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A sustentabilidade financeira das cooperativas de crédito rural: um estudo de caso no Estado de São Paulo; Rural credit unions financial sustainability: case study in the São Paulo state

Naves, Carolina de Figueiredo Balieiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
89.89826%
Por causa da presença de informações assimétricas e de problemas como seleção adversa e moral hazard, o meio rural é pouco atrativo para o sistema financeiro vigente. Os mecanismos de seleção e monitoramento de clientes exibem custos altos, e, podem interferir no desempenho econômico de instituições financeiras. As instituições devem ser eficientes, e, trabalhar com baixas taxas de juros, de inadimplência, e de custos de transação, para serem auto-sustentáveis. As cooperativas de crédito rural, que não visam lucros, exercem taxas de juros e tarifas inferiores às cobradas pelo mercado. Foi objetivo dessa pesquisa analisar a sustentabilidade financeira das cooperativas de crédito rural. Por meio da revisão bibliográfica de teorias econômicas, de trabalhos científicos sobre custos de transação e capital social, verificou-se que alguns custos de transação são menores para as cooperativas, se comparadas com outras instituições financeiras, já que são formadas por produtores rurais de certa região, amenizando os riscos de suas transações. Além disso, certas peculiaridades das cooperativas são minimizadoras de dispêndios operacionais. Foi proposto um modelo, adaptado da análise de desempenho econômico de instituições financeiras...

Distribuição de resultados e desempenho de cooperativas de crédito: estudo comparativo no estado de São Paulo; Distribution of results and performance of credit unions: a comparative study in the state of São Paulo

Barroso, Marcelo Francini Girão
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.608916%
Cooperativas de crédito são criadas como extensão da economia de seus cooperados e com objetivo de prestar serviços financeiros a eles. Atuam similarmente a outros tipos de instituições financeiras, captando depósitos de usuários superavitários de liquidez, oferecendo crédito a usuários deficitários e prestando serviços diversos de pagamentos e compensação de documentos. Uma das diferenças fundamentais, entretanto, é que nas cooperativas os usuários são também os proprietários, destinatários portanto da divisão das sobras operacionais resíduo financeiro geradas pela organização periodicamente. Sobras em cooperativas de crédito, assim como lucro em instituições financeiras de propriedade de investidores, advêm do superávit gerado nas operações com os usuários. Em cooperativas, entretanto, o superávit é gerado em operações com os próprios sócios, devendo lhes ser devolvidas posteriormente e proporcionalmente às operações que as deram origem. Essa devolução pode ser feita como depósito à vista nas respectivas contas correntes, ou como integralização de quota-parte nas contas de capital social; ou ainda, partes maiores ou menores dessas sobras podem ser alocadas em reservas e provisões indivisíveis aos cooperados...

Importância das cooperativas de crédito para fornecedores de cana-de-açucar: um estudo de caso; Importance of credit unions for sugarcane suppliers: a case study

Paredes, Carlos Andres Oñate
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.6891%
Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a importância das instituições cooperativas no mercado de crédito rural do Brasil, focando principalmente na visão de quem demanda empréstimos e tomando como estudo de caso a Cooperativa de Crédito Rural dos Fornecedores de Cana e Agropecuaristas da Região de Piracicaba - COCREFOCAPI. Discute-se a influência dos vários fatores presentes na decisão dos cooperados em escolher a COCREFOCAPI como principal instituição financiadora, e além disso, analisa-se as características socioeconômicas dos fornecedores de canade- açúcar da região de Piracicaba, sendo este público o alvo desta pesquisa. Para a análise empírica, foram elaborados e testados quatro modelos econométricos de resposta qualitativa, além de um conjunto de análises descritivas. Os dados foram obtidos através das bases do sistema de informação da COCREFOCAPI, e em especial, da utilização de um conjunto de questionários aplicados a uma amostra significativa de fornecedores de cana-de-açúcar cooperados da instituição. Os resultados mostraram que embora a política da COCREFOCAPI esteja focada em financiar principalmente a lavoura de cana-de-açúcar, foi observado que um grupo expressivo de entrevistados diversificam suas atividades econômicas...

Os Bancos de Custeio Rural e o crédito agrícola em São Paulo (1906-1914); The Bancos de Custeio Rural and the agricultural credit in São Paulo (1906-1914)

Corrêa, Fábio Rogério Cassimiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/09/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.382036%
O sistema de financiamento da cafeicultura evoluiu no processo da transição do trabalho escravo para o livre, ocasionando o aumento da demanda do crédito para o custeio anual da safra sobre os empréstimos de longo prazo exigidos durante o regime escravista. Por outro lado, a crise dos preços do café ocorrida entre 1896 e 1906 evidenciou as limitações do sistema de financiamento existente que estava baseado nos adiantamentos fornecidos por comerciantes. As novas necessidades de crédito e o crescente clima de descontentamento com os mecanismos comerciais de financiamento acabariam por suscitar propostas de intervenção do Estado com políticas de crédito agrícola a serem organizadas ou subsidiadas pelo governo do Estado de São Paulo e que viriam a ser concretizadas na esteira do programa de valorização do café, adotado em 1906. Tais intervenções incluiriam a criação de bancos agrícolas e o incentivo às cooperativas rurais de crédito, das quais os chamados Bancos de Custeio Rural são os primeiros experimentos desse tipo no estado e constituem nosso objeto de estudo. Os Bancos de Custeio Rural formaram uma rede de cooperativas de crédito, que atuou entre 1906 e 1914 no interior do estado de São Paulo. Esses bancos emprestavam apenas aos fazendeiros associados o valor demandado no financiamento anual da lavoura. Tendo surgido no contexto da crise cafeeira de 1896-1906...

Credit Constraints and Investment Behavior in Mexico’s Rural Economy

Love, Inessa; Sanchez, Susana M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper uses two recently completed surveys of individual entrepreneurs (farmers and microentrepreneurs) and registered enterprises (agricultural and nonagricultural) operating in Mexico s rural sector to provide new evidence about the factors influencing the incidence of credit constraints and investment behavior. To measure the incidence of credit constraints, the authors use self-reported information on whether economic agents have a demand for loans, separating formal and informal markets. They define credit constraints as a situation where rural agents report an unsatisfied demand for loans (formal or informal), which originates from rural agents having projects that are too risky or from impediments hindering the ability of rural agents and lenders to reduce information asymmetries. The authors find that the self-reported demand for loans is low. Nevertheless, the incidence of credit constraints is pervasive, especially among individual entrepreneurs. The low use of loans has consequences for the amount of investments that occur in the rural economy...

Providing Financial Services in Rural Areas : A Fresh Look at Financial Cooperatives

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report demonstrates that financial cooperatives can be sustainable providers of financial services in rural areas and development assistance needs to consider supporting them as a means to enhance access to rural finance. It does not suggest that financial cooperatives are the only providers or the preferred channel in all circumstances. For financial cooperatives to function as sustainable institutions, governments need to provide an enabling environment, not exercise excessive control that restricts growth and consolidation, and not use them as channels to provide subsidized credit. Integration into networks has wide-ranging benefits for financial cooperatives, ranging from improved governance to the ability to provide a wide range of services.

Microfinance Institutions and Credit Unions in Albania : Regulatory, Supervisory and Market Development Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.86201%
The objective of this report is to present an assessment of the current legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework in Albania for microfinance, as well as an assessment of institutions rendering microfinance services (MFIs), including the Savings and Credit Associations (SCAs) and credit unions (CUs), to identify future development priorities. Economic conditions have improved in Albania in recent years, but a significant percentage of the population is still considered below the poverty level. The report lists future development priorities for the SCAs and MFIs, emphasizing poverty reduction through microfinancing. Several MFIs, and one CU, expressed some desire to borrow from the World Bank. The report finds this promising, as long as it does not crowd out commercial sources that serve to integrate MFIs, CUs, and SCAs into the larger financial sector. The growth of SCAs might be enhanced by further consolidation of smaller SCAs into larger SCAs. Mergers based on joint objectives and bounds can expand the geographical coverage and clientele base...

Niger - Rural Financial Services : Expanding Financial Access to the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.591387%
The main objective of this study is to identify the major impediments to access to financial services in rural areas, and provide practical recommendations to address the identified problems. The study aims to inform on rural finance policies and innovative instruments by examining both supply and demand sides including an identification of non-financial issues that restrict development of the rural financial sector. Addressing the lack of rural access to financial services in the Niger development process continues to figure prominently on the Government agenda without, however, a systematic action plan and strategy. Adopting ad hoc solutions (such as the creation of an agricultural development bank) without addressing the structural issues that limit access to financial services will, unfortunately, not yield any positive long lasting results.

Credit Constraints, Agricultural Productivity, and Rural Nonfarm Participation : Evidence from Rwanda

Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Deininger, Klaus; Duponchel, Marguerite
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Although the potentially negative impacts of credit constraints on economic development have long been discussed conceptually, empirical evidence for Africa remains limited. This study uses a direct elicitation approach for a national sample of Rwandan rural households to assess empirically the extent and nature of credit rationing in the semi-formal sector and its impact using an endogenous sample separation between credit-constrained and unconstrained households. Being credit constrained reduces the likelihood of participating in off-farm self-employment activities by about 6.3 percent while making participation in low-return farm wage labor more likely. Even within agriculture, elimination of all types of credit constraints in the semi-formal sector could increase output by some 17 percent. Two suggestions for policy emerge from the findings. First, the estimates suggest that access to information (education, listening to the radio, and membership in a farm cooperative) has a major impact on reducing the incidence of credit constraints in the semi-formal credit sector. Expanding access to information in rural areas thus seems to be one of the most promising strategies to improve credit access in the short term. Second...

Corporate Governance in Microfinance Institutions

Di Benedetta, Pasquale; Lieberman, Ira W.; Ard, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper is organized as follows: this introduction is followed by a primer on the industry and on the evolution of the microfinance sector. The authors then examine the structure of the microfinance industry, (a) NGOs, cooperatives and credit unions, and commercialized vehicles; how they differ and why corporate governance differs according to the nature of the MFI; and (b) large networks, investment and bank-holding groups, and social services/faith-based groups. The authors then consider how corporate governance evolves and develops in MFIs as their structure and ownership changes. This is followed by an examination of the recurring issues and growing risks in the microfinance industry. The authors conclude with a look at the responses of governments, investors, and the industry itself to these issues and risks and propose some next steps.

Georgia : Agricultural and Rural Enterprise Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.50903%
The report is structured as follows. Section one examines the contribution of the rural economy to the national economy, the structure of the farm and non-farm sectors and their relative importance. Section two describes policies and constraints affecting the wider rural economy including, reforms in macro-economic management, recent external influences and financial services before discussing those which relate specifically to agriculture including, agricultural trade policy, land reform, agricultural machinery services , irrigation and drainage, seeds, sanitary and phytosanitary control and veterinary services, marketing and advisory services. Section three assesses the outcomes of these policies on the structure and performance of the rural economy. Section four describes the extent to which policy makers should prioritize the farm and non-farm sectors in rural areas and then presents recommendations for reform. While it is recognized that rural infrastructure (roads, potable water, and energy) and rural social services have a major impact on the rural economy...

Kyrgyz Republic : Access to Financial Services Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.528745%
The purpose of this paper is to report on the level of access to formal financial services in the Kyrgyz Republic, assess the key obstacles to improving access, and make recommendations to overcome these obstacles. The paper is organized as follows. Sections II to IV examine the supply of financial services. Specifically, section II presents a profile of financial intermediation by banks, focusing their supply of financial services, particularly lending and deposits. Section III presents a profile of lending by Aiyl Bank, a specialized bank with a limited license, which is mandated to lend for agriculture. Section IV presents a profile of lending by non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs), including microfinance organizations (MFOs) and credit unions. Section V examines the demand side for financial services, drawing on enterprise surveys to assess firms' perceptions of their access to finance. Section VI presents a brief analysis of the impact of the events of April 2010 on access to finance. Section VII discusses key obstacles in increasing access to finance from banks and NBFIs. Section VIII concludes with policy recommendations that derive from the preceding analysis.

Turkey : Rural Finance Study, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
50.091143%
Over the past five years in Turkey, the agricultural and rural sector has seen substantial change in transfer policies which now place greater emphasis on improved equity and investment. These have been summarized in the earlier World Bank "Review of the Impact of the Reform of Agricultural Sector Subsidization (2004), and "Policy and Investment Priorities for Agricultural and Rural Development" (2005). Currently, the structural changes in the agricultural sector and rural employment generation in response to labor shedding in the agricultural sector are key challenges to which Turkey is responding in the design of and agricultural and rural development strategy. However, the impact of government transfers and public investment policies in the rural sector will be limited unless the supply of, access to, and demand for rural financial services is significantly increased. For these reasons, the Turkey Rural Finance study (RFS) seeks to establish a policy agenda for the Government of Turkey (GOT) in order to contribute to the effort of renewed growth of the rural financial system after a period of prolonged decline. In order to inform this policy agenda...

Turkey : Rural Finance Study, Volume 2. Expanded Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.64367%
Over the past five years in Turkey, the agricultural and rural sector has seen substantial change in transfer policies which now place greater emphasis on improved equity and investment. These have been summarized in the earlier World Bank "Review of the Impact of the Reform of Agricultural Sector Subsidization (2004), and "Policy and Investment Priorities for Agricultural and Rural Development" (2005). Currently, the structural changes in the agricultural sector and rural employment generation in response to labor shedding in the agricultural sector are key challenges to which Turkey is responding in the design of and agricultural and rural development strategy. However, the impact of government transfers and public investment policies in the rural sector will be limited unless the supply of, access to, and demand for rural financial services is significantly increased. For these reasons, the Turkey Rural Finance study (RFS) seeks to establish a policy agenda for the Government of Turkey (GOT) in order to contribute to the effort of renewed growth of the rural financial system after a period of prolonged decline. In order to inform this policy agenda...

Reform of China's Rural Credit Unions : Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
90.238%
The reform of the Rural Credit Unions (RCUs) currently faces a number of major inter-related challenges. These must be resolved if China is to create a 'modern rural financial system'. The key issues facing policy-makers are: Consolidating independent shareholder ownership in order to realize effective corporate governance and create sustainable commercial financial institutions; reshaping the relationship between provincial governments and the RCU system in order to bring to an end direct government administrative intervention in RCU management; preventing government subsidies and special policies, which are intended to ensure that RCUs meet policy goals to support the rural economy, from generating rent-seeking behavior and moral hazards that undermine commercial sustainability; and enabling the growth of a diverse range of rural financial institutions that would create competition and force greater efficiencies in rural financial markets. Policy reforms since 2003 have sought to address these issues...

Rural Financial Services : Implementing the Bank's Strategy to Reach the Rural Poor

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.887812%
This paper discusses rural finance aspects of the World Bank's rural development strategy, "Reaching the Rural Poor" (see report no. 26763) by giving an overview of recent implementation experience, discussing current issues, and highlighting priorities for the future. The primary objective is to articulate how the Bank views current best practices in rural finance and attempts to incorporate them into its operations, as a common frame of reference for policymakers in client countries, Bank staff, and other donor agencies. In the process, it provides some operational guidance on the types of instruments suited to different circumstances, although it is not intended as a toolkit for project design. Four sections make up this report. Section II explores the characteristics of rural financial markets and constraints to their development, analyzes why the traditional paradigm of directed agricultural credit was replaced by a financial systems approach, and explains how this new paradigm is incorporated into institutional policies. Section III reviews recent implementation experience of Bank RMF operations and emerging issues. Section IV develops approaches for strengthening implementation of the Bank's strategy for rural financial market development at the levels of macro policies...

The State of Microfinance in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States

Forster, Sarah; Greene, Seth; Pytkowska, Justyna
Fonte: CGAP and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: CGAP and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.434824%
This report is based on the first empirical study of the microfinance industry in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States (CEE and NIS). The main source of its findings is a survey of the region's microfinance institutions (MFIs) and funders conducted in 2001 by the Microfinance Centre for Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States, headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. The study achieved its four main goals: 1) the creation of an empirically based, comprehensive picture of the current state of the microfinance industry in the region; 2) a comparison of the performance of the region's main organizational models for microfinance delivery credit unions, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 'downscaling' commercial banks, and 'Greenfield' microfinance banks; 3) an analysis of the main barriers to growth and development confronting microfinance in the region specifically, access to finance and legal and regulatory constraints; and 4) a framework for action for the region's various microfinance actors...

Causes and Implications of Credit Rationing in Rural Ethiopia : The Importance of Spatial Variation

Ayalew Ali, Daniel; Deininger, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.84507%
This paper uses Ethiopian data to explore credit rationing in semi-formal credit markets and its effects on farmers' resource allocation and crop productivity. Credit rationing -- both voluntarily and involuntarily -- is found to be widespread in the sampled rural villages, largely because of risk-related factors. Political and social networks emerge as key determinants of access to credit among smallholder, peasant farmers. Significant regional variation emerges as well. In high-potential, surplus producing areas where credit is largely used for agricultural production, eliminating credit constraints is estimated to increase productivity by roughly 11 percentage points. By contrast, in low-productivity, drought prone areas where loans were rarely used to acquire inputs for crop production, the authors find no relationship between credit rationing and agricultural productivity. To be effective, efforts to improve agricultural productivity not only need to increase credit supply, but also explore the reasons for credit rationing and the availability of productive opportunities.

Análise de insolvência das cooperativas de crédito rural do estado de Minas Gerais

Bressan, Valéria Gama Fully; Braga, Marcelo José; Lima, João Eustáquio de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.87293%
Credit unions are an alternative to make possible to the agricultural producer access for credit obtaining. The reduction of the official agricultural loan program and the implementation of the monetary stabilization plan of 1994 caused changes in the Brazilian financial system. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate, from the financial structure, the state of solvency of the rural credit unions, by the verification of financial indicators. It was used the Logit Model and the sample was formed from the credit unions of the Minas Gerais State, Brazil, between 1998 and 2001. The results indicated that the relevant ratios for insolvency prediction were capitalization, volunteer covering e total capitation growth. It was also verified that, in august 2001, 98,6% of the agricultural credit cooperatives were in solvency state, suggesting the importance and effectiveness of system as a supplier for the credit needs of the agricultural producers.; O cooperativismo de crédito rural é uma alternativa que possibilita ao produtor facilidades na obtenção de financiamento. A redução do volume de Crédito Rural oficial e a implementação do Plano Real provocaram mudanças no sistema financeiro. Nesse contexto, buscou-se avaliar, a partir da estrutura financeira...

Studying the financial resources for agri-food industry and rural development: Description of human capital in credit unions through delphi analysis

Seguí-Mas,Elies; Server Izquierdo,Ricardo J
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.71707%
Credit unions have been a key element for recent agri-food industry and rural development. However, whereas there are practical applications implemented in banks, there are rarely empirical studies about this legal form of banking system. Nowadays, the financial crisis is affecting the development of certain industries and territories. Credit unions, as singular financial organizations, have intangible elements with peculiar characteristics. These characteristics must be studied to manage their competitive advantages and provide management with relevant information for decision making. Through the Delphi analysis, this article will identify the singularities of human capital in these entities. The singularities of the credit union sector show that human resources are potentially more determined to adopt a strong corporate culture and invest more in training. On the other hand, main deficits of credit unions will be their aptitudes and lesser capacities, academic level or low investment in training.