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A fonética e o ensino-aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras: teorias e práticas; The phonetics in second language teaching : teories and activities

Hirakawa, Daniela Akie
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A fonética, estudo dos sons de uma língua, tem um papel fundamental na aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras, principalmente na aquisição das competências orais. No entanto, a transposição didática desta disciplina não é sempre evidente para o professor de línguas estrangeiras. Por um lado, ele tem que enfrentar um assunto considerado excessivamente técnico e inacessível aos não-iniciados, e por outro, são poucas as obras escritas para este fim. Esta dissertação tem como objetivo discutir o lugar da fonética no ensino/aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras e propor procedimentos metodológicos para o trabalho da fonética em sala de aula. Para isto apresentaremos no primeiro capítulo um percurso histórico das diferentes metodologias, mostrando como a pronúncia foi tratada em cada uma delas. Isto nos permitirá determinar, no capítulo II, os princípios a serem levados em conta na elaboração de um programa e das atividades de fonética. No último capítulo descreveremos as três experiências realizadas em duas instituições de ensino de francês língua estrangeira na Universidade de São Paulo. Graças a esta pesquisa poderemos não só avaliar a importância da fonética para o ensino/aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras como também sugerir atividades lúdicas que ajudem o professor a motivar seus alunos no aprimoramento da pronúncia.; Phonetics is the study of speech sounds. Even though it plays an important role in the second language acquisition...

Livemocha : uma rede social de aprendizagem de línguas; Livemocha : a language learning social network

Lopes, Cristiana Cerdeira
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de mestrado em Ciências da Educação (área de especialização em Tecnologia Educativa); Este estudo centra-se na análise da rede social de aprendizagem de línguas Livemocha, procurando conhecer a realidade portuguesa no que diz respeito à sua utilização. Na componente conceptual, a revisão de literatura centra-se em duas vertentes. A primeira relacionada com as questões do social networking, bem como as comunidades virtuais de aprendizagem, analisando os tipos de comunidades virtuais descritos por Henri e Pudelko (2003) e os modelos de aprendizagem em ambientes virtuais referidos por Meirinhos e Osório (2007). Ainda no âmbito das redes sociais, analisa-se a teoria da aprendizagem social de Wenger (1998), os conceitos de construtivismo comunal e conetivismo. A segunda vertente centra-se na aprendizagem de línguas estrangeiras. Neste contexto, foca as teorias de second language acquisiton, o conceito CALL (computer assisted language learning), a teoria electrate language learning, o modelo Tandem de aprendizagem de línguas e o feedback. Conclui-se esta análise com a descrição da rede Livemocha, com uma breve incursão na sua nova versão. A metodologia utilizada insere-se na tipologia da etnografia virtual ou digital e contemplou a criação de uma base de dados com os dados recolhidos na rede...

Complexity in second language phonology acquisition

Lima Júnior,Ronaldo Mangueira
Fonte: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Publicador: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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This paper aims at situating the representation and investigation of second language phonology acquisition in light of complexity theory. The first section presents a brief historical panorama of complexity and chaos theory on second language acquisition, followed by the possible phonological representations and analyses aligned with such perspective. Finally, the issue of second language phonology acquisition is revisited.

A Processability Approach to the Acquisition of Italian as a Second Language: Theory and Applications

Di Biase, Bruno
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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This thesis concerns the acquisition of Italian as a second language in instructed adult and child learners within the framework of Processability Theory (Pienemann 1998) with particular reference to morphological and syntactic development. It also contains some contributions to an extension of the theory itself, particularly the development of syntax, leading to a new exploration of the interface between discourse-pragmatics and syntax in L2 learners. The empirical longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on which these papers are based support Processability Theory’s universal developmental implicational hierarchy based on the hypothesised processing procedures in Levelt (1989). The second part of the thesis investigates the development of Italian L2 in primary school programs, testing both PT and Focus-on-form instruction. This study demonstrates that PT can be applied to classroom contexts and that it promotes more efficient language development in child-learners within existing school Italian L2 program time and resources constraints. This work also revealed that focused feedback is effective in promoting acquisition and accuracy in L2 production. This classroom- based quasi-experimental longitudinal study was supported by the Australian Research Council and Industry partner CoAsIt...

Second language acquisition of Chinese grammatical morphemes : a processability perspective

Zhang, Yanyin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study investigates the second language acquisition of eight Chinese grammatical morphemes by three English-speaking learners. Adopting the theoretical framework and analytical methods of Processability Theory, the study focuses on the developmental sequence of the morphemes, their points of emergence and their subsequent refinement. The influence of formal instruction is examined as a variable, and the predictive power of the processing hierarchy of the interlanguage morphology proposed in Processability Theory (Pienemann 1999) is tested. The study employed a longitudinal design. Three Australian university students enrolled in a first year intensive Chinese course participated as informants. They were all native speakers of English and had no prior knowledge of Chinese. Their interlanguage speech data was collected regularly through task-based oral interviews over a period of one academic year. A total of nine interviews were conducted with two subjects, and eight interviews with one subject. Data was then transcribed and grammatical features tagged. Data analysis was performed through distributional analysis which detailed the linguistic environment of each grammatical morpheme so that the precise way in which the form entered the interlanguage could be determined. Emergence criteria stipulated in Processability Theory were then applied to locate the acquisition point of the form. The subsequent unfolding refinement of the form was examined in terms of the expansion of its semantic...

The use of complaint letters as an authentic source of input for an interactive task in second language learning

Widodo, H.
Fonte: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies Publicador: National University of Singapore, Centre for Language Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article reports empirical findings from a micro-interactional analysis of the use of complaint letters as an authentic source of input for an interactive task that intermediate level university students performed in the ESL context. The present research study aims to examine whether the tasks of comprehending, responding to, and discussing complaint letters engage students in socially, cognitively and linguistically laden undertakings. Three international students from Brazil, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan participated voluntarily in this research study. These participants were asked to comprehend, respond to and discuss complaint letters, which served as an authentic source of input for these tasks. The recorded audio data were transcribed, coded and analyzed through a micro-interactional analysis. The key findings are that the use of complaint letters enabled: passive and active engagement in peer interaction; meaning making of the input content; meaning negotiation; cognitive and emotional responses to the input; prior knowledge or experience activation; and the deployment of discourse markers in dialogic interaction. The findings suggest that the use of appropriate authentic texts as interactional input affords students the opportunity to engage in tasks personally and meaningfully.; http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/84430669/use-complaint-letters-as-authentic-source-input-interactive-task-second-language-learning; Handoyo Puji Widodo

Variables afectivas en la adquisición de una lengua extranjera: motivación y ansiedad; Affective variables in foreign language acquisition: motivation and anxiety

García Cobo, Ana
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Português
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RESUMEN: Todo docente intenta emplear el método idóneo para tratar de desarrollar al máximo el potencial de todos sus alumnos. Tratándose de la adquisición de una segunda lengua se deben tener en cuenta varios de los factores que influyen en el proceso. En este trabajo analizaremos algunas de las variables que afectan a la adquisición de una segunda lengua con el fin de comprender su influencia en el alumno y en el éxito o fracaso del proceso de aprendizaje de dicha lengua.; ABSTRACT: Every teacher tries to use the right method in order to develop the full potential of all the students. Dealing with the acquisition of a second language some of the factors that influence the process must be borne in mind. In this paper we will analyze some of the variables that influence the acquisition of a second language with the aim of come to understand their influence in the student and in the success or the failure of the learning process of the language.; Grado en Magisterio en Educación Infantil

Universal Grammar and Focus constraints: the acquisition of pronouns and word order in non-native Spanish

Lozano, Crist??bal
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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A recent controversy in second language acquisition research concerns the extent to which adult non-native intuitions differ from adult native intuitions at advanced and near-native levels of competence (end-states). Two (apparently) contradictory findings pervade the L2 literature: while some studies reveal that learners can indeed achieve native-like intuitions, other findings show that they display near-native and optional intuitions. In short, there is a debate about whether adult non-native interlanguage grammars converge with (or diverge from) adult native grammars. The first type of studies (convergence) focuses on constructions that are claimed to be part of the innate principles of Universal Grammar (UG), which typically represent a poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) phenomenon. The second type (divergence) normally focuses on parameterisable functional features where the L1 and L2 values differ. In this study I test whether this is the expected trend in advanced non-native Spanish acquisition, i.e., that learners show convergent knowledge where UG principles are involved, but divergent knowledge where parametric values differ between the native and the target language. In particular, I investigate the distribution of overt and null pronominal subjects in Spanish...

Second language acquisition of phonology, morphology and syntax

Hawkins, Roger; Lozano, Crist??bal
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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This article examines how developmental patterns found in second language acquisition result from a complex interaction of influence from the first language and input from the target language under constraints imposed by an innate language faculty. Examples of second language learner behavior in each of phonology, morphology and syntax have been arbitrarily selected for discussion from a large body of existing research. Implications of the observed behavior for a theory of second language acquisition are considered.

I English Language: section 11, Second Language Acquisition

Lozano, Crist??bal
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP); English Association Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP); English Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in "Year???s Work in English Studies" following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version "Lozano, C. I English Language: section 11, Second Language Acquisition. Year???s Work in English Studies, 92(1): 109-124 (2013)" is available online at: http://ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/mat006v1?ijkey=JZOeGz0tYrkDM&keytype=ref&siteid=ywes.; Applied linguistics has been traditionally understood as embracing both second language acquisition (SLA) research and second language teaching (SLT) research. SLA is a discipline that dates back to the 1970s, when research showed that learners construct their own mental grammatical representations (interlanguage grammars) worth investigating in their own right, irrespective of pedagogical concerns. This review therefore focuses on L2 (inter)language as a system and it covers child and adult L2 acquisition, with a focus on L2 English empirical studies. The general term L2 acquisition will be used to refer both to the acquisition of English as a second language (L2) in naturalistic settings and as a foreign language (EFL) in instructed settings. I will exclude other acquisition contexts, for example heritage speakers of English...

Learner corpora and second language acquisition: the design and collection of CEDEL2

Lozano, Crist??bal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya
Fonte: John Benjamins Publicador: John Benjamins
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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Second language acquisition (SLA) research has traditionally relied on elicited experimental data, and it has disfavoured natural language use data. Learner corpus research has the potential to change this but, to date, the research has contributed little to the interpretation of L2 acquisition, and some of the corpora are flawed in design. We analyse the reasons why many SLA researchers are still reticent about using corpora, and how good corpus design and adequate tools to annotate and search corpora can help overcome some of the problems observed. We do so by describing how the ten standard principles used in corpus design (Sinclair 2005)were applied to the design of CEDEL2, a large learner corpus of L1 English ??? L2 Spanish (Lozano 2009a).

A study of morpheme order acquisition in an EFL corpus of L1 Spanish ??? L2 English: some pedagogical implications

Demarta Dabove, Agustina
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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If we want to know what Second Language Acquisition is, we have to go back in time and locate ourselves in the 70s when Brown (1973) suggested that native speakers acquire grammatical morphemes in a specific order. Another example of this kind of studies is the one conducted by Bailey, Madden and Krashen in 1974. This study also deals with the same topic, that is, the morpheme order acquisition. It is important to highlight that, despite the fact that these studies were criticized because of their limitations due to the methodology used or the limited number of subjects, they provided important evidence that there is a given sequence in the acquisition of grammatical morphemes. Nowadays, recent MOS studies (see Tono, 2000; Kwon, 2005) have been carried out taking into account these limitations that the first MO studies had. Tono (2000) could be seen as a useful example of this kind of studies because it focuses on how Japanese students acquire grammatical morphemes using a new methodology which consists of the creation of a learner corpus and its subsequent analysis. Following Tono???s example we have decided to conduct a MO study using a learner corpus based on the language produced by Spanish EFL students. The grammatical morphemes we analyzed were past regular -ed...

Motivation and second language acquisition

Gardner, Robert C.
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.11876%
This paper posits four stages of language acquisition, identified as elemental, consolidation, conscious expression, and automaticity and thought, and considers the role of motivation in this process. It distinguishes between two types of motivation, language learning motivation and classroom motivation, indicating how these relate to two distinct contexts, the cultural and the educational through their influence on integrativeness and attitudes toward the learning situation. It discusses how the two types of motivation are differentially involved in the four stages, and empirical support for this perspective is presented in the form of path analyses of two samples of students from Catalonia.; En este trabajo se establecen cuatro etapas en el proceso de adquisici??n de las lenguas, identificadas como etapa elemental, de consolidaci??n, expresi??n consciente, autom??tica y de pensamiento, y se considera el rol de la motivaci??n en este proceso. Se distinguen dos tipos de motivaci??n, motivaci??n en el aprendizaje de la lengua y motivaci??n de aula, y se indica c??mo ambas se relacionan con dos tipos de contextos diferentes, el contexto cultural y el educativo a trav??s de su influencia en los procesos de integraci??n y en las actitudes hacia la situaci??n de aprendizaje. Se demuestra c??mo los dos tipos de motivaci??n est??n implicados de forma diferenciada en las cuatro etapas y se presenta un estudio emp??rico que estudia la relaci??n entre una serie de variables referidas a dos muestras de estudiante de ESO de Catalu??a.

A comparative study on gender agreement errors in the spoken spanish of heritage speakers and second language learners

Mart??nez-Gibson, Elizabeth A.
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study analyzes grammatical gender errors in the spoken Spanish of three groups of high school students in the United States: first and second generation heritage speakers and second language learners; and compares the findings to previous research in the areas of second language acquisition and language of heritage speakers in a contact situation. Students were presented with a series of drawings with questions related to social settings. The responses were recorded and analyzed for differences in the number of gender assignment and agreement errors between the three different groups and in the error patterns of gender assignment and agreement provided by these groups.; Este estudio analiza los errores de g??nero gramatical en el espa??ol hablado de tres grupos de estudiantes de la escuela secundaria en los Estados Unidos: la primera y segunda generaci??n de hispanohablantes y estudiantes de espa??ol como segunda lengua; y compara los resultados con estudios previos sobre la adquisici??n de la lengua secundaria y la primera lengua de los hablantes en una situaci??n de contacto de lenguas. A los estudiantes se les present?? una serie de dibujos con cuestionarios de situaciones sociales. Se grabaron las respuestas y se analizaron las diferencias en el n??mero y los tipos de errores de g??nero asignado a los sustantivos y de concordancia entre el sustantivo y el adjetivo presentadas por los tres grupos de hispanohablantes.

Aprendizagem da língua inglesa como segunda língua baseada em tarefas: uma proposta de trabalho com ciclo complexo; Learning of english as a second language-based tasks: a job offer with complex cycle

Lopes Júnior, Juarez Aloizio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Centro de Letras e Comunicação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras; UFPel; Brasil Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Centro de Letras e Comunicação; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras; UFPel; Brasil
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.51504%
In 1997, the linguist Diane Larsen-Freeman published a disturbing article called “Chaos/Complexity Science and Second Language Acquisition”(LARSENFREEMAN, 1997). In this article, the author states that there are many similarities between the new science of chaos/complexity and second language acquisition. Faced with the reflections, which give rise to such ideas, one intends to analyse the structure and theory of Task Based Learning under the light of the Chaos/Complexity Theory. According to Willis, J. (1996), this communicative approach presents itself with six stages, namely: pre-task, task, planning, report, analyses and practice. As part of a so vast research area, one intends to relate the Chaos/Complexity Theory with the task cycle – task, planning and report – formulated by Willis, J. (1996). According to Larsen-Freeman and Cameron (2008), a complexity approach does not translate into a complexity method for teaching language. This work aims to approximate the seminal article by Diane Larsen-Freeman about the Chaos/Complexity Theory and Second Language Acquisition (1997) with Task Based Learning proposed nine years before by Willis, J. and Willis, D. (1988).To sum up, this dissertation aims to show that the task cycle may be characterized as a complex adaptive system...

Portugues brasileiro como segunda lingua : um estudo sobre o sujeito nulo; Brazilian portuguese as a second language : a null subject study

Gildete Rocha Xavier
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2006 Português
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Este estudo objetiva investigar como se dá a aquisição do sujeito nulo do português brasileiro (PB) como segunda língua (L2) por adultos estrangeiros, falantes nativos de Inglês e Italiano em situação de imersão total. A pesquisa desenvolve-se no âmbito da gramática gerativa, dentro do quadro da Teoria de Princípios e Parâmetros (Chomsky 1981,1986) e do Programa Minimalista (Chomsky, 1993, 1995, 2000). As questões da pesquisa estão relacionadas à questão do acesso à Gramática Universal (GU), por aprendizes de L2. Mais especificamente, procurou-se investigar se os sujeitos aqui analisados têm acesso à GU e, em caso afirmativo, qual seria a forma desse acesso. Os resultados da análise dos dados confirmaram a) a hipótese de acesso direto à GU, através do uso do valor default do parâmetro pro-drop = sujeitos nulos ou preenchidos + a forma verbal unipessoal, nas produções dos falantes de inglês e italiano em fase inicial de aquisição e, b) a hipótese do acesso indireto à GU, via LI, nas produções dos sujeitos falantes de inglês e italiano em fase não inicial de aquisição. Além disso, considerando que as línguas pro-drop não constituem um único tipo, levantou-se a hipótese de que, com base nos dados do input...

What's in a name? The quest for new metaphors for second language acquisition

Paiva,Vera Lucia Menezes Oliveira e
Fonte: UNICAMP. Departamento de Linguística Aplicada Publicador: UNICAMP. Departamento de Linguística Aplicada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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The present article focuses on a series of metaphors found in texts on language and language learning, and discusses the criticisms of the acquisition metaphor and the addition of participation as a new concept to represent language learning. The main theoretical proposals for second language acquisition (SLA) have been selected in order to verify which theories use acquisition and which use participation. While scrutinizing those texts, I found that other metaphors have also been proposed; however, acquisition and participation are still the most prevalent. Participation has been used as a metaphor since Sfard (1998) and has been well accepted in Applied Linguistics. Therefore, I present the cognitive view of metaphor and metonymy and demonstrate that, according to the cognitive studies on metaphor, participation cannot be seen as a metaphor, but rather as a metonym. To prove this, I use the metonymic model proposed by Lakoff (1990) as support. I conclude, agreeing with Ortega (2009) that a metaphorical polyphony can help us understand the complex phenomenon of language and language learning. Nevertheless, metonyms must not be disregarded.

Teacher's role in the classrooms : enhancing second language learners' motivation

Domingo Mas, Aina
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Motivation has always been a topic of debate in relation to second language acquisition. It is clear that the teacher plays a major role in student motivation within the educational field. The purpose of this paper was to describe and analyze the strategies used by the two research subjects of this study. The two participants were Catalan native speakers and the moment this research was carried out they were working in a language school in Rubí (Catalonia). The results showed differences both in the amount of use of motivation-enhancing strategies, and in preferences for strategy type.; La motivació ha estat sempre un tema de debat en relació a l'adquisició d'una segona llengua. És evident que el professor juga un paper molt important en quan a la motivació de l'alumnat dins del camp de l'educació. L'objectiu d'aquest estudi és el de descriure i analitzar els mètodes i estratègies utilitzades per dos subjectes de l'estudi. Els dos participants són natius catalans i treballaven quan l'estudi es va realitzar a la mateixa acadèmia de llengües a Rubí (Catalunya). Els resultats obtinguts mostren grans diferències en quan a la quantitat d'estratègies per crear i mantenir la motivació com a diferents preferències pel tipus d'estratègia.

Processing of tense morphology and filler-gap dependencies by Chinese second language speakers of English

Dong, Zhiyin
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Hermon, Gabriella; There is an ongoing debate in the field of Second Language Acquisition concerning whether a fundamental difference exists between the native language (L1) and adult second language (L2) online processing of syntax and morpho-syntax. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006a, b) states that L2 online parsing is qualitatively different in that L2 speakers build a "shallower" syntactic representation with less hierarchy and fewer details than L1 speakers, and therefore cannot use purely structural principles effectively. Instead, L2 speakers rely mainly on semantic and lexical information to process sentences. This thesis evaluates such claims by examining how L2 speakers process complex filler-gap (FG) dependencies and tense morphology in real time. Specifically, it tests whether L2 speakers (a) posit abstract syntactic traces in filler-gap (relative clause) constructions, and (b) use morphological decomposition rules when processing tense morphology. The method of Event Related Potentials (ERP) is used because its indexes reveal the nature of the underlying processing mechanism (i.e., syntactic vs. semantic). In addition, the roles of L2 proficiency, L1 interference, and working memory capacity are examined. The results indicate that the learners are able to produce native-like brain responses for tense morphology processing. However...

VanPatten, Bill. Input Processing and Grammar Instruction in Second Language Acquisition. Norwood: Ablex, 1996. Pp. Xiii + 177.; VanPatten, Bill. Input Processing and Grammar Instruction in Second Language Acquisition. Norwood: Ablex, 1996. Pp. Xiii + 177.

Dutra, Deise Prina; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1998 Português
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This book, written for scholars and advanced students of second language acquisition (SLA) and teaching, links SLA theory and research with current pedagogical issues. It concentrates on describing an approach called processing instruction. This input-based approach favors focus on form activities which affect how learners utilize input data. Following an introductory chapter briefly covering the motivation for processing instruction, the second chapter explains the nature of input processing and how learners make formfunction mappings in the course of receiving input.; This book, written for scholars and advanced students of second language acquisition (SLA) and teaching, links SLA theory and research with current pedagogical issues. It concentrates on describing an approach called processing instruction. This input-based approach favors focus on form activities which affect how learners utilize input data. Following an introductory chapter briefly covering the motivation for processing instruction, the second chapter explains the nature of input processing and how learners make formfunction mappings in the course of receiving input.