Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, hereditary cancer predisposition disorder. In Brazil, the p.R337H TP53 founder mutation causes the variant form of LFS, Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. The occurrence of cancer and age of disease onset are known to vary, even in patients carrying the same mutation, and several mechanisms such as genetic and epigenetic alterations may be involved in this variability. However, the extent of involvement of such events has not been clarified. It is well established that p53 regulates several pathways, including the thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) pathway, which regulates the DNA methylation of several genes. This study aimed to identify the DNA methylation pattern of genes potentially related to the TDG pathway (CDKN2A, FOXA1, HOXD8, OCT4, SOX2, and SOX17) in 30 patients with germline TP53 mutations, 10 patients with wild-type TP53, and 10 healthy individuals. We also evaluated TDG expression in patients with adrenocortical tumors (ADR) with and without the p.R337H TP53 mutation. Gene methylation patterns of peripheral blood DNA samples assessed by pyrosequencing revealed no significant differences between the three groups. However, increased TDG expression was observed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in p.R337H carriers with ADR. Considering the rarity of this phenotype and the relevance of these findings...
The repair enzymes thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 4 (MBD4) remove thymines from T:G mismatches resulting from deamination of 5-methylcytosine. Thymine glycol, a common DNA lesion produced by oxidative stress, can arise from oxidation of thymine or from oxidative deamination of 5-methylcytosine, and is then present opposite adenine or opposite guanine, respectively. Here we have used oligonucleotides with thymine glycol incorporated into different sequence contexts and paired with adenine or guanine. We show that TDG and MBD4 can remove thymine glycol when present opposite guanine but not when paired with adenine. The efficiency of these enzymes for removal of thymine glycol is about half of that for removal of thymine in the same sequence context. The two proteins may have evolved to act specifically on DNA mismatches produced by deamination and by oxidation-coupled deamination of 5-methylcytosine. This repair pathway contributes to mutation avoidance at methylated CpG dinucleotides.
Gene activation involves protein complexes with diverse enzymatic activities, some of which are involved in chromatin modification. We have shown previously that the base excision repair enzyme thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) acts as a potent coactivator for estrogen receptor-α. To further understand how TDG acts in this context, we studied its interaction with known coactivators of nuclear receptors. We find that TDG interacts in vitro and in vivo with the p160 coactivator SRC1, with the interaction being mediated by a previously undescribed motif encoding four equally spaced tyrosine residues in TDG, each tyrosine being separated by three amino acids. This is found to interact with two motifs in SRC1 also containing tyrosine residues separated by three amino acids. Site-directed mutagenesis shows that the tyrosines encoded in these motifs are critical for the interaction. The related p160 protein TIF2 does not interact with TDG and has the altered sequence, F-X-X-X-Y, at the equivalent positions relative to SRC1. Substitution of the phenylalanines to tyrosines is sufficient to bring about interaction of TIF2 with TDG. These findings highlight a new protein–protein interaction motif based on Y-X-X-X-Y and provide new insight into the interaction of diverse proteins in coactivator complexes.
Human Thymine-DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a member of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. It excises uracil, thymine and a number of chemical base lesions when mispaired with guanine in double-stranded DNA. These activities are not unique to TDG; at least three additional proteins with similar enzymatic properties are present in mammalian cells. The successful co-evolution of these enzymes implies the existence of non-redundant biological functions that must be coordinated. Here, we report cell cycle regulation as a mechanism for the functional separation of apparently redundant DNA glycosylases. We show that cells entering S-phase eliminate TDG through the ubiquitin–proteasome system and then maintain a TDG-free condition until G2. Incomplete degradation of ectopically expressed TDG impedes S-phase progression and cell proliferation. The mode of cell cycle regulation of TDG is strictly inverse to that of UNG2, which peaks in and throughout S-phase and then declines to undetectable levels until it appears again just before the next S-phase. Thus, TDG- and UNG2-dependent base excision repair alternates throughout the cell cycle, and the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway constitutes the underlying regulatory system.
Human (h) DNA repair enzyme thymine DNA glycosylase (hTDG) is a key DNA glycosylase in the base excision repair (BER) pathway that repairs deaminated cytosines and 5-methyl-cytosines. The cell cycle checkpoint protein Rad9–Rad1–Hus1 (the 9-1-1 complex) is the surveillance machinery involved in the preservation of genome stability. In this study, we show that hTDG interacts with hRad9, hRad1 and hHus1 as individual proteins and as a complex. The hHus1 interacting domain is mapped to residues 67–110 of hTDG, and Val74 of hTDG plays an important role in the TDG–Hus1 interaction. In contrast to the core domain of hTDG (residues 110–308), hTDG(67–308) removes U and T from U/G and T/G mispairs, respectively, with similar rates as native hTDG. Human TDG activity is significantly stimulated by hHus1, hRad1, hRad9 separately, and by the 9-1-1 complex. Interestingly, the interaction between hRad9 and hTDG, as detected by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), is enhanced following N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment. A significant fraction of the hTDG nuclear foci co-localize with hRad9 foci in cells treated with methylating agents. Thus, the 9-1-1 complex at the lesion sites serves as both a damage sensor to activate checkpoint control and a component of the BER.
Our ability to selectively manipulate gene expression by epigenetic means is limited, as there is no approach for targeted reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes, in contrast to what is available for selective gene silencing. We aimed to develop a tool for selective transcriptional activation by DNA demethylation. Here we present evidence that direct targeting of thymine-DNA-glycosylase (TDG) to specific sequences in the DNA can result in local DNA demethylation at potential regulatory sequences and lead to enhanced gene induction. When TDG was fused to a well-characterized DNA-binding domain [the Rel-homology domain (RHD) of NFκB], we observed decreased DNA methylation and increased transcriptional response to unrelated stimulus of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). The effect was not seen for control genes lacking either RHD-binding sites or high levels of methylation, nor in control mock-transduced cells. Specific reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes may thus be achievable by this approach, which provides a broadly useful strategy to further our exploration of biological mechanisms and to improve control over the epigenome.
► We characterized the mutator phenotype of a very early onset rectal cancer. ► High frequency of C:G>T:A or G:C>A:T transitions at methylated CpG sites was found. ► A somatic TDG mutation was found associated with TDG expression loss in the tumor. ► 1st in vivo evidence that TDG acts against deleterious 5-methylcytosine deamination.
The prevalent DNA modification in higher organisms is the methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which is partially converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) family of dioxygenases. Despite their importance in epigenetic regulation, it is unclear how these cytosine modifications are reversed. Here, we demonstrate that 5mC and 5hmC in DNA are oxidized to 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by Tet dioxygenases in vitro and in cultured cells. 5caC is specifically recognized and excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG). Depletion of TDG in mouse embyronic stem cells leads to accumulation of 5caC to a readily detectable level. These data suggest that oxidation of 5mC by Tet proteins followed by TDG-mediated base excision of 5caC constitutes a pathway for active DNA demethylation.
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) belongs to the superfamily of uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG) and is the first enzyme in the base-excision repair pathway (BER) that removes thymine from G:T mismatches at CpG sites. This glycosylase activity has also been found to be critical for active demethylation of genes involved in embryonic development. Here we show that wild-type p53 transcriptionally regulates TDG expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase assays indicate that wild-type p53 binds to a domain of TDG promoter containing two p53 consensus response elements (p53RE) and activates its transcription. Next, we have used a panel of cell lines with different p53 status to demonstrate that TDG mRNA and protein expression levels are induced in a p53-dependent manner under different conditions. This panel includes isogenic breast and colorectal cancer cell lines with wild-type or inactive p53, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines lacking p53 or expressing a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Induction of TDG mRNA expression is accompanied by accumulation of TDG protein in both nucleus and cytoplasm, with nuclear re-localization occurring upon DNA damage in p53-competent...
The base excision repair system is vital to the repair of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. This pathway is initiated by one of several DNA glycosylases that recognizes and excises specific DNA lesions in a coordinated fashion. Methyl-CpG Domain Protein 4 (MBD4) and Thymine DNA Glycosylase (TDG) are the two major G:T glycosylases that remove thymine generated by the deamination of 5-methylcytosine. Both of these glycosylase also remove a variety of other base lesions, including G:U and preferentially act at CpG sites throughout the genome. Many have questioned the purpose of seemingly redundant glycosylases, but new information has emerged to suggest MBD4 and TDG have diverse biological functions. MBD4 has been closely linked to apoptosis, while TDG has been clearly implicated in transcriptional regulation. This article reviews all these developments, and discusses the consequences of germline and somatic mutations that lead to non-synonymous amino acid substitutions on MBD4 and TDG protein function. In addition, we report the finding of alternately spliced variants of MBD4 and TDG and the results of functional studies of a tumor-associated variant of MBD4.
TET dioxygenases successively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mammalian genomes to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC/5caC can be excised and repaired to regenerate unmodified cytosines by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) and base excision repair (BER) pathway, but it is unclear to what extent and at which part of the genome this active demethylation process takes place. Here, we have generated genome-wide distribution maps of 5hmC/5fC/5caC using modification-specific antibodies in wild-type and Tdg-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In wild-type mouse ESCs, 5fC/5caC accumulates to detectable levels at major satellite repeats but not at non-repetitive loci. In contrast, Tdg depletion in mouse ESCs causes marked accumulation of 5fC and 5caC at a large number of proximal and distal gene regulatory elements. Thus, these results reveal the first genome-wide view of iterative 5mC oxidation dynamics and indicate that TET/TDG-dependent active DNA demethylation process occurs extensively in the mammalian genome.
The ten-eleven translocation family of proteins (Tet1/2/3, Tets) converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which can be further oxidized and repaired by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), to influence gene transcription in embryonic and adult tissues. However the mechanisms of how Tets and TDG levels are regulated are unknown. We show that miR-29 can directly regulate Tet1-3 and TDG mRNA levels through binding to their 3’UTRs. miR-29 mimic decreases global 5hmC levels, a hallmark of Tet activity. Moreover, the mRNA levels for Tet3 and TDG are inversely correlated with the levels of miR-29 in aged mouse aorta implying that aging may affect methylation patterns via miRNA. In summary, our data show that Tets and TDG are direct targets of miR-29 and unravel a novel regulatory role for this miRNA in epigenetic DNA demethylation pathways.
Dynamic regulation and faithful maintenance of proper DNA methylation patterns are essential for many cellular functions. 5-Formylcytosine (5fC), a newly discovered oxidized form of methylcytosine (mC) is involved in active DNA demethylation process. The latest progresses suggest exciting novel functional roles of this residue. Chemical tools are desired to further elucidate the functional roles of 5fC and to modulate dynamics of DNA demethylation and downstream biological processes. Here we designed and constructed a chemical probe, consisting of an aldehyde targeting group and an intercalation group. This molecule can selectively react with 5fC and subsequently inhibit base excision by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and cause significant pausing for both DNA and RNA polymerase elongation. Further investigation using a GFP reporter system in living cells revealed that the ligand modification in 5fC sites at 5′-UTR of the GFP gene greatly inhibited the GFP expression level. These results altogether confirmed our successful design and established a new approach for generating functional ligands that target the formylcytosine sites and modulate 5fC-related biological processes.
The discovery of hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and carboxylcytosine, generated through oxidation of methylcytosine by TET dioxygenases, raised the question how these modifications contribute to epigenetic regulation. As they are subjected to complex regulation in vivo, we dissected links to gene expression with in vitro modified reporter constructs. We used an Oct4 promoter-driven reporter gene and demonstrated that in vitro methylation causes gene silencing while subsequent oxidation with purified catalytic domain of TET1 leads to gene reactivation. To identify proteins involved in this pathway we screened for TET interacting factors and identified TDG, PARP1, XRCC1 and LIG3 that are involved in base-excision repair. Knockout and rescue experiments demonstrated that gene reactivation depended on the glycosylase TDG, but not MBD4, while NEIL1, 2 and 3 could partially rescue the loss of TDG. These results clearly show that oxidation of methylcytosine by TET dioxygenases and subsequent removal by TDG or NEIL glycosylases and the BER pathway results in reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes.
The thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a multifunctional enzyme, which is essential for embryonic development. It mediates the base excision repair (BER) of G:T and G:U DNA mismatches arising from the deamination of 5-methyl cytosine (5-MeC) and cytosine, respectively. Recent studies have pointed at a role of TDG during the active demethylation of 5-MeC within CpG islands. TDG interacts with the histone acetylase CREB-binding protein (CBP) to activate CBP-dependent transcription. In addition, TDG also interacts with the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα), resulting in the activation of RARα target genes. Here we provide evidence for the existence of a functional ternary complex containing TDG, CBP and activated RARα. Using global transcriptome profiling, we uncover a coupling of de novo methylation-sensitive and RA-dependent transcription, which coincides with a significant subset of CBP target genes. The introduction of a point mutation in TDG, which neither affects overall protein structure nor BER activity, leads to a significant loss in ternary complex stability, resulting in the deregulation of RA targets involved in cellular networks associated with DNA replication, recombination and repair. We thus demonstrate for the first time a direct coupling of TDG’s epigenomic and transcription regulatory function through ternary complexes with CBP and RARα.
Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)—initiated oxidative demethylation. The connection of Gadd45a with oxidative demethylation is evidenced by the enhanced activation of a methylated reporter gene in HEK293T cells expressing Gadd45a in combination with catalytically active TDG and Tet. Gadd45a interacts with TDG physically and increases the removal of 5fC and 5caC from genomic and transfected plasmid DNA by TDG. Knockout of both Gadd45a and Gadd45b from mouse ES cells leads to hypermethylation of specific genomic loci most of which are also targets of TDG and show 5fC enrichment in TDG-deficient cells. These observations indicate that the demethylation effect of Gadd45a is mediated by TDG activity. This finding thus unites Gadd45a with the recently defined Tet-initiated demethylation pathway.
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, hereditary cancer predisposition disorder. In Brazil, the p.R337H TP53 founder mutation causes the variant form of LFS, Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. The occurrence of cancer and age of disease onset are known to vary, even in patients carrying the same mutation, and several mechanisms such as genetic and epigenetic alterations may be involved in this variability. However, the extent of involvement of such events has not been clarified. It is well established that p53 regulates several pathways, including the thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) pathway, which regulates the DNA methylation of several genes. This study aimed to identify the DNA methylation pattern of genes potentially related to the TDG pathway (CDKN2A, FOXA1, HOXD8, OCT4, SOX2, and SOX17) in 30 patients with germline TP53 mutations, 10 patients with wild-type TP53, and 10 healthy individuals. We also evaluated TDG expression in patients with adrenocortical tumors (ADR) with and without the p.R337H TP53 mutation. Gene methylation patterns of peripheral blood DNA samples assessed by pyrosequencing revealed no significant differences between the three groups. However...
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, hereditary cancer predisposition disorder. In Brazil, the p.R337H TP53 founder mutation causes the variant form of LFS, Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. The occurrence of cancer and age of disease onset are known to vary, even in patients carrying the same mutation, and several mechanisms such as genetic and epigenetic alterations may be involved in this variability. However, the extent of involvement of such events has not been clarified. It is well established that p53 regulates several pathways, including the thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) pathway, which regulates the DNA methylation of several genes. This study aimed to identify the DNA methylation pattern of genes potentially related to the TDG pathway (CDKN2A, FOXA1, HOXD8, OCT4, SOX2, and SOX17) in 30 patients with germline TP53mutations, 10 patients with wild-type TP53, and 10 healthy individuals. We also evaluated TDG expression in patients with adrenocortical tumors (ADR) with and without the p.R337H TP53 mutation. Gene methylation patterns of peripheral blood DNA samples assessed by pyrosequencing revealed no significant differences between the three groups. However, increased TDG expression was observed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in p.R337H carriers with ADR. Considering the rarity of this phenotype and the relevance of these findings...
I use integral field and long-slit spectra from the AAT and the Magellan
telescope to investigate the kinematics of several clumps, recently identified
along the prominent tidal tail of CG J1720-67.8 and suggested as possile tidal
dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidates. A comparison of photometric and spectroscopic
data with evolutionary synthesis models suggests burst ages of ~ 6 Myr for
these clumps/TDG candidates.; Comment: 3 pages, uses newpasp.sty. To appear in "Recycling Intergalactic and
Interstellar Matter" IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004. Eds. Pierre-Alain
Duc, Jonathan Braine and Elias Brinks
We present IFU observations with MUSE@VLT and deep imaging with FORS@VLT of a
dwarf galaxy recently formed within the giant collisional HI ring surrounding
NGC 5291. This TDG-like object has the characteristics of typical z=1-2
gas-rich spiral galaxies: a high gas fraction, a rather turbulent clumpy ISM,
the absence of an old stellar population, a moderate metallicity and star
formation efficiency. The MUSE spectra allow us to determine the physical
conditions within the various complex substructures revealed by the deep
optical images, and to scrutinize at unprecedented spatial resolution the
ionization processes at play in this specific medium. Starburst age, extinction
and metallicity maps of the TDG and surrounding regions were determined using
the strong emission lines Hbeta, [OIII], [OI], [NII], Halpha and [SII] combined
with empirical diagnostics. Discrimination between different ionization
mechanisms was made using BPT--like diagrams and shock plus photoionization
models. Globally, the physical conditions within the star--forming regions are
homogeneous, with in particular an uniform half-solar oxygen abundance. At
small scales, the derived extinction map shows narrow dust lanes. Regions with
atypically strong [OI] emission line immediately surround the TDG. The [OI] /
Halpha ratio cannot be easily accounted for by photoionization by young stars
or shock models. At larger distances from the main star--forming clumps...