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Addressing conflicts of interest in the research paper: a societal demand in contemporary science?

Vasconcelos,S.M.R.; Cassimiro,M.C.; Martins,M.F.M.; Palacios,M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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In the last decade, dialogue between science and society has found a forum in an increasing number of publications on topics such as public engagement with science and public trust in science. Concerning the latter, issues that include cases of research misconduct, accountability in research, and conflicts of interest (COIs) have shaped global discussions on the communication of science. In the publication setting, the perception that hiding COIs and/or not managing them well may affect public trust in the research record has grown among editors. We conducted a search for editorials addressing COIs between 1989 and 2011, using four major databases: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge. We explored the content of these editorials and the relationship they established between COIs and the public trust in science. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between disclosure of COIs and public trust in science has become a major concern among editors. We, thus, argue that COIs should be discussed more openly and frequently in graduate courses in the sciences, around the globe, not only in biomedical but also in non-biomedical areas. This is a critical issue in contemporary science, as graduate students are the future voices and decision-makers of the research community. Therefore...

Digital technology and copyright law

Beland, Christopher D. (Christopher David), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 108 p.; 337506 bytes; 337266 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Christopher D. Beland.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Science, Technology, and Society, 2002.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 88-108).; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.

Expositions, museums, and technological display : building cultural institutions for the "inventor citizen" in the late nineteenth century United States

Endersby, Linda Eikmeier, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 274 leaves; 28544987 bytes; 28544745 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Linda Eikmeier Endersby.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Science, Technology and Society, 1999.; Vita.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 254-273).

Foreign Knowledge or art nation, earthquake nation : architecture, seismology, carpentry, the West, and Japan, 1876-1923; Architecture, seismology, carpentry, the West, and Japan, 1876-1923

Clancey, Gregory K
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 203 leaves; 22942259 bytes; 22942010 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Gregory K. Clancey.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Science, Technology and Society, 1999.; Includes bibliographical references.

Technologies of living substance : tissue culture and cellular life in twentieth century biomedicine

Landecker, Hannah L. (Hannah Louise), 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (380 leaves); 29841845 bytes; 29841604 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Hannah L. Landecker.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Science, Technology and Society, February 2000.; Includes bibliographical references (v. 2, leaves 357-380).

Human cloning : science, ethics, policy, society

Reza, Faisal, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 2969417 bytes; 2969226 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Faisal Reza.; Thesis (B.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Program in Science, Technology, and Society, 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 73-74).

Trucking country : food politics and the transformation of rural life in Postwar America; Food politics and the transformation of rural life in Postwar America

Hamilton, Shane, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (423 p.)
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Trucking replaced railroads as the primary link between rural producers and urban consumers in the mid-twentieth century. With this technological change came a fundamental transformation of the defining features of rural life after World War II. Trucking helped drive the shift from a New Deal-era political economy-based on centralized political authority, a highly regulated farm and food economy, and collective social values-to a postwar framework of anti-statism, minimal market regulation, and fierce individualism. Trucking and rural truck drivers were at the heart of what I call the "marketing machine," a new kind of food economy that arose after World War II, characterized by decentralized food processors and supermarkets seeking high volume, low prices, and consistent quality to eliminate uncertainties from the food distribution chain. This marketing machine developed as a reaction against the statist food and farm policies of the New Deal. Government agricultural experts-economists, engineers, and policymakers-encouraged the growth of highway transportation in an effort to redefine the "farm problem" as an industrial problem, an issue to be solved by rural food processors and non-unionized "independent" truck drivers rather than price supports or acreage controls.; by Shane L. Hamilton.; Thesis (Ph. D. in History and Social Study of Science and Technology (HASTS))--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Medicating race : heart disease and durable preoccupations with difference

Pollock, Anne, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 350 p.
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This dissertation is an examination of intersections of race, pharmaceuticals, and heart disease over the course of the 20th century and today. Each of these parts has had a dynamic history, and when they are invoked together they provide a terrain for arguments about interventions in health and in justice in the present. An enduring aspect of discourses of heart disease over the past century has been articulating connections between characterizations of the modem American way of life and of heart disease. In that process, heart disease research and practice has participated in differentiating Americans, especially by race. This dissertation uses heart disease categories and the drugs prescribed for them as windows into racialized medicine. The chapters are organized in a way that is roughly chronological, beginning with the emergence of cardiology as a specialty just before World War II and the landmark longitudinal Framingham Heart Study that began shortly thereafter. A central chapter tracks the emergence and mobilization of African American hypertension as a disease category since the 1960s.; (cont.) Two final chapters attend to current racial invocations of two pharmaceuticals: thiazide and BiDil. Using methods from critical historiography of race...

Modeling proteins, making scientists : an ethnography of pedagogy and visual cultures in contemporary structural biology; Ethnography of pedagogy and visual cultures in contemporary structural biology

Myers, Natasha
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 277 p.
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This ethnography tracks visualization and pedagogy in the burgeoning field of structural biology. Structural biologists are a multidisciplinary group of researchers who produce models and animations of protein molecules using three-dimensional interactive computer graphics. As they ramp up the pace of structure determination, modeling a vast array of proteins, these researchers are shifting life science research agendas from decoding genetic sequence data to interpreting the multidimensional forms of molecular life. One major hurdle they face is training a new generation of scientists to work with multi-dimensional data forms. In this study I document the formation and propagation of tacit knowledge in structural biology laboratories, in classrooms, and at conferences. This research shows that structural biologists-in-training must cultivate a feel for proteins in order to visualize and interpret their activity in cells. I find that protein modeling relies heavily on a set of practices I call the body-work of modeling. These tacit skills include: a) forms of kinesthetic knowledge that structural biologists gain through building and manipulating molecular models, and by using their own bodies as mimetic models to help them figure out how proteins move and interact; and b) narrative strategies that assume a teleological relationship between form and function...

Bodies of information : reinventing bodies and practice in medical education; Reinventing bodies and practice in medical education

Prentice, Rachel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 253 p.
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This dissertation recounts the development of graphic models of human bodies and virtual reality simulators for teaching anatomy and surgery to medical students, residents, and physicians. It considers how researchers from disciplinary cultures in medicine, engineering, and computer programming come together to build these technologies, bringing with them values and assumptions about bodies from each of their disciplines, values and assumptions that must be negotiated and that often are made material and embedded in these new technologies. It discusses how the technological objects being created privilege the body as a dynamic and interactive system, in contrast to the description and taxonomic body of traditional anatomy and medicine. It describes the ways that these technologies create new sensory means of knowing bodies. And it discusses the larger cultural values that these technologies reify or challenge. The methodology of this dissertation is ethnography. I consider in-depth one laboratory at a major medical school, as well as other laboratories and researchers in the field of virtual medicine. I study actors in the emerging field of virtual medicine as they work in laboratories, at conferences, and in collaborations with one another. I consider the social formations that are developing with this new discipline. Methods include participant observation of laboratory activities...

Characterizing radio channels : the science and technology of propagation and interference, 1900-1935

Yeang, Chen-Pang.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 429 p.
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Guglielmo Marconi's trans-Atlantic wireless experiment in 1900 marked the beginning of a communication revolution that transformed the open space above the earth into channels of information flow. This dissertation grapples with the historical conditions that gave rise to such a transformation: the studies of radio-wave propagation and the treatments of radio interferences in early twentieth-century America and Western Europe. The part on propagation examines the debate between the surface diffraction theory and the atmospheric reflection theory for long waves, the development of the ionic refraction theory for short waves, the evidential quests for the existence of the ionosphere, and the studies of the geomagnetic effects on propagation. The part on interferences focuses on the engineering efforts toward the characterization of atmospheric noise and signal-intensity fluctuations, the policies of radio-channel allocation for fighting man-made interference, and the scientific research into electronic tube noise. By the mid-30s, the results from these endeavors had considerably improved the quality of radio communication. Characterizing Radio Channels builds a bridge between the history of science and the history of technology by inspecting an immaterial engineering entity--radio channels--whose control required significant scientific research. In the history of science...

The State Machine : politics, ideology, and computation in Chile, 1964-1973

Miller Medina, Jessica Eden
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (392 leaves)
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This dissertation argues that Chile's history of computing is tightly interwoven with the history of the Chilean state. It begins by documenting the government use of mechanical tabulating machines during the 1920s and 1930s and concludes with the disbanding of the state computer enterprise known as ECOM in 1991. The dissertation pays particular attention to the period between 1964 and 1973, which was marked by the presidencies of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva and Socialist Salvador Allende Gossens. The dissertation addresses three central questions. First, it asks how Chilean economic policies and political events shaped the country's technological history. Second, it asks what we can learn from computers if we treat them as texts for understanding historical processes in Chile, the Latin American region, and the developing world. Finally, it addresses how Chile's political leaders used computing machines in their attempts to control Chile's social, economic, and political development and to forward their plans to modernize the Chilean nation. It argues that computers proved valuable not only in producing the Chile of today but in articulating national goals that changed over time.; (cont.) Government, use of computers both reflected and made possible the ideological programs of developmentalism...

Manufacturing muscle : the hot rod industry and the American fascination with speed, 1915-1984

Lucsko, David Nicholas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (437 p.)
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This dissertation focuses on the pursuits of a particular subset of automobile users: hot rodders, those who modify their standard production automobiles for improved performance. More specifically, this project examines the history of the speed equipment industry - the aftermarket subsector which manufactures high-performance products for hot rodders - from its infancy in the 1910s through the mid 1980s. The thesis begins by examining the role of technological enthusiasm in the early growth of hot rodding, focusing in particular on the ways in which this enthusiasm led a handful of individuals to begin to manufacture high-performance parts in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. After tracing the wartime experiences of these industry pioneers, the project then explores the ways in which, in the midst of America's postwar affluence, the spectacular growth both of the high-performance industry and of hot rodding itself helped spawn the youth-oriented musclecar movement upon which the Big Three would later feed. In its examination of the 1940s and 1950s, the dissertation closely examines the evolution of this industry's production methods in an attempt to understand the manufacturing dynamics of a market-sensitive, flexibly-oriented, late-twentieth-century industrial sector.; (cont.) The thesis then explores the ways in which this industry dealt with automotive safety and environmental legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes with a discussion of the fragmentation of the hot rod market during the 1970s and 1980s...

Japan and Taiwan in the wake of bio-globalization : drugs, race and standards

Kuo, Wen-Hua
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 545 p.
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This is a study of Japan and Taiwan's different responses to the expansion of the global drug industry. The thesis focuses on the problematic of "voicing," of how a state can make its interests heard in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH is a unique project that facilitates the formation of a single global market by creating universal standards for clinical trials and drug approvals. Tracing, through "slow motion" ethnography, step by step, why Japan claims a racial difference requires additional local clinical trials with "Asian bodies," this thesis rejects conventional interpretations of protectionism for Japan's resistance to globalization. It argues that more than protectionism is involved, and that a rich ethnographic understanding of Japan's medical infrastructure is required to understand the claim of biological, cultural, and national differences, as well as biostatistical arguments about the ambiguities of "extrapolation" of clinical data from one place to another.; (cont.) The inherent ambiguities of efforts to create "bridging" studies as a temporary solution to these problematics created a deadlock in the ICH, and provided an opening for Taiwan...

Making lives under closure : birth and medicine in Palestine's waiting zones

Wick, Livia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 268 p.
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Reproduction is a site for understanding the ways in which people reconceptualize and re-organize the world in which they live. This dissertation tries to understand the world of birth under the regime of closures and fragmentation that governs the lives of Palestinians. It describes how checkpoints, closures, curfews have come to characterize childbirth in Palestine. It illustrates how the changing infrastructure, economy and discourse around birth produce new experiences of life in the medical sphere and in a family. Oral histories, life histories, doctors', midwives' and mothers' accounts, news reports and literature speak of these new conditions and experiences of birth and life. The meanings and structures of medicine, family and motherhood are thus remade. Oral histories focus on a history of the health infrastructure and movements in medicine, in particular the sumud (steadfastness) movement and the popular health movement. They illustrate how the figure of the doctor overlaps with that of the political leader. They identify the new health infrastructures built to assist birth during the closure which have different politics than the earlier movements, marking the post-socialist age, but show remarkable continuities with them in their emergence...

Those who don't know : modernity, risk, and transition in Hanoi's local markets

Hiesinger, Margaret Amalia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 308 p.
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My research is about the particular effects of Vietnam's economic liberalization program (known as "doi moi") on the local food and market system in Hanoi. Doi moi policies, which began in the late 1980s, have instituted major changes in both the national system of agricultural production and in Hanoi's local system of marketplaces. The doi moi reforms have created many new opportunities in Hanoi, but they have also re-configured social relationships and market spaces along the food chain to present new kinds of risk for consumers. These include harmful chemicals, goods of uncertain quality, and sellers who operate outside of the moral obligations of the dominant system of personal relationships. These things have not yet been resolved through regulation and have therefore been left to consumers and sellers to work out among themselves. The competition between various actors to manage foodborne risk in the absence of state regulation has taken place amidst the state's campaign to re-order Hanoi's market system according to neoiberal ideals.; (cont.) This has made the local market system a site for the enactment of a symbolic politics of modernity in which discourses that are really about risk and political economy have been obscured by their expression as a debate about "tradition" and modernity." Beneath the discourse of modernization lies a range of hybrid market worlds as well as systemic issues related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a free market system.; by Margaret A. Hiesinger; Thesis (Ph. D. in History...

The expertise of germs : practice, language and authority in American bacteriology, 1899-1924

Kupferberg, Eric David
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (784 p.); 79200340 bytes; 79200096 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis traces the development of American bacteriology during the first quarter of the twentieth century. While bacteriology experienced a period of rapid growth, an enduring disciplinary anxiety equally characterized the field. In particular, bacteriologists feared increasing specialization and conceptual fragmentation. Leading practitioners repeatedly worried that their science constituted a collection of unrelated techniques, carried out in the service to other practical endeavors without the benefit of an underlying theory or unifying language. I suggest that the sources of bacteriology's rapid professional growth equally accounted for this sense of conceptual impoverishment and disciplinary privation. Typically, bacteriologists focused on what bacteria did rather than what they were in any biological sense. The first three chapters provide a comprehensive survey of the institutional contexts bacteriology (e.g., medical schools, public health laboratories, water sanitation works, dairies, land-grant colleges, and agricultural experiment stations). For the most part, bacteriologists studied bacteria only so far as to isolate, identify and eliminate pathogens. Dairy and soil bacteriologists, however, sought to distinguish productive types of bacteria...

Sustainable development and comprehensive capital : The post-Soviet decline of Central Asia; Post-Soviet decline of Central Asia

Sievers, Eric
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1 v. (various pagings); 37103330 bytes; 37103087 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The general post-Soviet decline of the states of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) mirrors specific declines in the robustness of these states' stocks of financial, physical, natural, human, organizational, and social capital assets. This loss of various kinds of capital assets over the past decade reduces the current potential and capacity of the region to implement reforms for sustainable development. While Central Asia entered the 20th century as a comparatively marginal and underdeveloped area of the world, during the Soviet period it amassed appreciable stocks of capital, especially human, physical, and social capital. The emergence of a vibrant scientific community in Central Asia during the middle of the century marked one of the most rapid expansions of scientific prestige, talent, and institutions in the developing world. With the disassembly of the Soviet Union, development and reform projects within Central Asia and funded by foreign donors have failed to achieve their development and reform goals. Within the environmental sphere, the post-Soviet period, despite a massive investment in environmental aid to the region from the West and Japan, has yielded few environmental benefits and seen the worsening of several environmental conditions...

Empire of energy : environment, geopolitics, and American technology before the age of oil

Shulman, Peter Adam
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 318 p.
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This dissertation asks how the United States physically built its global empire. Between 1840 and 1930, empire building involved the establishment of a network of naval bases and coaling stations. By focusing on energy, I reconceptualize the American overseas empire as neither inevitable nor geographically predetermined. I trace how coal shaped U.S. expansion, how this expansion influenced ideas about national security, and how these security concerns affected the global environment. Coal reveals continuities in American foreign relations that link overseas expansion to responses to the introduction of steam power into ocean travel. As the Navy sought coal, it progressively assembled the familiar contours of America's global reach. The dissertation addresses both global and local history. It shows how policy makers before the Civil War demonstrated tremendous creativity in initiating geological investigations, diplomatic arrangements, and commercial agreements in foreign territories. Between the Civil War and 1898, these approaches gradually gave way to a more singular effort by the Navy to control strategic ports around the world. Soon, coal was so central to the Navy that coaling strategy and technology formed a foundation for the education of elite officers at the Naval War College...

Understanding Public Opinion in Debates over Biomedical Research: Looking beyond Political Partisanship to Focus on Beliefs about Science and Society

Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/02/2014 Português
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As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events...