Free proline increased in leaves of orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. cv. Valencia) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Star Ruby) trees on a wide range of citrus rootstocks during cold hardening. Increases in sugars accompanied proline accumulation. During cold hardening, the rate of proline accumulation was greater in old than in young leaves. In leaves of grapefruit trees kept in the dark during cold hardening, neither proline nor sugars increased and the degree of cold hardiness was less than in trees exposed to light. Like sugar accumulations, proline accumulation does not reflect specific degrees of cold hardiness in citrus cultivars.
Carotenoids are the main pigments responsible of the colouration of Citrus fruits. The β-cyclization of lycopene, catalysed by the lycopene β-cyclases (β-LCY), seems to be a key regulatory step of the carotenoid pathway. In the present study, two β-LCYs from orange fruits (Citrus sinensis), named Csβ-LCY1 and Csβ-LCY2 have been isolated and the activity of the encoded proteins was demonstrated by functional analysis. Csβ-LCY1 was expressed at low levels and remained relatively constant during fruit ripening while Csβ-LCY2 showed a chromoplast-specific expression and a marked induction in both peel and pulp of orange fruits in parallel with the accumulation of β,β-xanthophylls. The potential involvement of Csβ-LCY2 in the accumulation of lycopene, characteristic of some Citrus species such as red grapefruits, was investigated. Expression of Csβ-LCY2 and another seven carotenoid biosynthetic genes were studied in the peel and pulp of the high lycopene-accumulating grapefruit, Star Ruby, and compared with those of ordinary Navel orange. In Star Ruby, the accumulation of lycopene during fruit maturation was associated with a substantial reduction in the expression of both β-LCY2 and β-CHX genes with respect to Navel orange. Moreover...
A citricultura é uma das mais importantes cadeias produtivas do agronegócio brasileiro, gerando mais de 1,5 bilhão de dólares por ano e destacando- se nos setores econômico e social. De acordo com a FAO, em 2008 a produção mundial de laranjas foi de 67,6 milhões de toneladas, tendo o Brasil à posição de líder, com a produção de 18,3 milhões de toneladas, seguido pelos EUA, Índia, México e China (FAO, 2008). Apesar desse destaque na produção mundial de citros, o Brasil ainda apresenta deficiências quanto à qualidade da fruta para consumo ?in natura? (PEREIRA et al., 2006).; 2012
We report the discovery of a ring-like cluster complex in the starburst
galaxy NGC 2146. The Ruby Ring, so named due to its appearance, shows a clear
ring-like distribution of star clusters around a central object. It is located
in one of the tidal streams which surround the galaxy. NGC 2146 is part of the
Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). The WFC3/F336W data has added
critical information to the available archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging
set of NGC 2146, allowing us to determine ages, masses, and extinctions of the
clusters in the Ruby Ring. These properties have then been used to investigate
the formation of this extraordinary system. We find evidence of a spatial and
temporal correlation between the central cluster and the clusters in the ring.
The latter are about 4 Myr younger than the central cluster, which has an age
of 7 Myr. This result is supported by the H alpha emission which is strongly
coincident with the ring, and weaker at the position of the central cluster.
From the derived total H alpha luminosity of the system we constrain the star
formation rate density to be quite high, e.g. ~ 0.47 Msun/yr/kpc^2. The Ruby
Ring is the product of an intense and localised burst of star formation,
similar to the extended cluster complexes observed in M51 and the Antennae...
We present the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS), an ongoing deep
U-band imaging survey of nearby star-forming galaxies. Thanks to the
information provided by the U band, together with archival Hubble Space
Telescope (HST) optical data, we are able to constrain reliable ages, masses,
and extinctions of the cluster populations of these galaxies. We show some
preliminary results from the study of one of the SHUCS galaxies, NGC 2146.
Using the recovered cluster ages we try to understand the propagation of the
star formation in one of the tidal streams where a ring-like cluster complex
has been found. The Ruby Ring, so named due to its appearance, shows a clear
ring-like distribution of star clusters around a central object. We find
evidence of a spatial and temporal correlation between the central cluster and
the clusters in the ring. The Ruby Ring is the product of an intense and
localised burst of star formation, similar to the extended cluster complexes
observed in M 51 and the Antennae, but more impressive because is quite
isolated. We discuss the formation of the Ruby Ring in a "collect & collapse"
framework. The predictions made by this model agree quite well with the
estimated bubble radius and expansion velocity produced by the feedback from
the central cluster...
From tendencies to reduce the Underground Railroad to the imperative "follow the north star" to the iconic images of Ruby Bridges' 1960 "step forward" on the stairs of William Frantz Elementary School, America prefers to picture freedom as an upwardly mobile development. This preoccupation with the subtractive and linear force of development makes it hard to hear the palpable steps of so many truant children marching in the Movement and renders illegible the nonlinear movements of minors in the Underground. Yet a black fugitive hugging a tree, a white boy walking alone in a field, or even pieces of a discarded raft floating downstream like remnants of child's play are constitutive gestures of the Underground's networks of care and escape. Responding to 19th-century Americanists and cultural studies scholars' important illumination of the child as central to national narratives of development and freedom, "Minor Moves" reads major literary narratives not for the child and development but for the fugitive trace of minor and growth.
In four chapters, I trace the physical gestures of Nathaniel Hawthorne's Pearl, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Topsy, Harriet Wilson's Frado, and Mark Twain's Huck against the historical backdrop of the Fugitive Slave Act and the passing of the first compulsory education bills that made truancy illegal. I ask how...
Los carotenoides y la vitamina C son componentes importantes de la calidad nutricional y organoléptica en los frutos cítricos. Los frutos de pomelo rojo deben su coloración a la presencia de licopeno, un caroteno lineal de color rojo, tanto en la piel como en la pulpa, una característica muy inusual en los frutos cítricos. Esta propiedad le confiere a los frutos un interés especial dada la gran actividad antioxidante de este compuesto y sus posibles beneficios para la salud. La conservación refrigerada es una práctica habitual durante la postcosecha de los frutos cítricos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la temperatura de conservación en el contenido de carotenoides y vitamina C en la piel y la pulpa de frutos de pomelo rojo Star Ruby (SR). Los resultados indican que los frutos almacenados hasta ocho semanas a 12 ºC alcanzan concentraciones de carotenoides totales en la piel tres a cuatro veces superiores a las de los frutos mantenidos a 2 ºC. La mayor temperatura de almacenamiento (12 ºC) potenció la acumulación de los carotenos lineales (fitoeno, fitoflueno y licopeno) y se observó una disminución de los carotenoides derivados del licopeno (b-caroteno y xantofilas). De forma similar, el contenido en vitamina C se incrementó ligeramente en la piel de los frutos conservados a 12 ºC. Sin embargo...