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Aprendizagem social e resolução de conflitos em ambientes democráticos e autocráticos: um estudo com pré-escolares; Social learning and conflict resolution in democratic and authoritarian preschools

Sampaio, Patricia da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2011 Português
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A presente pesquisa dedicou-se ao tema da aprendizagem social por meio de uma abordagem psicológica cultural deste fenômeno, agregando ainda contribuições ao tema advindas da Psicologia Moral. Buscou-se identificar diferenças nas representações de crianças pré-escolares quanto às estratégias que utilizam para resolver conflitos interpessoais, em função das diferentes relações por elas vivenciadas em um ambiente mais democrático e cooperativo e em outro com maior orientação autocrática e coercitiva. Assim, foram entrevistadas 27 crianças, com 4 a 5 anos de idade, provenientes de duas creches públicas que apresentavam as características citadas. As professoras responsáveis pelos grupos de crianças pesquisados também participaram respondendo a um questionário acerca de seus valores, representações e atitudes relacionados a sua mediação em situações de conflitos interpessoais vivenciados por seus alunos. O conjunto de relatos foi analisado de forma fundamentalmente qualitativa, tendo por base a técnica de análise de conteúdo e, no caso das crianças, como categorias, a agressão, a submissão e a assertividade, além de outras categorias ambivalentes. Os resultados obtidos indicaram relação entre o ambiente democrático e habilidades mais sofisticadas e apropriadas socialmente de resolução de conflitos reportadas pelas crianças e...

Involvement of the midbrain periaqueductal gray 5-HT1A receptors in social conflict induced analgesia in mice

Canto-De-Souza, A.; de Souza, RLN; Pela, I. R.; Graeff, F. G.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 253-256
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Recent results from our laboratory have shown that 30-bites social conflict in mice produces a high-intensity, short-term analgesia which is attenuated by systemically injected 5-HT1A receptor agonists, such as BAY R 1531 (6-methoxy-4-(di-n-propylamino)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz(c,d)indole hydrochloride) and gepirone. The present study investigated the effects of these drugs, as well as the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100135 (N-tert-butyl-3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine-1-yl)-2-phenylpropanamide) injected into the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter of mice on 30-bites analgesia. Four to five days after guide-cannula implantation, each mouse received microinjection of gepirone (30 nmol/0.2 mu l), BAY R 1531 (10 nmol/0.2 mu l), WAY 100135 (10 nmol/0.2 mu l), saline (0.9% NaCl) or vehicle (saline + 4% Tween 80) 5 min before either an aggressive (30 bites) or a non-aggressive interaction. Nociception was assessed by the tail-flick test made before as well as 1, 5, 10 and 20 min after social interaction. The full 5-HT1A receptor agonist BAY R 1531 blocked, whereas, WAY 100135 and gepirone intensified 30-bites analgesia, Neither non-aggressive interaction, per se, nor the three compounds given after this type of social interaction significantly changed nociception. These results indicate that 5-HT1A receptors in the periaqueductal gray inhibit analgesia induced by social conflict in mice. (C) 1998 Elsevier B.V. B.V.

High intensity social conflict in the Swiss albino mouse induces analgesia modulated by 5-HT1A receptors

DeSouza, A. C.; deSouza, RLN; Pela, I. R.; Graeff, F. G.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 481-486
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Social conflict between mice produces analgesia in the attacked mouse. Both the magnitude and type (opioid or nonopioid) of this analgesia have been related to attack intensity and strain of mouse. In the present study low intensity social conflict (7 bites) did not produce analgesia, whereas high intensity - 30 and 60 bites interactions produced, respectively, short-lasting (5 min) and very short-lasting (1 min) analgesia in Swiss albino mice, when compared with nonaggressive interaction (0 bite). The 30 bites aggressive interaction induced analgesia (AIIA) was not affected by IP injection of either naloxone (5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg) or diazepam (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). However, this attack-induced analgesia was reduced after IP administration of the 5-HT1A agonists, gepirone (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) and BAY R 1531 (0.01 mg/kg). These results indicate that the analgesia induced by 30 bites social conflict in Swiss albino mice does not involve opioid and GABA-benzodiazepine (GABA-BZD) mechanisms. In addition, they suggest that high-intensity social conflict activates serotonergic pain modulatory systems that act through 5-HT1A receptors. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier B.V.

Effects of Empathic Paraphrasing – Extrinsic Emotion Regulation in Social Conflict

Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Prehn, Kristin
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2012 Português
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In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator’s perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy. Twenty participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized 10 standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the 10 descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition). Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings. Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants’ voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, were higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing...

Resolving social conflict among females without overt aggression

Cant, Michael A.; Young, Andrew J.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2013 Português
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Members of animal societies compete over resources and reproduction, but the extent to which such conflicts of interest are resolved peacefully (without recourse to costly or wasteful acts of aggression) varies widely. Here, we describe two theoretical mechanisms that can help to understand variation in the incidence of overt behavioural conflict: (i) destruction competition and (ii) the use of threats. The two mechanisms make different assumptions about the degree to which competitors are socially sensitive (responsive to real-time changes in the behaviour of their social partners). In each case, we discuss how the model assumptions relate to biological reality and highlight the genetic, ecological and informational factors that are likely to promote peaceful conflict resolution, drawing on empirical examples. We suggest that, relative to males, reproductive conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully through threats of punishment, rather than overt acts of punishment, because (i) offspring are more costly to produce for females and (ii) reproduction is more difficult to conceal. The main need now is for empirical work to test whether the mechanisms described here can indeed explain how social conflict can be resolved without overt aggression.

Local Conflict and Development Projects in Indonesia : Part of the Problem or Part of a Solution?

Barron, Patrick; Diprose, Rachael; Woolcock, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Drawing on an integrated mixed methods research design, the authors explore the dynamics of the development-conflict nexus in rural Indonesia, and the specific role of development projects in shaping the nature, extent, and trajectories of "everyday" conflicts. They find that projects that give inadequate attention to dispute resolution mechanisms in many cases stimulate local conflict, either through the injection of development resources themselves or less directly by exacerbating preexisting tensions in target communities. But projects that have explicit and accessible procedures for managing disputes arising from the development process are much less likely to lead to violent outcomes. The authors argue that such projects are more successful in addressing project-related conflicts because they establish direct procedures (such as forums, facilitators, and complaints mechanisms) for dealing with tensions as they arise. These direct mechanisms are less successful in addressing broader social tensions elicited by...

Assessing the Potential of Societal Verification by Means of Social Media in the Areas of Nuclear Disarmament, Nonproliferation, and Nuclear Security

Center on Contemporary Conflict
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
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FY 2013-2014. Project Lead: Bryan Lee; In a tech-savvy world, open source technology could open the door to new methods of verification. It could empower civil society to assist in strengthening the nonproliferation verification regime and increase global public awareness and understanding of the relevance of nuclear proliferation in everyday life. In situations where there is public access or major public policy concern, social media can reinforce nonproliferation, arms control agreements, and norms. By addressing the opportunities and limitations for enhancing international security, the project will develop a new media _roadmap_ for nuclear nonproliferation experts and policymakers to better understand the potential of applying such a rapidly evolving, powerful medium to the issues of nuclear security.

La gestión constructiva de conflictos en la formación del Grado en Trabajo Social

Dorado Barbé, Ana
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Si existe una realidad en la práctica profesional del Trabajo Social es la convivencia habitual con las situaciones de conflicto. Según se recoge en el Libro Blanco del Grado en Trabajo Social (2005), en base a las competencias definidas en el Proyecto Tuning, la “resolución de problemas” es la competencia genérica más valorada por profesionales, egresados, alumnos y profesorado. Asimismo en todos los documentos de referencia nacionales para la elaboración del Título en Grado en Trabajo Social se recoge la importancia de la resolución de problemas como competencia esencial en el perfil profesional de los trabajadores y las trabajadoras sociales, así como de la mediación como área de intervención y función propia del Trabajo Social. La presente tesis doctoral analiza si la importancia otorgada en el ámbito académico y profesional a nivel nacional a la gestión constructiva de conflictos en la práctica profesional del Trabajo Social, tiene respuesta formativa en los Planes de Estudio de las universidades españolas. En particular, se señala la incidencia que dicha formación tiene en el alumnado de la Facultad de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid en la percepción, estilos personales de afrontamiento y conocimiento sobre el conflicto...

Structural change, collective action, and social unrest in 1930s Spain

Domènech Feliu, Jordi; Miley, Thomas Jeffrey
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/draft; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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The Spanish 2nd Republic (1931-1936) witnessed one of the fastest and deepest processes of popular mobilization in interwar Europe, generating a decisive reactionary wave that brought the country to the Civil War (1936-1939). We show in the paper that both contemporary comment and part of the historiography makes generalizations about the behaviour of the working classes in the period that stress idealistic, re-distributive and even religious motives to join movements of protest. In some other cases, state repression, poverty, and deteriorating living standards have been singled out as the main determinants of participation. This paper uses collective action theory to argue that key institutional changes and structural changes in labour markets were crucial to understand a significant part of the explosive popular mobilization of the period. We argue first that, before the second Republic, temporary migrants had been the main structural limitation against the stabilization of unions and collective bargaining in agricultural labour markets and in several service and industrial sectors. We then show how several industries underwent important structural changes since the late 1910s which stabilized part of the labour force and allowed for union growth and collective bargaining. In agricultural labour markets or in markets in which unskilled temporary workers could not be excluded...

Programa de participación social para menores en situación de conflicto social en la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia

Hermo Martínez, María Isabel
Fonte: Universidade da Corunha Publicador: Universidade da Corunha
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
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Traballo fin de grao (UDC.FCS). Terapia ocupacional. Curso 2013/2014; Hoy en día, existen cada vez más menores en situación de conflicto social. Existe conocimiento sobre la vivencia de dicho proceso por parte de los menores, haciendo referencia a la importancia de los contextos bajo un acontecimiento tan importante como es la situación en la que se encuentran, centrándose en la prevención, detección e intervención desde los ámbitos psicológico, pedagógico y educativo, dejando un poco de lado lo cotidiano. Un total de 4.270 menores en Galicia están bajo protección de la Administración, que ha asumido su guardia o tutela ante la incapacidad de sus padres para hacerse cargo de ellos o por incumplimiento por parte de sus progenitores del deber de cuidado. Más del 47% de estos niños en situación de desamparo viven en centros residenciales propios de la Xunta. Por todo ello, el objetivo de este estudio será proporcionar conocimiento sobre aquellos acontecimientos que afectan a la participación social del menor en situación de conflicto, realizando un estudio de investigación con un enfoque metodológico cuantitativo y cualitativo.; Today, there are more children once each in social conflict. There is knowledge about the experience of the process by children...

Towards the formation of a sustainable South Florida: An analysis of conflict resolution and consensus building in the South Florida Everglades Ecosystem Restoration Initiative

Oyola-Yemaiel, Arthur A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This dissertation examines the sociological process of conflict resolution and consensus building in South Florida Everglades Ecosystem Restoration through what I define as a Network Management Coordinative Interstitial Group (NetMIG). The process of conflict resolution can be summarized as the participation of interested and affected parties (stakeholders) in a forum of negotiation. I study the case of the Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida (GCSSF) that was established to reduce social conflict. Such conflict originated from environmental disputes about the Everglades and was manifested in the form of gridlock among regulatory (government) agencies, Indian tribes, as well as agricultural, environmental conservationist and urban development interests. The purpose of the participatory forum is to reduce conflicts of interest and to achieve consensus, with the ultimate goal of restoration of the original Everglades ecosystem, while cultivating the economic and cultural bases of the communities in the area. Further, the forum aim to formulate consensus through envisioning a common sustainable community by providing means to achieve a balance between human and natural systems. ^ Data were gathered using participant observation and document analysis techniques to conduct a theoretically based analysis of the role of the Network Management Coordinative Interstitial Group (NetMIG). I use conflict resolution theory...

The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development

Easterly, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Modern political economy stresses "society's polarization" as a determinant of development outcomes. Among the most common dorms of social conflict are class polarization, and ethnic polarization. A middle class consensus is defined as a high share of income for the middle class and a low degree of ethnic polarization. A middle class consensus distinguishes development successes from failures. A theoretical model shows how groups - distinguished by class or ethnicity - will under-invest in human capital and infrastructure when there is "leakage" to another group. The author links the existence of a middle class consensus to exogenous country characteristics, such as resource endowments, along the lines of the provocative thesis of Engerman and Sokoloff (1997), that tropical commodity exporters are more unequal than other societies. The author confirms this hypothesis with cross-country data. This makes it possible to use resource endowments as instruments for inequality. A higher share of income for the middle class and lower ethnic polarization...

Conflict, Livelihoods, and Poverty in Guinea-Bissau

Boubacar-Sid, Barry; Creppy, Edward G.E.; Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Conflict and political instability have weakened Guinea-Bissau's productive infrastructure considerably during the past three decades. This situation contributes to an increase in the degree of vulnerability of the population, especially in rural areas where most economic activities continue to take place. As growth has been weak, poverty levels remain high. This book provides a collection of papers on conflict, livelihoods, and poverty in Guinea-Bissau based on both the nationally representative 2002 household survey and a small scale survey with both quantitative and qualitative components implemented in 2004. The chapters deal with growth and poverty, institutions and social networks, the determinants of poverty, the means of livelihoods of the population, and finally cashew production and taxation.

Tempo, trabalho e conflito social no complexo coureiro-calçadista de Franca-SP (1950-1980); Time, work and social conflict in the footware industry of Franca (São Paulo, Brazil), 1950-1980

Vinícius Donizete de Rezende
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2012 Português
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Entre as décadas de 1950 e 1980, inserido na conjuntura nacional de expansão industrial, crescimento urbano e concentração populacional nas cidades, o município de Franca-SP consolidou se como o principal produtor de calçados masculinos de couro do Brasil. A exportação de calçados teve início nos anos 1970 e os produtores locais tiveram nos Estados Unidos os principais compradores de suas mercadorias. O desenvolvimento do setor deu origem a um complexo coureiro calçadista composto por diferentes indústrias produtoras de matéria-prima e componentes para calçados, com destaque para os curtumes e as indústrias de artefatos de borracha. Uma das principais características desse parque fabril foi a heterogeneidade do porte e da tecnologia empregada pelas fábricas. O crescimento industrial tornou a cidade um importante pólo de atração populacional e milhares de ex-trabalhadores rurais migraram em busca de trabalho e melhores condições de vida. Dessa maneira, os principais objetivos desta tese foram analisar as transformações nos processos produtivos, as relações de trabalho e a formação da classe trabalhadora ao longo do período. Para tanto, privilegiei as experiências cotidianas dos trabalhadores e trabalhadoras que dedicaram longos anos de suas vidas à produção de couros...

Aggression and Affiliation during Social Conflict in Pigs

Camerlink, Irene; Turner, Simon P.; Ursinus, Winanda W.; Reimert, Inonge; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/11/2014 Português
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Social conflict is mostly studied in relation to aggression. A more integral approach, including aggressive and affiliative behaviour as well as physiology, may however give a better understanding of the animals' experience during social conflict. The experience of social conflict may also be reflected in the spatial distribution between conspecifics. The objective was to assess the relationship between behaviour, physiology, and spatial integration in pigs (Sus scrofa) during social conflict. Hereto, 64 groups of pigs (9 wk of age) were studied in a 24 h regrouping test whereby pairs of familiar pigs were grouped with 2 unfamiliar pairs, in either barren or straw-enriched housing. Data on aggressive and affiliative behaviour, skin lesions, body weight, and haptoglobin could be summarized into three principal component analysis factors. These three factors were analysed in relation to spatial integration, i.e. inter-individual distances and lying in body contact. Pigs stayed up to 24 h after encounter in closer proximity to the familiar pig than to unfamiliar pigs. Pigs with a high factor 1 score were more inactive, gave little social nosing, had many skin lesions and a high body weight. They tended to space further away from the familiar pig (b = 1.9 cm; P = 0.08) and unfamiliar ones (b = 0.7 cm; P = 0.05). Pigs that were involved in much aggression (factor 2)...

Matar al padre: un modelo de reconstrucción del conflicto social desde la Sociología de las Organizaciones

de Miguel, Jesús M.; Martín Fernández, Manuel
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 Português
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El presente articulo analiza sociológicamente la forma en que las personas que forman parte de una organización compleja reconstruyen un conflicto social interno. Ese proceso se interpreta desde la teoria freudiana del proceso de "matar al padre". Se utiliza la elaboración teórica en Totem y tabú de 1912. La segunda aplicación es a la teoria de las desorganizaciones, dentro de la Sociologia de las Organizaciones. En el análisis se utilizan transcripciones de entrevistas en grupo (10 EEP) realizadas durante un año (1993) dentro de la organización (la policia municipal de una gran ciudad española), asi como información de observación participante (OP) durante un año. El articulo analiza primero los grupos que existen dentro de la estructura actual de la organización y el tipo de conflictos que generan entre ellos. En la parte central se estudia el poder a traves de los sistemas de jerarquización, el poder de jefatura, los mandos intermedios y lo que Perrow conceptualiza como el poder de los sin poder. Se interpreta la experiencia pasada de derrocamiento del jefe como un caso de "matar al padre", analizando el conflicto actual como continuación del mismo proceso. Al no institucionalizarse el conflicto (sustituir la acción por la idea) se repite de forma simbólica el parricidio del jefe. El articulo muestra la forma en que la teoria psicoanalítica grupal se puede aplicar a las organizaciones complejas contemporáneas...

O conflito social e o jogo sagrado dos deuses; The social conflict and the Gods sacred game

Trindade, Liana
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Brasileiros
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/12/1987 Português
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Estudo sobre a "Demanda Umbandista" como representação simbólica do conflito social. Nesta prática mágica a força dos deuses substitui a dos homens em sua luta social competitiva, propiciando oportunidades para a manifestação das intenções hostis e agressivas contidas nas relações sociais. Compreendemos o processo da "demanda" como um jogo, empregando as concepções de J. Huizinga sobre a atividade lúdica. Este culto sagrado, assim como o jogo profano, é praticado dentro de limites espaciais e temporais próprios, segundo uma certa ordem e certas regras, em cuja estrutura situa os indivíduos fora da existência ordinária, conduzindo-os ao universo utópico onde os participantes revelam-se enquanto pessoas individualizadas e julgadas segundo critérios que garantam a justiça social.; It concerns to the "Demanda Umbandista" as a representative symbol of the social conflict.In this magic practice the force of Gods substitutes the force of men in their competitive struggle, giving them opportunities to the manifestation of adverse and agressive intentions included in the social relation.Using the J. Huizinga's conceptions about the activities pertaining to games, we understand the process of the "demanda" as a game.this sacred cult...

The Attacked Mouse: neurochemical, Physiological, and behavioral correlates; The Attacked Mouse: neurochemical, Physiological, and behavioral correlates

Siegfried, Bert; Institute of Pharmacology, University of Zurich, CH – 8006 Zurich, Switzerland.; de Souza, Ricardo Luiz Nunes; Laboratory of Psychobiology, FFCLRP, Campus of the University of São Paulo, 14049, Ribeirão Preto , Brazil.
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1990 Português
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O presente trabalho é uma revisão dos dados neuroquímicos fisiológicos e comportamentos mencionados do camundongo agredido. São apresentadas  as possíveis relações entre os sistemas de dor, memória e defesa, com especial ênfase no papel dos peptídeos opióides endógenos (EOPs). Nas estruturas do sistema defensivo do cérebro de camundongos agredidos,  tem sido encontrada uma diminuição da imunorreatividade semelhante a     – endorfina e modificações nas características de ligações dos opiáceos e benzodiazepinicos. EOPs mediam o aumento da síntese de dopamina no periaqueduto cinzento e córtex frontal no conflito social induzido. A  analgesia no conflito social em camundongos agredidos está sob o controle de mecanismo opióide (e.g., benzodizepina, glutamato) e foi modificado por experiência (e.g., aumento do tempo de reação analógica, tolerância). EOPs e mecanismos inibidores da dor participam na organização  da defesa  comportamental, comportamento recuperativo e a memorização da experiência de ataque. Conclui-se que a situação de conflito social entre os  murinos, de relevante significados biológicos em vários níveis e cons tituem uma alternativa aos modelos animais existentes de aversão e defesa.; The present work reviews  neurochemical...

Inflation, inequality and social conflict

Crowe, Christopher
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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This paper presents a political economy model of inflation as a result of social conflict. Agents are heterogeneous in terms of income. Agents’ income levels determine their ability to hedge against the effects of inflation. The interaction of heterogeneous cash holdings and preferences over fiscal policy leads to conflict over how to finance government expenditure. The model makes a number of predictions concerning which environments are conducive to the emergence of inflation. Inflation will tend to be higher in countries with higher inequality and with greater pro-rich bias in the political system. Conversely, the use of income tax will be higher in countries with lower inequality and less pro-rich bias. The model also predicts that although inequality and political bias will have an impact on the composition of revenue, it will have no effect on the overall level of government spending (assuming that spending is on public goods only). These results are largely confirmed by the empirical portion of the paper. The paper’s novel features are its simplifications at the household level which allow for richer treatment of the income distribution and political process than in the related literature. The paper also gives unequivocal comparative statics results under relatively undemanding assumptions.

Patrimonialism in the causes of the division of the kingdom in Israel: A reading of the division narrative from the perspective of the Rwandan context of social conflict

Fonte: Old Testament Essays Publicador: Old Testament Essays
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The account of the division of the kingdom of Israel reported in 1 Kgs 11-14 shows a tension between the recounted episode in itself and its global contextual framework. On one hand, the narrative reports the event as a divinely fated event resulting from Yahweh's judgment on Solomon's apostasy. On the other hand, the larger context described in the biblical traditions as well as the social history of Israel indicate that the division resulted from socio-economic problems that developed throughout the history of Israel. These problems revolved around the people's resistance against the leaders who, instead of serving the people, exploited them through patrimonial regimes in which the leaders appealed to kinship relations to consolidate their rules. Aspects of this socio-economic conflict in Israel find parallels in contemporary social conflicts in Africa and elsewhere. The present essay attempts a comparative and evaluative approach that establishes a dialogue between the context of social conflict in Israel and the context of similar conflict in Rwanda. Issues that provide the space for interaction in the present article include the attitude of political leaders whose inequitable regimes jeopardized social unity; then the deliberate decision of the same leaders to ignore the voice of the peacemakers resulting in tragedies. The paper argues that patrimonialism contributed to conflicts in both contexts. A dialogical interaction between the contexts of conflict in Israel and in Rwanda is preceded by a brief description of the comparative approach adopted in this paper.