tanto por variáveis idiossincráticas quanto por variáveis sistêmicas. Mantemos a clássica estrutura linear do modelo, mas adicionamos um conjunto finito de novas variáveis de estado que afetam o caminho percorrido pelo primitivo, tanto no distribuição real quanto na distribuição neutra ao risco, por afetar o processo de saltos do primitivo. Assumimos que essas novas variáveis de estado são comuns a todos os primitivos. Apresentamos simulações que garantem que o modelo gere o sorriso da volatilidade e computamos a transformação da "função característica descontada condicional" que permite a precificação de uma ampla gama de derivativos.

Country risk premium: theoretical determinants and empirical evidence for latin american countries

Aronovich,Selmo
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 Português
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This paper investigates the behavior of the country risk premium for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, from June 1997 to September 1998. It shows that the level of country risk premium is determined by different factors: the US dollar bond market structure; restrictions on the acquisition of emerging market bonds imposed by developed nations regulators; the credit risk measured by the notion of implied risk-neutral probability default; the different ways agents react to country risk due to asymmetric and imperfect information. The empirical investigation shows: the worse the country credit rating, the greater is the impact on international borrowing cost, which implies that negative expectations have greater impact on lower rated Latin American nations' bonds; country risk yield spreads overreacted to changes in the US dollar interest rates in the sample period.

Business Cycle and Risk Premium in the Colombian Stock Market; Ciclo econ??mico y prima por riesgo en el mercado accionario colombiano

G??mez S??nchez, Andr??s Mauricio; Astaiza G??mez, Jos?? Gabriel
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT Publicador: Universidad EAFIT
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; article; Art??culo Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Through the Hodrick-Prescott methodology this paper presents a review about the relationship between the ex post risk premium of the stock market and business cycles observed in Colombia. Through quarterly information from the fourth quarter of 2001 to the third quarter of 2012, statistical evidence shows that the increase and decrease of ex post risk premium follow a countercyclical behavior in tune with existing research conducted about the United States and emerging economies, although with non-contemporary relationships with private consumption. In addition, it is found that in the last decade the Colombian risk premium follows a process of Auto Regressive Moving Average Models (ARMA), showing that there is no variation in at least two consecutive quarters and whose behavior is generated in part by external events at the domestic economic activity level experienced in near past periods.; Este art??culo presenta una revisi??n de la relaci??n entre la prima por riesgo ex post del mercado accionario y los ciclos econ??micos observados en Colombia recurriendo a la metodolog??a Hodrick-Prescott. Con informaci??n trimestral desde el cuarto trimestre de 2001 al tercer trimestre de 2012, la evidencia estad??stica muestra que los aumentos y disminuciones de la prima por riesgo ex post siguen un comportamiento contrac??clico en sinton??a con las investigaciones realizadas hasta ahora para Estados Unidos y econom??as emergentes...

Depreciation bias, financial-sector fragility and currency risk

Tambakis, Demosthenes N
Fonte: CFAP, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge Publicador: CFAP, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; published version
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Do expected future exchange rate fluctuations affect current social welfare? In the third-generation approach to currency crises, financial fragility can trigger devaluation and default. Expected future depreciation is costly if it raises ex ante real interest rates. Given the strong violation of uncovered interest parity, expected future outcomes' current cost/benefit depends on the currency risk premium. I extend the static one-period Barro-Gordon welfare loss function to include expected future depreciation and show that, when foreign investors are risk-averse, depreciation bias is higher than the static case if aggregate demand is a function of ex ante real rates. If demand depends on the ex post real interest rate, average depreciation can be zero if current welfare is sufficiently sensitive to the state of the financial sector. In this stylised framework, depreciation bias can be mitigated even in the presence of time-inconsistency, and expected welfare may be higher.

Improving the Estimates of the Risk Premia - Application in the UK Financial Market

Pitsillis, M.; Satchell, Stephen E.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 179383 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We develop a methodology for improving the estimate of the risk premia calculated jointly with the asset sensitivities, extending the McElroy-Burmeister approach for estimating the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (Ross 1976) as a restricted nonlinear multivariate regression model using observed macroeconomic risk factors. This allows us to use multiple samples of stocks to estimate and test common risk premia. This simpler expression for the variance-covariance matrix of the estimated parameter allows easier estimate and testing. With large number of stocks and a small number of observations, we use different samples of stocks to estimate vectors of risk premia which are then combined so that a final improved estimate of the risk premium vector is asymptotically unbiased and has minimum variance. We also derive the variance -covariance matrix of the final estimate of the risk premium. We apply the methodology to UK data, using FTSE-350 assets and observed macroeconomic risk factors.

The Behavioural Components of Risk Aversion

Davies, Greg B.; Satchell, Stephen E.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: 383670 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The risk premium is affected by loss aversion and probability distortions as well as utility curvature. We introduce two variants - the total risk premium relative to objective expected value, and the subjective risk premium relative to perceived expected value. Approximate solutions for each provide analogies to the Pratt-Arrow coefficient of risk aversion (showing how risk attitude depends on each behavioural component), and sufficient conditions for risk aversion. Earlier results of Levy and Levy (2002) which examined decision weights in isolation are revised and extended to show how the curvature and loss aversion conditions are affected by probabilitydistortions.

What About Short Run?

Xu, Lai
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014 Português
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This dissertation explores issues regarding the short-lived temporal variation of the equity risk premium. In the past decade, the equity risk premium puzzle is resolved by many competing consumption-based asset pricing models. However, before \cite{btz:vrp:rfs}, the return predictability as an outcome of such models has limited empirical support in the short-run. Nowadays, there has been a consensus of the literature that the short-run equity return's predictability is intimately linked with the variance risk premium---the difference between options-implied and actual realized variation measures.

In this work, I continue to argue the importance of the short-lived components in the equity risk premium. Specifically, I first provide simulation evidence of the strong return predictability based on the variance risk premium in the U.S. aggregate market, and document new empirical findings in the international setting. Then I attempt to use a structural macro-finance model to guide through the predictability estimation with much more efficiency gain. Finally I decompose the equity risk premium into two short-lived parts --- tail risk and diffusive risk --- and propose a semi-parametric estimation method for each part. The results are arranged in the following order.

Chapter 1 of the dissertation is co-authored with Tim Bollerslev...