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Regulação Bancária: Relação entre Rácios de Solvabilidade e Carteiras de Activos

Barbudo, João Luís Lopes
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Mestrado em Economia Monetária e Financeira; Os rácios de solvabilidade representam uma das vertentes mais importantes da regulação bancária, permitindo às instituições financeiras transparecer credibilidade. Neste sentido, os bancos quando são obrigados a aumentar os rácios de solvabilidade, não só para cumprirem com o estipulado nos Acordos de Basileia, mas também para passarem nos testes de stress, podem-no fazer por duas vias. O primeiro caminho passa pelo aumento do rácio através de um aumento do seu numerador, ou seja, através de um aumento de capital. A segunda via passa pela diminuição do denominador do rácio, através da diminuição da ponderação do risco nos activos. Com efeito, o objectivo deste trabalho é analisar esta segunda via, onde se testa se os rácios de solvabilidade dos bancos portugueses influenciam a escolha da carteira de activos. É possível concluir que: (i) os bancos com pouca capacidade de capital tendem a alterar a sua carteira de activos; (ii) os bancos preferem diminuir os activos com maior ponderação de risco, nomeadamente os empréstimos concedidos.; The capital ratios represent one of the most important aspects of banking regulation, allowing financial institutions to look through credibility. In this sense...

Macroprudential Stress Testing of Credit Risk : A Practical Approach for Policy Makers

Buncic, Daniel; Melecky, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Drawing on the lessons from the global financial crisis and especially from its impact on the banking systems of Eastern Europe, the paper proposes a new practical approach to macroprudential stress testing. The proposed approach incorporates: (i) macroeconomic stress scenarios generated from both a country specific statistical model and historical cross-country crises experience; (ii) indirect credit risk due to foreign currency exposures of unhedged borrowers; (iii) varying underwriting practices across banks and their asset classes based on their relative aggressiveness of lending; (iv) higher correlations between the probability of default and the loss given default during stress periods; (v) a negative effect of lending concentration and residual loan maturity on unexpected losses; and (vi) the use of an economic risk weighted capital adequacy ratio as the relevant outcome indicator to measure the resilience of banks to materializing credit risk. The authors apply the proposed approach to a set of Eastern European banks and discuss the results.

Bank Capital : Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Detragiache, Enrica; Merrouche, Ouarda
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Using a multi-country panel of banks, the authors study whether better capitalized banks fared better in terms of stock returns during the financial crisis. They differentiate among various types of capital ratios: the Basel risk-adjusted ratio; the leverage ratio; the Tier I and Tier II ratios; and the common equity ratio. They find several results: (i) before the crisis, differences in capital did not affect subsequent stock returns; (ii) during the crisis, higher capital resulted in better stock performance, most markedly for larger banks and less well-capitalized banks; (iii) the relationship between stock returns and capital is stronger when capital is measured by the leverage ratio rather than the risk-adjusted capital ratio; (iv) there is evidence that higher quality forms of capital, such as Tier 1 capital, were more relevant. They also examine the relationship between bank capitalization and credit default swap (CDS) spreads.

Credit Risk Measurement Under Basel II : An Overview and Implementation Issues for Developing Countries

Stephanou, Constantinos; Mendoza, Juan Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the changes in the calculation of minimum regulatory capital requirements for credit risk that have been drafted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (Basel II). Even though the revised credit capital rules represent a dramatic change compared to Basel I, it is shown that Basel II merely seeks to codify (albeit incompletely) existing good practices in bank risk measurement. However, its effective implementation in many developing countries is hindered by fundamental weaknesses in financial infrastructure that will need to be addressed as a priority.

Basel II and Developing Countries: Sailing through the Sea of Standards

Powell, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
Despite recently announced delays, Basel II - the new standard for bank capital - is due to be completed this year for implementation in the 13 Basel Committee member countries by the end of 2006. Should the other 170 plus member countries of the World Bank also adopt Basel II? Basel II was not written with developing countries in mind, but that does not necessarily mean that there is nothing in it for developing countries or that it can be ignored. Basels I and II represent a wide Sea of Standards. This paper suggests five alternative island-standards and five navigational tools to help countries choose their preferred island within the sea. It is suggested that for some developing countries the standardized approach will yield little in terms of linking regulatory capital to risk, but that countries may need many years of work to adopt the more advanced internal rating-based approach. The paper then proposes a centralized rating-based approach as a transition measure. The paper also makes proposals regarding a set of largely unresolved cross-border issues.

Financial Sector Assessment : Armenia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The Armenian financial system is quite small, with the assets of the banking system (by far the largest component) accounting for only 15 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The banking sector has not yet reached the level of consolidation and sophistication of the more advanced transition economies, and intermediation costs are high. The results of the stress tests show that the banking system is significantly exposed to a combination of credit and foreign exchange rate risks, but only moderately exposed to interest rate risks. The legal framework governing the financial sector in Armenia is reasonably sound and comprehensive, but decisions by the Central Bank of Armenia (CBA) to withdraw banking licenses and or to initiate bankruptcy proceedings against banks have been successfully appealed in the courts. The authorities have agreed that the law on joint-stock companies should be replaced as soon as possible, and supplemented by a law on limited liability companies. Many of the Basel core principles are largely complied with...

Nepal Development Update, April 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The enabling environment for the development of Nepal has improved, but opportunities need to be effectively leveraged through focused policy action. Nepal has significant resources in the form of remittances from abroad, but the economy cannot use these resources in a productive manner to enhance the overall welfare of all citizens. Specific priorities for development include: (1) creating a growth promotion vision and agenda; (2) resolution of Nepal s fiscal paradox ; (3) boosting investments; and (4) tackling enduring financial sector risks and managing excess. After a difficult year in FY13, the economy is poised to recover, albeit modestly. In FY13, Nepal achieved only modest growth of 3.6 percent. This was due largely to poor performance of the agricultural sector as well as very modest levels of industrial activity. Nepal s internal and external balances are sound but not for the right reasons. Low expenditure and robust revenue growth accounted for a large budget surplus and declining debt. Nepal s external position is comfortable because of large remittance inflows. On the external side...

Bank Capital and Systemic Stability

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
This paper distinguishes among various types of capital and examines their effect on system-wide fragility. The analysis finds that higher quality forms of capital reduce the systemic risk contribution of banks, whereas lower quality forms can have a destabilizing impact, particularly during crisis periods. The impact of capital on systemic risk is less pronounced for smaller banks, for banks located in countries with more generous safety nets, and in countries with institutions that allow for better public and private monitoring of financial institutions. The results show that regulatory capital is effective in reducing systemic risk and that regulatory risk weights are correlated with higher future asset volatility, but this relationship is significantly weaker for larger banks. The paper also finds that increased regulatory risk-weights not correlated with future asset volatility increase systemic fragility. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical literature that emphasizes capital as a potential buffer in absorbing liquidity...

Credit channel and risk-based capital adequacy requirements

Suzuki, Tomoya
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 272396 bytes; 350 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Introduction: Importance of bank lending in the propagation of exogenous shocks has been recognised in the literature. Such views are collectively called the credit view. The credit view is that a negative shock, e.g. a monetary tightening, restricts the availability of credit to borrowers, thereby affecting the real economy. The credit view consists of two different views, namely the “bank-lending view” and the “balance sheet view”. According to the “bank-lending view” banks cut back on lending in the wake of tight money because they have less money to lend, even though there are good loans to be made. On the other hand, the balance sheet view implies that banks cut back on lending in the wake of tight money because borrowers are in bad shape. Thus the two views have different implications. Nevertheless, both the views imply that a monetary tightening shifts the supply schedule of bank loans left, thereby affecting the real economy. This transmission mechanism of monetary policy is called the credit channel. The quantitative importance of the credit channel may be dependent on institutional characteristics of the financial market. If banks can substitute from deposits to less reserve-intensive forms of finance...

Moldova Financial Sector Assessment Program; Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
This assessment of Moldova current state of compliance with the Basel core principles for effective banking supervision (BCPs) was undertaken as part of a joint International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Bank mission in connection with a broader financial sector assessment program exercise. This version of the assessment has a greater focus on risk management policies and practices implemented by supervised institutions and their assessment by the supervisory authority as well as more emphasis on quality implementation of supervisory standards. The assessment has been conducted in accordance with the revised BCP assessment methodology approved by the Basel committee and was based on extensive discussions with officers and staff members of the Banking Supervision Department in National Bank of Moldova (NBM), and a review of internal supervisory documents, such as manuals, operating policies, examination reports, and external audit reports. The mission reviewed the BCP self-assessment undertaken by NBM preceding this assessment...

Banking on Governance? Conflicts of Interest Facing Bank Owners and Supervisors

Leechor, Chad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Banks fail with alarming frequency, resulting in large losses of taxpayer money. A key factor in the high failure rate is the flawed governance mechanism, which exacerbates the risks inherent in banking. Bankers control a lot of other people's money and have much discretion over the information they disclose. The temptation to engage in excessive risk taking is strong. Tightening banking supervision is seldom the solution. For their part, banking supervisors often face incentives at odds with those of taxpayers. At times they may prefer not to act to minimize taxpayer losses. These twin governance problems are further compounded by the common practice of disclosing banking information only to supervisors, not to markets. This Note explains the conflicts and proposes some solutions.

Banking Sector Stability, Efficiency, and Outreach in Kenya

Beck, Thorsten; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael; Getenga, Jared; Gatere, Peter; Randa, John; Trandafir, Mircea
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
Although Kenya's financial system is by far the largest and most developed in East Africa and its stability has improved significantly over the past years, many challenges remain. This paper assesses the stability, efficiency, and outreach of Kenya's banking system, using aggregate, bank-level, and survey data. Banks' asset quality and liquidity positions have improved, making the system more resistant to shocks, and interest rate spreads have declined, in part due to reduction in the overhead costs of foreign banks. Outreach remains limited, but has improved in recent years, driven by mobile payments services in the domestic remittance market. Fostering a level regulatory playing field for all deposit-taking institutions is a key remaining challenge. Specifically, an effective but not overly burdensome framework for regulation and supervision of microfinance institutions and cooperatives is a priority. Maintaining an openness to new, and non-bank, providers of financial services, which has enabled the success of mobile payments...

Public Credit Registries as a Tool for Bank Regulation and Supervision

Girault, Matias Gutierrez; Hwang, Jane
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
This paper is about the importance of the information in Public Credit Registries (PCRs) for supporting and improving banking sector regulation and supervision, particularly in the light of the new approach embodied in Basel III. Against the backdrop of the financial crisis and the existence of information data gaps, the importance of complete, accurate and timely credit information in the financial system is evident. Both in normal times and during crises, authorities need a device that allows them to look at the universe of credits in a detailed and readily way. And more importantly, they need to develop tools that exploit as much as possible the information therein contained. PCR databases contain individual credit information on borrowers and their credits which makes it possible to implement advanced techniques that measure banks' credit risk exposure. It allows optimizing the prudential regulation ensuring that provisioning and capital requirements are properly calibrated to cover expected and unexpected losses respectively. It also permits validating banks' internal rating systems...

Corporate Governance and Bank Insolvency Risk : International Evidence

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, Kebin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
This paper finds that shareholder-friendly corporate governance is positively associated with bank insolvency risk, as proxied by the Z-score and the Merton's distance to default measure, for an international sample of banks over the 2004-08 period. Banks are special in that "good" corporate governance increases bank insolvency risk relatively more for banks that are large and located in countries with sound public finances, as banks aim to exploit the financial safety net. Good corporate governance is specifically associated with higher asset volatility, more nonperforming loans, and a lower tangible capital ratio. Furthermore, good corporate governance is associated with more bank risk-taking at times of rapid economic expansion. Consistent with increased risk-taking, good corporate governance is associated with a higher valuation of the implicit insurance provided by the financial safety net, especially in the case of large banks. These results underline the importance of the financial safety net and too-big-to-fail policies in encouraging excessive risk-taking by banks.

Nepal Economic Update, April 2014

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
The enabling environment for the development of Nepal has improved, but opportunities need to be effectively leveraged through focused policy action. Nepal has significant resources in the form of remittances from abroad, but the economy cannot use these resources in a productive manner to enhance the overall welfare of all citizens. Specific priorities for development include: (1) creating a growth promotion vision and agenda; (2) resolution of Nepal's "fiscal paradox"; (3) boosting investments; and (4) tackling enduring financial sector risks and managing excess. After a difficult year in FY13, the economy is poised to recover, albeit modestly. In FY13, Nepal achieved only modest growth of 3.6 percent. This was due largely to poor performance of the agricultural sector as well as very modest levels of industrial activity. Nepal s internal and external balances are sound but not for the right reasons. Low expenditure and robust revenue growth accounted for a large budget surplus and declining debt. Nepal s external position is comfortable because of large remittance inflows. On the external side...

Foreign Bank Subsidiaries' Default Risk During the Global Crisis : What Factors Help Insulate Affiliates from Their Parents?

Anginer, Deniz; Cerutti, Eugenio; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
This paper examines the association between the default risk of foreign bank subsidiaries and their parents during the global financial crisis, with the purpose of understanding what factors can help insulate affiliates from their parents. The paper finds evidence of a significant positive correlation between parent banks' and foreign subsidiaries' default risk. This correlation is lower for subsidiaries that have higher capital, retail deposit funding, and profitability ratios and that are more independently managed from their parents. Host country regulations also influence the extent to which shocks to the parents affect the subsidiaries' default risk. In particular, the correlation between the default risk of the subsidiary and the parent is lower for subsidiaries operating in countries that impose higher capital, reserve, provisioning, and disclosure requirements and tougher restrictions on bank activities.

How Does Corporate Governance Affect Bank Capitalization Strategies?

Anginer, Deniz; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry; Ma, Kebin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
This paper examines how corporate governance and executive compensation affected bank capitalization strategies for an international sample of banks in 2003-2011. "Good" corporate governance, which favors shareholder interests, is found to give rise to lower bank capitalization. Boards of intermediate size, separation of the chief executive officer and chairman roles, and an absence of anti-takeover provisions, in particular, lead to low bank capitalization. However, executive options and stock wealth invested in the bank are associated with better capitalization except just before the crisis in 2006. In that year, stock options wealth was associated with lower capitalization, which suggests that potential gains from taking on more bank risk outweighed the prospect of additional loss. Banks' tendencies to continue payouts to shareholders after experiencing negative income shocks are shown to reflect executive risk-taking incentives.

A gestão do risco em instituições bancárias: uma análise com recurso a medidas de avaliação da performance ajustadas ao risco

Rêgo, Paulo Henrique Félix
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto. Instituto Superior de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.91%
Dissertação de Mestrado apresentado ao Instituto de Contabilidade e Administração do Porto para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Auditoria sob orientação do Mestre Carlos Mota; Nota: 16 valores; A gestão do risco nas instituições financeiras tem sido um tema amplamente analisado na última década, fruto de diversas perturbações que ocorreram no setor bancário e que culminaram na falência de algumas instituições bancárias, como por exemplo o Lehman Brothers. Deste modo, os reguladores procuram mitigar cada vez mais o contágio que estes eventos possam ter no setor bancário, através de exigências mais elevadas de capital para fazer face a um potencial risco de falência. Com esta premissa de base, a elaboração deste trabalho terá como objeto a análise da gestão do risco em 9 grupos bancários internacionais com recurso a medidas de avaliação da performance ajustadas ao risco. Para tal, dividiu-se o estudo em dois casos práticos distintos, sendo que o primeiro incidirá na análise dos ativos ponderados pelo risco e a sua relação com a rentabilidade, com a estrutura de custos, com as provisões de crédito e com a detenção do capital exigido. O segundo estudo, demonstrará com base em dados hipotéticos e através da adoção da medida de retorno de capital ajustado ao risco...

Do Strict Capital Requirements Raise the Cost of Capital? Bank Regulation, Capital Structure and the Low Risk Anomaly

Baker, Malcolm P.; Wurgler, Jeffrey
Fonte: American Economic Association Publicador: American Economic Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.02%
Traditional capital structure theory predicts that reducing banks' leverage reduces the risk and cost of equity but does not change the weighted average cost of capital, and thus the rates for borrowers. We confirm that the equity of better-capitalized banks has lower beta and idiosyncratic risk. However, over the last 40 years, lower-risk banks have not had lower costs of equity (lower stock returns), consistent with a stock market anomaly previously documented in other samples. A calibration suggests that a binding 10 percentage point increase in Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets could double banks' risk premia over Treasury bills.

Regulação bancária : relação entre rácios de solvabilidade e carteiras de activos

Barbudo, João Luís Lopes
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Mestrado em Economia Monetária e Financeira; Os rácios de solvabilidade representam uma das vertentes mais importantes da regulação bancária, permitindo às instituições financeiras transparecer credibilidade. Neste sentido, os bancos quando são obrigados a aumentar os rácios de solvabilidade, não só para cumprirem com o estipulado nos Acordos de Basileia, mas também para passarem nos testes de stress, podem-no fazer por duas vias. O primeiro caminho passa pelo aumento do rácio através de um aumento do seu numerador, ou seja, através de um aumento de capital. A segunda via passa pela diminuição do denominador do rácio, através da diminuição da ponderação do risco nos activos. Com efeito, o objectivo deste trabalho é analisar esta segunda via, onde se testa se os rácios de solvabilidade dos bancos portugueses influenciam a escolha da carteira de activos. É possível concluir que: (i) os bancos com pouca capacidade de capital tendem a alterar a sua carteira de activos; (ii) os bancos preferem diminuir os activos com maior ponderação de risco, nomeadamente os empréstimos concedidos.; The capital ratios represent one of the most important aspects of banking regulation, allowing financial institutions to look through credibility. In this sense...