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Aprendizagem de escrita de língua de sinais pelo sistema SignWriting : língua de sinais no papel e no computador; The learning process of sign language writing through the signwriting system : sign languages on paper and in the computer

Stumpf, Marianne Rossi
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta tese trata de como o sistema SignWriting pode servir de suporte a uma nova proposta pedagógica ao ensino da escrita de língua de sinais e letramento para crianças surdas usuárias da Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras e da Língua de Sinais Francesa - LSF. Escrever deve ser uma atividade significativa para a criança. No caso da criança surda, a escrita fundamenta-se em sua competência na língua de sinais, sem precisar da intermediação da língua oral. A criança surda, quando em um ambiente onde ela e seus colegas se comunicam em língua de sinais, efetivamente tenta escrever sinais, quando é incentivada a fazê-lo. Em nossos experimentos, usamos o sistema SignWriting para mostrar ás crianças surdas (e a seus pais e professores) como escrever textos em línguas de sinais de ambas as formas: manuscrita e impressa, usando o programa Sign Writer para editar textos em línguas de sinais. A base teórica que apóia a tese é a abordagem bilíngüe para a educação de surdos, a língua de sinais, a teoria de Piaget, e de Ferreiro quando trata das etapas da alfabetização em língua oral. Esta investigação possui um caráter exploratório, em que o delineamento metodológico é dado pela pesquisa-ação. O primeiro estudo apresenta um levantamento do processo de aquisição da escrita de sinais...

Parâmetros para a elaboração de dicionários bilíngues de apoio à codificação escrita em línguas estrangeiras

Duran, Magali Sanches
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 f. : il. color.
Português
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Estudos Linguísticos - IBILCE; O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar parâmetros que possam ser utilizados para orientar melhorias e inovações lexicográficas, a fim de atender as dificuldades dos brasileiros na codificação escrita em línguas estrangeiras. Revisam-se criticamente várias pesquisas, em busca de subsídios que contribuam para diagnosticar as dificuldades de escrever em língua estrangeira, dentre elas os trabalhos produzidos por teóricos da Lexicografia, as pesquisas sobre o uso do dicionário e estudos sobre corpus de aprendizes. Realiza-se, também, uma pesquisa empírica sobre o uso dos dicionários na codificação a fim de complementar, com dados primários, as informações obtidas nas demais fontes. Uma vez conhecidas as necessidades dos usuários de dicionários, analisam-se as obras lexicográficas que expressam o propósito de auxiliar a produção em língua estrangeira. Nessa análise, verifica-se em que medida as necessidades identificadas são atendidas e como são atendidas. Chegase, assim, à conclusão de que algumas das dificuldades solucionáveis por meio da consulta ao dicionário já são satisfatoriamente atendidas pelas obras disponíveis...

Modos de escrever : tradição oral, letramento e segunda língua na educação escolar wajãpi; Ways of writing : oral tradition, literacy and second language in wajãpi school education

Lilian Abram dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nesta tese, apresento uma análise de textos em português como segunda língua, escritos por adultos Wajãpi que participam de cursos de formação ministrados pelo Iepé, uma organização não-governamental. Os cursos de formação de Magistério Wajãpi, Formação de Agentes de Saúde Wajãpi e Formação de Pesquisadores Wajãpi são desenvolvidos de acordo com as orientações político-pedagógicas da política pública atualmente vigente no Brasil para a Educação Escolar Indígena. Meu objetivo foi investigar, a partir da análise da produção escolar dos alunos, as relações entre oralidade e escrita presentes na segunda língua. Mais especificamente, conduzi a pesquisa na tentativa de compreender de que forma os textos por eles escritos apresentavam, em sua composição, marcas de modos orais de transmissão e quais eram os significados dessas marcas. Foi possível verificar que os textos apresentam forte influência da transmissão oral, sobretudo nos aspectos relacionados ao predomínio da tipologia narrativa, à remissão constante à memória coletiva do grupo, aos modos particulares de apresentar o discurso reportado e o fechamento narrativo. A questão que direcionou a pesquisa foi motivada pelo fato de os Wajãpi serem um povo que tradicionalmente usa a oralidade para a transmissão e produção de seu conhecimento. O contato desse povo com práticas sociais letradas é bastante recente. Formas letradas de comunicação passaram a se fazer presentes nesse contexto somente após o contato realizado com a FUNAI (Fundação Nacional do Índio)...

The Effect of Second-Language Experience on Native-Language Processing

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Marian, Viorica
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Previous work on bilingual language processing indicates that native-language skills can influence second-language acquisition. The goal of the present work was to examine the influence of second-language experiences on native-language vocabulary and reading skills in two groups of bilingual speakers. English-Spanish and English-Mandarin bilingual adults were tested on vocabulary knowledge and reading fluency in English, their native language. Participants also provided detailed information regarding their history of second-language acquisition, including age of L2 acquisition, degree of L2 exposure, L2 proficiency, and preference of L2 use. Comparisons across the two bilingual groups revealed that both groups performed similarly on native-language vocabulary and reading measures. However, in English-Spanish bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Spanish were associated with higher English reading-fluency scores, while in English-Mandarin bilinguals, higher self-reported reading skills in Mandarin were associated with lower English reading-fluency scores. These findings suggest that second-language experiences influence native-language performance, and can facilitate or reduce it depending on the properties of the second-language writing system.

CREATING SUCCESS IN ACADEMIC WRITING: FROM SECONDARY TO HIGHER EDUCATION

Wong Sowat, Nang Saluna
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Project
Português
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The academic transition from one’s native language to English medium instruction is a challenging experience for second language learners (L2). This is especially true for students who are learning a new subject at the same time. Research has shown that although L2 students have undergone at least eleven years of learning English as a communicative language, this does not guarantee success in their tertiary education. Some common challenges include understanding textbooks written in English, being aware of the academic writing process, lack of confidence in their writing and unfamiliarity with the nature of academic writing and disciplinary genres, such as citing references and writing expectations. Students in Malaysia do not learn academic English explicitly in secondary schools. Yet, students who envisage pursuing their tertiary education abroad must be equipped with English academic skills. Certainly, these skills must be taught directly, extensively, and explicitly, prior to their tertiary education abroad. As such, this project focuses on the English academic gap. There are four chapters. After the introduction which traces the evolution of English language instruction in Malaysia is a chapter that reviews studies on genres of academic writing...

An investigation into the comparable effectiveness of two tests of writing administered to college-level English as a Second Language students: The Computerized Placement Test and holistically scored essay exams

Schuemann, Cynthia M
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This dissertation describes the findings and implications of a correlational analysis. Scores earned on the Computerized Placement Test (CPT), sentence skills, were compared to essay scores of advanced English as a Second Language (ESL) students. As the CPT is designed for native speakers of English, it was hypothesized that it could be an invalid or unreliable instrument for non-native speakers. Florida community college students are mandated to take the CPT to determine preparedness, as are students at many other U.S. and Canadian colleges. If incoming students score low on the CPT, they may be required to take up to three semesters of remedial coursework. It is essential that scores earned by non-native speakers of English accurately reflect their ability level. They constitute a large and growing body of non-traditional students enrolled at community colleges.^ The study was conducted at Miami-Dade Community College, Wolfson Campus, fall 1997. Participants included 106 advanced ESL students who took both the CPT sentence skills test and wrote final essay exams. The essay exams were holistically scored by trained readers. Also, the participants took the Placement Articulation Software Service (PASS) exam, an alternative form of the CPT. Scores on the CPT and essays were compared by means of a Pearson product-moment correlation to validate the CPT. Scores on the CPT and the PASS exam were compared in the same manner to verify reliability. A percentage of appropriate placements was determined by comparing essay scores to CPT cutoff score ranges. Finally...

Sad stories: a preliminary study of NAPLAN practice texts analysing students’ second language linguistic resources and the effects

Angelo, Denise
Fonte: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au Publicador: Australian Linguistic Society; http://www.als.asn.au
Tipo: Conference paper; Published Version Formato: 31 pages
Português
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This paper analyses practice texts produced by Indigenous students who are first language (L1) speakers of the local variety of Torres Strait Creole, and second language (L2) learners of Standard Australian English (SAE). Writing such texts served as preparation for the writing component of the National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These students had been exposed to classroom instruction on the schematic discourse organisation of the preannounced test genre, a narrative, and had been given repeated practice of writing this genre under NAPLAN-like conditions. Analysis of their texts reveals that they attempt to implement this classroom instruction, but their levels of L2 proficiency impact greatly on the texts they generate. Their writing displays a wide range of non-target language features, which suggest that teaching approaches would need to include explicit instruction of SAE. This preliminary study raises issues for further investigation around the narrowed or even hidden curriculum for L2 learners of SAE in a high stakes testing environment.; ANU College of Arts & Social Sciences, School of Language Studies; ANU College of Asia and the Pacific, School of Culture, History and Language; The conference proceedings can be found at http://hdl.handle.net/1885/9404. "The 2011 Conference of the Australian Linguistic Society was ... hosted jointly by the School of Language Studies and the School of Culture...

Dislexia y segundas lenguas; Dyslexia and Second Language Learning

Iriondo Hervás, Sonia
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Português
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RESUMEN: El presente estudio trata de analizar los procesos que forman parte de la adquisición de la lectoescritura en un contexto escolar bilingüe. Dada la necesidad de limitar el campo de análisis, la investigación se centra en la adquisición y desarrollo de la lectura y la escritura del alumnado que presenta dislexia, en cualquiera de sus vertientes. Además, se ha realizado una breve reseña sobre el caso concreto de un niño de 11 años de edad con dislexia. Por último, se ofrecen diferentes propuestas de actuación para los primeros cursos de la Educación Primaria encaminadas a minimizar el impacto negativo que la dificultad de aprendizaje planteada pueda generar en la evolución académica del niño.; ABSTRACT: The abstract analyses the processes regarding reading and writing acquisition in a bilingual atmosphere.To reduce the amount of data this study is focused in both acquisition and development of reading and writing specifically on students who sufferany kind of dyslexia. Besides, a brief research about a specific 11-year-old dyslexic child has been completed. Lastly, several activities for children in the first stages are suggested with the aim of minimizing the negative impact that dyslexia, as a learning difficulty...

Large-scale second language writing assessment: What's involved?

Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Dyste, Susan; Crawford, Mary Ann; Vellenga, Heidi; Youngquist, Julia; Boehm, Diane
Fonte: Michigan State University Publicador: Michigan State University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This review addresses three areas of significance in the design, implementation and use of large-scale writing tests that impact ESL writers: writing assessment tasks, rater decision-making, and test washback. First, we discuss integrated writing tasks, as exemplified by the TOEFL iBT, in contrast with impromptu or independent writing tasks. Then we examine results from recent think-aloud studies of raters and their decision-making while reading essays. Finally, we review the current research on test washback in several international contexts. Additionally, we offer some research directions and practical considerations, particularly the need to educate teachers and other test users about the needs of ESL writers.; College Composition and Communication Research Initiative Grant

The evaluation of undergraduate students' written English language skills

Chur-Hansen, A.; Vernon-Roberts, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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CONTEXT: Writing is an important skill for practitioners and students, yet this is a skill rarely taught in a formal capacity at medical school. At the University of Adelaide many students are from non-English speaking backgrounds and have varying proficiencies in English. We wished to devise a method and instrument which could identify students who may benefit from formative feedback and tuition in writing. OBJECTIVES AND METHOD: Students' written account of a short clinical interview with a standardized patient was assessed using a new instrument (the Written Language Rating Scale) designed especially for this study. The assessment of writing was made by one rater with qualifications in teaching English as a second language. SUBJECTS: 127 second-year medical students enrolled at the University of Adelaide, Australia. INSTRUMENTS AND RESULTS: The scale appeared to have good internal consistency, face and construct validity, and test security was not an issue. However, it had questionable concurrent validity with a standardized language test, although this may be partly due to the period of time which had elapsed between administration of the two tests. CONCLUSIONS: This study was useful in providing a means to objectively rate students' written English language skills and to target students in need of formative feedback and tuition. However...

TESL and Warlpiri children: understanding Warlpiri children's problems in learning to speak English

Nash, David
Fonte: Northern Territory Dept. of Education, Curriculum & Assessment Division; http://www.det.nt.gov.au/ Publicador: Northern Territory Dept. of Education, Curriculum & Assessment Division; http://www.det.nt.gov.au/
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 15 pages
Português
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This paper contrasts the sound systems of the English and Warlpiri, with a view to appreciating the knowledge that the Warlpiri child brings to learning a second language; "The references were omitted and published in the next issue, Vol. 2, 47" - submission email. "The text is identical to and unrevised from the 1983 publication TESL and Warlpiri Children, N.T. Bilingual Education Newsletter No. 1,6-24; 2,47" - at head of title. At time of writing, author was affiliated with Department of Education, Yuendumu

Entering an academic discourse community: A case study of the coping strategies of eleven english as a second language students

Benz, Cheryl
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This case study follows eleven non-English speaking students as they adapt to community college, content courses. The three classes examined are required freshman classes--Humanities, Social Environment, and Individual in Transition. In order to cope with the demands of these classes, students must penetrate the academic discourse community and have effective relationships with their instructors and their peers. The results of the study are based on interviews with eleven non-native speaking (NNS) students and their instructors and on an analysis of student writing assignments, course syllabi, and exams. Three general areas are examined: (a) students' first-language (L1) education, (b) the requirements of their content classes, and (c) the affective factors which influence their adaptation process. The case of these students reveals that: 1. Students draw on their L1 education, especially in terms of content, as they cope with the demands of these content classes. 2. In some areas L1 educational experiences interfere with students' ability to adapt. 3. The content classes require students to have well developed reading, writing, oral, and aural skills. 4. Students must use higher level cognitive skills to be successful in content classes. 5. Affective factors play a role in students' success in content classes. The discussion section includes possible implications of this data for college level English as a Second Language courses.

Examining argumentative coherence in essays by undergraduate students of English as a foreign language in Mainland China and their English speaking peers in the United States

Gao, Lianhong
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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I conducted this study to provide insights toward deepening understanding of association between culture and writing by building, assessing, and refining a conceptual model of second language writing. To do this, I examined culture and coherence as well as the relationship between them through a mixed methods research design. Coherence has been an important and complex concept in ESL/EFL writing. I intended to study the concept of coherence in the research context of contrastive rhetoric, comparing the coherence quality in argumentative essays written by undergraduates in Mainland China and their U.S. peers. In order to analyze the complex concept of coherence, I synthesized five linguistic theories of coherence: Halliday and Hasan's cohesion theory, Carroll's theory of coherence, Enkvist's theory of coherence, Topical Structure Analysis, and Toulmin's Model. Based upon the synthesis, 16 variables were generated. Across these 16 variables, Hotelling t-test statistical analysis was conducted to predict differences in argumentative coherence between essays written by two groups of participants. In order to complement the statistical analysis, I conducted 30 interviews of the writers in the studies. Participants' responses were analyzed with open and axial coding. By analyzing the empirical data...

Dialogue journal writing: a tool for critical reflection in the adult ESL learner

Gifford, Pamela J. Barkwell.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This study attempted to determine whether or not dialogue journal writing encouraged critical reflection in the adult ESL (English as a Second Language) learner. According to research in adult education and anecdotal evidence, the process ofdialogue journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the adult learner. However, little research has been conducted to examine whether or not journal writing can facilitate critical reflection in the second language learner. As a result, ten low-intermediate level adult ESL students from Brock University's Intensive English Language Programme participated in a dialogue journal writing programme in their writing class. The participants wrote journal entries over a 10-week period, and were interviewed once throughout the process to determine their perceptions ofthe journal writing experience. They also were observed by the researcher throughout the journal writing sessions to establish whether any behaviours or intrusions might affect the participants' writing processes. After the content ofthe journals and the interviews, and the observations made by the researcher were analysed, it was confirmed that, for these participants, dialogue journal writing did not necessarily encourage critical reflection. Moreover...

Effets de l’écriture de textes identitaires, soutenue par des ateliers d’expression théâtrale plurilingues, sur le rapport à l’écrit d’élèves immigrants allophones en situation de grand retard scolaire

Maynard, Catherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Le présent mémoire expose les effets de pratiques d’écriture de textes identitaires plurilingues, soutenues par des ateliers d’expression théâtrale plurilingues, sur le rapport à l’écrit d’élèves immigrants allophones nouvellement arrivés en situation de grand retard scolaire au secondaire, et ce, tout au long d’une recherche-action visant le développement de l’écriture. Puis, ces effets sont comparés avec ceux de pratiques traditionnelles d’enseignement de l’écriture. Un groupe expérimental et un groupe contrôle ont participé à cette étude de cas multiples. Des observations participantes et des entretiens individuels semi-dirigés ont permis de dresser le portrait du rapport à l’écrit des huit élèves participant à notre recherche. Dans ce rapport à l’écrit est considéré l’engagement dans la littératie des élèves, un concept clé à prendre en compte en didactique des langues secondes. Nous proposons ainsi l’étude d’une nouvelle notion : le rapport à l’écrit teinté du concept d’engagement (RÉ+). Les résultats de ce mémoire confirment la pertinence de l’approche novatrice mise en place, qui agit sur les quatre dimensions du RÉ+ (affective, praxéologique, conceptuelle et axiologique). Elle permet notamment aux élèves d’associer l’écriture à des sentiments positifs et les amène à poser un regard réflexif sur la langue associé au développement d’habiletés métacognitives. De tels effets sont différents de ceux de pratiques traditionnelles d’enseignement de l’écriture...

Ensino da escrita em inglês com foco no desenvolvimento: uma análise das concepções de língua e escrita dos alunos; Teaching writing in English with focus on development: an analysis of students\' conceptions of language and writing

Santos, Cintia Lima de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/03/2012 Português
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Esta pesquisa focaliza as concepções de língua e escrita de alunos de um curso de escrita em inglês fundamentado na perspectiva conceitual (FERREIRA, 2005), uma abordagem para o ensino da escrita em língua estrangeira que alia a escola australiana de gêneros textuais a uma pedagogia baseada na teoria da atividade, conhecida como MAC (Movimento do Abstrato para o Concreto). Com base nos pressupostos da perspectiva vygotskiana (VYGOTSKY, 1978, 1987) e tendo como referência as concepções de língua e escrita subjacentes às três principais abordagens para o ensino da escrita em inglês, tradicional, processual e social (cf. FERREIRA, 2005, 2011), buscou-se verificar se ocorre ou não mudança nas concepções de língua e escrita dos alunos ao longo do curso. Planejado e ministrado pela própria pesquisadora, o curso intitulado Praticando a escrita em inglês por meio de gêneros textuais: a argumentação, foi oferecido como curso de extensão em uma universidade pública do estado de São Paulo. Participaram da pesquisa seis alunas, com idades entre 23 e 51 anos. A maioria possui graduação em Letras e apenas uma não é pós-graduada. A seguinte pergunta de pesquisa foi elaborada: houve mudança nas concepções de língua e escrita dos alunos ao longo do curso? Para responder a essa pergunta de pesquisa...

Manobras e estrategias de autoria : a singularidade do sujeito na produção escrita em lingua espanhola; Moves and strategies of authorshop: the subject's particularities in writing in spanish

Livia Marcia Tiba Radis Baptista
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/05/2005 Português
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Origem e objetivo: Este trabalho é fruto de nossas indagações a respeito do sujeito produtor de textos em um contexto escolar de língua estrangeira e dos diferentes modos de dizer presentes no processo de textualização. Entre os questionamentos suscitados a respeito da natureza do autor e da autoria no âmbito escolar, visamos responder às seguintes questões: 1. em que termos e com base em quais critérios se define uma noção de autoria aplicável aos textos escolares em espanhol?; 2. quais são as estratégias e manobras empregadas pelo sujeito de modo a assumir a autoria e realizar seu projeto de texto? e 3. como elaborar, a partir de uma perspectiva discursiva, um mecanismo de análise e interpretação dessas estratégias e manobras? Referencial teórico: Baseamo-nos numa articulação entre as teorias enunciativas, especialmente as contribuições de Bakhtin (1929; 1978; 1979) e a análise do discurso, além de determinados conceitos da Lingüística Textual, em especial os relacionados com o processo de textualização e a referenciação. Adotamos, ainda, a proposta de paradigma indiciário, de Ginzburg (2002). Metodologia: Partimos do pressuposto de que no processo de textualização, o sujeito, ao enunciar, assumiria uma determinada posição com vistas a realizar um projeto de dizer...

The Gender Gap in Second Language Acquisition: Gender Differences in the Acquisition of Dutch among Immigrants from 88 Countries with 49 Mother Tongues

van der Slik, Frans W. P.; van Hout, Roeland W. N. M.; Schepens, Job J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/2015 Português
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Gender differences were analyzed across countries of origin and continents, and across mother tongues and language families, using a large-scale database, containing information on 27,119 adult learners of Dutch as a second language. Female learners consistently outperformed male learners in speaking and writing proficiency in Dutch as a second language. This gender gap remained remarkably robust and constant when other learner characteristics were taken into account, such as education, age of arrival, length of residence and hours studying Dutch. For reading and listening skills in Dutch, no gender gap was found. In addition, we found a general gender by education effect for all four language skills in Dutch for speaking, writing, reading, and listening. Female language learners turned out to profit more from higher educational training than male learners do in adult second language acquisition. These findings do not seem to match nurture-oriented explanatory frameworks based for instance on a human capital approach or gender-specific acculturation processes. Rather, they seem to corroborate a nature-based, gene-environment correlational framework in which language proficiency being a genetically-influenced ability interacting with environmental factors such as motivation...

Emergence in second language writing: a methodological inroad

Macqueen,Susy
Fonte: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Publicador: Faculdade de Letras - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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Complex Systems Theory (CST) has been called upon in many different fields as a means of examining phenomena in a way that makes interconnectivity and emergence central to research. For applied linguistics, CST offers the possibility of encompassing both language and learning. In doing so, the theoretical orientation needs to be fully integrated into the research process through research methodology. This paper describes a qualitative microethnographic method, Lexical Trail Analysis, which draws on the concept of emergence. It is an analytic method that enables us to see the longitudinal development of words and their patterns. It is applied here in a case study of the development of one second language user's lexicogrammatical patterns (formulaic sequences, collocations, idioms, etc.). Her word patterns are traced as she prepares for a university entrance test and later, once she enters the university. Her use of patterns involves adaptive imitation, a complex process of perceiving, imitating and adapting patterns to suit new communicative goals.

Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.; Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom.

Youmans, Madeleine
Fonte: UFSC Publicador: UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1993 Português
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The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.; The study of composition at the post-secondary level is a relatively new practice which has become widespread only during the past half-century. More recent is the emergence over the past two to three decades of composition studies as an academic discipline, and even more recent is the awareness that composition research and pedagogy must expand to meet the needs of the ESL population. As growing numbers of international students flood colleges and universities in the English-speaking world, and as English becomes increasingly important as a world language, ESL composition is a burgeoning field.