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Vitamin K Oxygenation, Glutamate Carboxylation, and Processivity: Defining the Three Critical Facets of Catalysis by the Vitamin K–Dependent Carboxylase12

Rishavy, Mark A.; Berkner, Kathleen L.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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95.87%
The vitamin K–dependent carboxylase uses vitamin K oxygenation to drive carboxylation of multiple glutamates in vitamin K–dependent proteins, rendering them active in a variety of physiologies. Multiple carboxylations of proteins are required for their activity, and the carboxylase is processive, so that premature dissociation of proteins from the carboxylase does not occur. The carboxylase is unique, with no known homology to other enzyme families, and structural determinations have not been made, rendering an understanding of catalysis elusive. Although a model explaining the relationship of oxygenation to carboxylation had been developed, until recently almost nothing was known of the function of the carboxylase itself in catalysis. In the past decade, discovery and analysis of naturally occurring carboxylase mutants has led to identification of functionally relevant residues and domains. Further, identification of nonmammalian carboxylase orthologs has provided a basis for bioinformatic analysis to identify candidates for critical functional residues. Biochemical analysis of rationally chosen carboxylase mutants has led to breakthroughs in understanding vitamin K oxygenation, glutamate carboxylation, and maintenance of processivity by the carboxylase. Protein carboxylation has also been assessed in vivo...

Vitamin K-Dependent Carboxylation of Osteocalcin: Friend or Foe?12

Gundberg, Caren M.; Lian, Jane B.; Booth, Sarah L.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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95.87%
Osteocalcin originates from osteoblastic synthesis and is deposited into bone or released into circulation, where it correlates with histological measures of bone formation. The presence of 3 vitamin K-dependent γ carboxyglutamic acid residues is critical for osteocalcin’s structure, which appears to regulate the maturation of bone mineral. In humans, the percentage of the circulating osteocalcin that is not γ-carboxylated (percent ucOC) is used as a biomarker of vitamin K status. In contrast, when ucOC is not corrected for total osteocalcin, the interpretation of this measure is confounded by osteoblastic activity, independent of vitamin K. Observational studies using percent ucOC have led to the conclusion that vitamin K insufficiency leads to age-related bone loss. However, clinical trials do not provide overall support for the suggestion that vitamin K supplementation of the general population will reduce bone loss or fracture risk. More recently, results from in vitro and in vivo studies using animal models indicate that ucOC is an active hormone with a positive role in glucose metabolism. By inference, vitamin K, which decreases ucOC, would have a detrimental effect. However, in humans this hypothesis is not supported by the limited data available...

Vitamin K Status and Vascular Calcification: Evidence from Observational and Clinical Studies12

Shea, M. Kyla; Holden, Rachel M.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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95.92%
Vascular calcification occurs when calcium accumulates in the intima (associated with atherosclerosis) and/or media layers of the vessel wall. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) reflects the calcium burden within the intima and media of the coronary arteries. In population-based studies, CAC independently predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. A preventive role for vitamin K in vascular calcification has been proposed based on its role in activating matrix Gla protein (MGP), a calcification inhibitor that is expressed in vascular tissue. Although animal and in vitro data support this role of vitamin K, overall data from human studies are inconsistent. The majority of population-based studies have relied on vitamin K intake to measure status. Phylloquinone is the primary dietary form of vitamin K and available supplementation trials, albeit limited, suggest phylloquinone supplementation is relevant to CAC. Yet observational studies have found higher dietary menaquinone, but not phylloquinone, to be associated with less calcification. Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in certain patient populations, especially in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and it is plausible vitamin K may contribute to reducing vascular calcification in patients at higher risk. Subclinical vitamin K deficiency has been reported in CKD patients...

The Role of Vitamin K in Soft-Tissue Calcification1

Theuwissen, Elke; Smit, Egbert; Vermeer, Cees
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.87%
Seventeen vitamin K–dependent proteins have been identified to date of which several are involved in regulating soft-tissue calcification. Osteocalcin, matrix Gla protein (MGP), and possibly Gla-rich protein are all inhibitors of soft-tissue calcification and need vitamin K–dependent carboxylation for activity. A common characteristic is their low molecular weight, and it has been postulated that their small size is essential for calcification inhibition within tissues. MGP is synthesized by vascular smooth muscle cells and is the most important inhibitor of arterial mineralization currently known. Remarkably, the extrahepatic Gla proteins mentioned are only partly carboxylated in the healthy adult population, suggesting vitamin K insufficiency. Because carboxylation of the most essential Gla proteins is localized in the liver and that of the less essential Gla proteins in the extrahepatic tissues, a transport system has evolved ensuring preferential distribution of dietary vitamin K to the liver when vitamin K is limiting. This is why the first signs of vitamin K insufficiency are seen as undercarboxylation of the extrahepatic Gla proteins. New conformation-specific assays for circulating uncarboxylated MGP were developed; an assay for desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein and another assay for total uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein. Circulating desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein was found to be predictive of cardiovascular risk and mortality...

Gla-Rich Protein, a New Player in Tissue Calcification?123

Cancela, M. Leonor; Conceição, Natércia; Laizé, Vincent
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
A novel γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-containing protein, named Gla-rich protein (GRP) after its high content in Gla residues or upper zone of growth plate and cartilage matrix associated protein after its preferential expression by cartilage chondrocyte, was recently identified in sturgeon, mice, and humans through independent studies. GRP is the most densely γ-carboxylated protein identified to date and its structure has been remarkably conserved throughout vertebrate evolution but is apparently absent from bird genomes. Several transcript and genomic variants affecting key protein features or regulatory elements were described and 2 paralogs were identified in the teleost fish genome. In the skeleton, most relevant levels of GRP gene expression were observed in cartilaginous tissues and associated with chondrocytes, suggesting a role in chondrogenesis. But GRP expression was also detected in bone cells, indicative of a more widespread role for the protein throughout skeletal formation. Although the molecular function of GRP is yet unknown, the high content of Gla residues and its accumulation at sites of pathological calcification in different human pathologies affecting skin or the vascular system and in breast cancer tumors suggest that GRP may function as a modulator of calcium availability. Because of its association with fibrillar collagens...

Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirements: Current Concepts and Future Research12

Shearer, Martin J.; Fu, Xueyan; Booth, Sarah L.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.88%
In 2001, the US Food and Nutrition Board concluded that there were insufficient data with which to establish a RDA for vitamin K, in large part because of a lack of robust endpoints that reflected adequacy of intake. Knowledge of the relative bioavailability of multiple vitamin K forms was also poor. Since then, stable isotope methodologies have been applied to the assessment of the bioavailability of the major dietary form of vitamin K in its free state and when incorporated into a plant matrix. There is a need for stable isotope studies with enhanced sensitivity to expand knowledge of the bioavailability, absorption, disposition, and metabolism of different molecular forms of vitamin K. Another area for future research stems from evidence that common polymorphisms or haplotypes in certain key genes implicated in vitamin K metabolism might affect nutritional requirements. Thus far, much of this evidence is indirect via effects on warfarin dose requirements. In terms of clinical endpoints, vitamin K deficiency in early infancy continues to be a leading cause of intracranial bleeding even in developed countries and the reasons for its higher prevalence in certain Asian countries has not been solved. There is universal consensus for the need for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns...

Growth Arrest-Specific Gene 6 (gas6) and Vascular Hemostasis12

Laurance, Sandrine; Lemarié, Catherine A.; Blostein, Mark D.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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75.77%
Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) belongs structurally to the family of plasma vitamin K-dependent proteins. Gas6 has a high structural homology with the natural anticoagulant protein S, sharing the same modular composition. Interestingly, despite the presence of a γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain in its structure, no role in the coagulation cascade has been identified for gas6. Gas6 has been shown to be involved in vascular homeostasis and more precisely is involved in proliferation, apoptosis, efferocytosis, leukocyte migration, and sequestration and platelet aggregation. It is also involved in the activation of different cell types, from platelets to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Thus, it has been shown to play a role in several pathophysiological processes such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and thrombosis. Interestingly, studies using gas6 null mice highlighted that gas6 may represent a novel potential target for anticoagulant therapy, because these animals are protected from lethal venous thromboembolism without excessive bleeding. However, the mechanism in thrombus occurrence remains to be further explored. In the present review, we will focus on the role of gas6 in innate immunity, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and cancer-related events.

Vitamin K and the Nervous System: An Overview of its Actions12

Ferland, Guylaine
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/03/2012 Português
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95.9%
The role of vitamin K in the nervous system has been somewhat neglected compared with other physiological systems despite the fact that this nutrient was identified some 40 y ago as essential for the synthesis of sphingolipids. Present in high concentrations in brain cell membranes, sphingolipids are now known to possess important cell signaling functions in addition to their structural role. In the past 20 y, additional support for vitamin K functions in the nervous system has come from the discovery and characterization of vitamin K–dependent proteins that are now known to play key roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Notably, protein Gas6 has been shown to be actively involved in cell survival, chemotaxis, mitogenesis, and cell growth of neurons and glial cells. Although limited in number, studies focusing on the relationship between vitamin K nutritional status and behavior and cognition have also become available, pointing to diet and certain drug treatments (i.e., warfarin derivatives) as potential modulators of the action of vitamin K in the nervous system. This review presents an overview of the research that first identified vitamin K as an important nutrient for the nervous system and summarizes recent findings that support this notion.