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Corporate social responsibility in islamic financial institutions

Nogueira, João Pedro Mota Ferreira
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Master in International Management/ Classificação: M14; N25; The evolution of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility has created a lot of debate in the modern world. In the financial world, the engagement in social responsible activities, such as, providing guidelines on sustainability, environmental impact reduction, donations to charitable causes or supporting communities have become a common practice for the vast majority of financial institutions. Islamic Financial Institutions, due to its religious bond, are bound to operate in a system that places social goals at the same level, or even above, of financial goals. Actually, the ethical system and values of Islam, alongside the Shari‘ah law, provide a natural framework of social responsibility for Islamic Financial Institutions. Besides the most common characteristics of Corporate Social Responsibility, there are some singular and unique to the Islamic Financial Institutions, for instance, the collection and distribution of Zakat, the establishment of Qard-Hassan and distribution policy (for social reasons) and the management of Waqf properties on behalf of clients. The unique characteristics of these institutions are present in their everyday activities with a strong focus of the prohibition of interest (riba)...

Vaccine-Induced Cellular Responses Control Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replication after Heterologous Challenge▿ †

Wilson, Nancy A.; Keele, Brandon F.; Reed, Jason S.; Piaskowski, Shari M.; MacNair, Caitlin E.; Bett, Andrew J.; Liang, Xiaoping; Wang, Fubao; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Heidecker, Gwendolyn J.; Citron, Michael P.; Huang, Lingyi; Lin, Jing; Vitelli, Salvatore; Ah
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine efficacy trials to date have ended in failure. Structural features of the Env glycoprotein and its enormous variability have frustrated efforts to induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. To explore the extent to which vaccine-induced cellular immune responses, in the absence of neutralizing antibodies, can control replication of a heterologous, mucosal viral challenge, we vaccinated eight macaques with a DNA/Ad5 regimen expressing all of the proteins of SIVmac239 except Env. Vaccinees mounted high-frequency T-cell responses against 11 to 34 epitopes. We challenged the vaccinees and eight naïve animals with the heterologous biological isolate SIVsmE660, using a regimen intended to mimic typical HIV exposures resulting in infection. Viral loads in the vaccinees were significantly less at both the peak (1.9-log reduction; P < 0.03) and at the set point (2.6-log reduction; P < 0.006) than those in control naïve animals. Five of eight vaccinated macaques controlled acute peak viral replication to less than 80,000 viral RNA (vRNA) copy eq/ml and to less than 100 vRNA copy eq/ml in the chronic phase. Our results demonstrate that broad vaccine-induced cellular immune responses can effectively control replication of a pathogenic...

Islamic Law and Legal Education in Modern Egypt

Nakissa, Aria Daniel
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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This dissertation examines the transmission of Islamic legal knowledge in modern Egypt. It is based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork in Cairo among formally trained Islamic scholars. With governmental permission, I was able to attend classes at both al-Azhar’s Faculty of Sharīʿah and Cairo University’s Dār al-ʿUlūm. I also participated in the network of traditional study circles operating in and around al-Azhar mosque. Combining ethnographic data with extensive archival research, I trace the effects of government-led initiatives over the past century and a half to reform traditional religious learning. Such have revolved around increased incorporation of Western educational methods. There are two themes on which I focus. The first centers on ethics and subjectivity. Talal Asad has suggested that for pre-modern Muslim jurists, accurate understanding of sacred texts presupposed an appropriate "habitus". Drawing on Wittgenstein and Bourdieu, I elaborate Asad’s brief remarks along the following lines. Given that how a text is read depends upon the attributes of the reader, religious authorities insisted that proper interpretations could only be generated by proper character. The way in which to produce proper character was to mold it through a suitable program of ethical discipline. I demonstrate that pre-modern Islamic educational techniques were structured with the aim of imparting a particular habitus (modeled on that of the Prophet) by enjoining meticulous and constant imitation of the Prophet’s personal habits (Sunnah). By transforming themselves into living replicas of the Prophet...

Continuity and Change in Islamic Law in Indonesia: The case of Nahdlatul Ulama bahtsul masail in East Java

Riza, Achmad Kemal
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Masters)
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Acknowledgements aren't included in digital version. Page numbering differs from original due to different width of pages.; The fatwa (pl. fatawa) or non-binding legal opinion is an important institution in Islamic thought. In relation to the shari‘ah (the body of Islamic law), fatwa has been the agent for relating the teaching of shari‘ah to 'the concrete world of human affairs' (Masud, Brinkley, and Messick, 1996:3). It is a medium to understand social change (Hooker, 2003) and a source of Islamic legal and social history (Powers, 1990) of Muslim community. For this reason, fatwa, along with qada’ (Islamic court’s decision) institution, is an important agent of Shari'ah application. In Islamic legal scholarship (fiqh), as some have argues (Schacht, 1964: 74-5 and Hallaq, 1994:), fatwa has been instrumental in the development of furu‘ al-fiqh (theoretical aspect of substantive law) as well as usul al-fiqh (legal methodology of Islamic law) in Islam. The mufti can be seen as the agent of legal change as well (Hallaq, 2001:174). Many fatawa of prominent muftis (jurist-consult) are incorporated into the substantive law of certain madhhab (school of law) and many muftis are prominent jurist-authors affiliated to schools of law (Hallaq...

A Sharia'ah al islamia : Contextualização histórica,politica e atualidade

El Sawi, Maria Izabel Sales de França
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Nossa primeira questão a ser levantada nesta tese é com a História do Direito islâmico, na qual foram examinados preceitos do Al Qu ran, da Sunna e do Al Ijma a. Por certo nosso objetivo maior é mostrar a importância da inseparabilidade entre Direito e Religião na Shari ah Al Islamia, cujos caracteres da sua lei distanciam-se das codificações ocidentais, bem como, a luta dos muçulmanos pelo retorno à Lei Divina. Para tanto, fizemos uma retrospectiva histórica, política e filosófica dos povos árabes. Inicialmente, com a introdução do Direito que surgiu com a revelação alcorânica, impondo o aparecimento do Estado Islâmico, em Medina, na Arábia Saudita. Posteriormente, a conscientização jurídica, através das normas do Al Qu ran, da Sunna e do Al Ijma a, nascendo a Ciência Jurídica Islâmica. A atmosfera de respeito no meio da população, através das diretrizes de conduta e jurisprudências das Escolas de Direito Islâmico, proporcionam condições para as resistências populares contra os governos que se afastaram da Lei Islâmica. As revoltas são de concepções sociais e jurídicas, com maior ênfase nos países que tiveram suas terras divididas ou devastadas pelas guerras explorativas. As massas muçulmanas pedem a volta da Lei Divina para que possam aplicar o Estado de Direito