The usage of mobile phone increases globally. However, there is still a paucity of data about the impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. This study investigated whether EMF radiation would alter the biology of glial cells and act as a tumor-promoting agent. We exposed rat astrocytes and C6 glioma cells to 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA for 12, 24 and 48 h respectively, and found that EMF exposure had differential effects on rat astroctyes and C6 glioma cells. A 48 h of exposure damaged the mitochondria and induced significant apoptosis of astrocytes. Moreover, caspase-3, a hallmark of apoptosis, was highlighted in astrocytes after 48 h of EMF exposure, accompanied by a significantly increased expression of bax and reduced level of bcl-2. The tumorigenicity assays demonstrated that astrocytes did not form tumors in both control and exposure groups. In contrast, the unexposed and exposed C6 glioma cells show no significant differences in both biological feature and tumor formation ability. Therefore, our results implied that exposure to the EMF of 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA may not promote the tumor formation, but continuous exposure damaged the mitochondria of astrocytes and induce apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway with the involvement of bax and bcl-2.
With a growing number of consumers utilizing the Internet, companies have foreseen a consumer demand for high-speed wireless access. Since current mobile cellular systems can transfer at most 115.2 kbps per user, a third generation of mobile cellular service has been under development by various organizations since 1997. This new generation of technology will support data rates up to 2 Mbps for stationary mobiles and up to 144 kbps for vehicular traffic. This thesis focuses mainly on TD-SCDMA, one of many candidates submitted to the International Telecommunications Union for third generation review. The standard, developed in China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology, employs both code-division multiple access and time-division duplexing to support both forward and reverse transmissions on one physical layer. This aspect, along with other common features of TD-SCDMA, will be studied and evaluated to determine if this new technology is a viable option for future commercial or military deployment.
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; This thesis investigates the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization on the South Korean wireless telecommunication industry. Of particular interest, this thesis explores whether the South Korean wireless telecom industry will benefit from China's accession into the WTO. The working hypothesis of the thesis is that South Korean wireless telecom companies will receive far-reaching economic benefit from China's entry into the WTO. Additionally, this thesis explores the effects the entry in the WTO will have on China's telecom policy toward allowing foreign companies to own and operate parts of the network.; Captain, United States Marine Corps