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A transformação social no discurso de uma organização do Terceiro Setor; The social transformation in the discourse of a Third Sector organization.

Calegare, Marcelo Gustavo Aguilar
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2005 Português
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36.2%
Os anos 90 foram marcados por inúmeras mudanças no cenário brasileiro. Um dos resultados foi a emergência de um novo padrão organizacional de intervenção social, que carrega a promessa de transformação social da realidade brasileira. Trata-se das organizações do Terceiro Setor, que se assentam sobre o fortalecimento da sociedade civil, o desenvolvimento da democracia e, conseqüentemente, têm na cidadania um pilar fundamental para a viabilidade de tais projetos. A proposta desta dissertação é contribuir para a compreensão do papel transformador atribuído às organizações do Terceiro Setor. Para tanto, apresentam-se diferentes correntes discursivas e interpretativas sobre a transformação social. Primeiramente, apresentaram-se os discursos que sustentam a existência dessas organizações, debatendo-se criticamente sobre suas justificativas. Num segundo momento, realizou-se um estudo de caso com o objetivo de configurar no discurso dos atores institucionais de um projeto de um programa de promoção social de uma organização do Terceiro Setor qual a transformação social concebida. Por fim, abordaram-se os pareamentos entre o conceito de sociedade civil e Terceiro Setor, mostrando a inconsistência dessa operação e marcando os pontos de contato entre os discursos das diferentes disciplinas e aqueles dos atores institucionais do caso estudado. Das análises dos discursos dos atores institucionais...

Da praia ao morro : peculiaridades no processo de segregação socio-territorial em Ilhabela-SP

Geraldo Jose Calmon de Moura
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/01/2005 Português
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O presente trabalho busca resgatar as formas que se apresenta a segregação sócio territorial no município de Ilhabela-SP e suas particularidades enquanto município costeiro paulista. Na primeira parte da dissertação, parte-se da demonstração de alguns traços que foram presentes na dinâmica de desenvolvimento das cidades brasileiras em geral e como esse processo encontrou amparo na produção da legislação urbanística. Demonstra-se como essa dinâmica esteve submetida à lógica mercantil e como suas regras organizadoras pautaram-se em padrões de diferenciação. Em uma segunda parte, percebe-se as especificidades desse processo nos municípios costeiros e a influência da atividade turística nesse contexto. São verificadas como o histórico da ocupação e, posteriormente, a indústria turística, influenciaram a apropriação das áreas costeiras brasileiras. Sobre Ilhabela, foco da terceira parte dessa dissertação, a questão da segregação sócio territorial é abordada a partir da análise de três eixos. No primeiro, a pa.rtir de dados do IBGE, PNUD-ONU, Fundação SEADE e Ministério do Trabalho, analisa-se a evolução dos parâmetros referentes à qualidade de vida e seus impactos no processo de inclusão/ exclusão no município. No segundo...

Finite element analysis of the simulated mechanical stresses in molar occlusion in the pterygoid pillar of a human skull = : Análise de elementos finitos das tensões mecânicas simuladas em oclusão molar no pilar pterigoideo de um crânio humano; Análise de elementos finitos das tensões mecânicas simuladas em oclusão molar no pilar pterigoideo de um crânio humano

Elisa Camila Santos Rolfini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
O esqueleto facial é formado por uma estrutura ideal para resistir às forças mastigatórias. O pilar pterigoideo suporta as tensões provenientes da mastigação posterior. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a distribuição das tensões mecânicas simuladas no pilar pterigoideo, baseado em sua geometria, por meio da análise de elementos finitos. Foi selecionada uma tomografia computadorizada de um crânio humano seco do Laboratório de Elementos Finitos, Departamento de Morfologia, Área Anatomia, FOP / UNICAMP. No laboratório de Elementos Finitos foi utilizado o software InVesalius 3.0 (Brasil) para a realização da segmentação das imagens da tomografia computadorizada e, assim, selecionou-se o conjunto de imagens referentes à estrutura óssea e aos dentes de interesse na análise. As estruturas segmentadas foram reconstruídas tridimensionalmente e exportadas em formato estereolitográfico (STL). Este arquivo foi importado para o software Rhinoceros 5.0 (McNeil, Assoc USA), no qual foi realizada a modelagem Bio-CAD para obtenção da geometria. O modelo geométrico (CAD) obtido foi importado ao software ANSYS v14 (USA) para realização da análise de elementos finitos. Neste software, como configuração da análise foram aplicadas as seguintes condições: simetria na superfície de corte do plano sagital mediano...

A New Mechanism for Pillar Formation during Tumor-Induced Intussusceptive Angiogenesis: Inverse Sprouting

Paku, Sándor; Dezső, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Nagy, Péter; Laszlo, Viktoria; Klepetko, Walter; Döme, Balázs
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.35%
One of the hallmarks of intussusceptive angiogenesis is the development of intraluminal connective tissue pillars. The exact mechanism of pillar formation has not yet been elucidated. By using electron and confocal microscopy, we observed intraluminal nascent pillars that contain a collagen bundle covered by endothelial cells (ECs) in the vasculature of experimental tumors. We proposed a new mechanism for the development of these pillars. First, intraluminal endothelial bridges are formed. Second, localized dissolution of the basement membrane occurs and a bridging EC attaches to a collagen bundle in the underlying connective tissue. A pulling force is then exerted by the actin cytoskeleton of the ECs via specific attachment points, which contain vinculin, to the collagen bundle, resulting in suction and subsequent transport of the collagen bundle into and through the vessel lumen. Third, the pillar matures through the immigration of connective tissue cells and the deposition of new collagenous connective tissue. The proposed simple mechanism generates a connection between the processes of endothelial bridging and intussusceptive angiogenesis and identifies the source of the force behind pillar formation. Moreover, it ensures the rapid formation of pillars from pre-existing building blocks and the maintenance of EC polarity. To describe it...

Cell-Based Therapeutics: The Next Pillar of Medicine

Fischbach, Michael A.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.; Lim, Wendell A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Two decades ago, the pharmaceutical industry—long dominated by small-molecule drugs—was revolutionized by the the advent of biologics. Today, biomedicine sits on the cusp of a new revolution: the use of microbial and human cells as versatile therapeutic engines. Here, we discuss the promise of this “third pillar” of therapeutics in the context of current scientific, regulatory, economic, and perceptual challenges. History suggests that the advent of cellular medicines will require the development of a foundational cellular engineering science that provides a systematic framework for safely and predictably altering and regulating cellular behaviors.

New Ideas about Old Age Security : Toward Sustainable Pension Systems in the 21st Century

Holzmann, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph E.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Given the impact of the multipillar approach to pension reform and the diversity of its implementation, the authors, who presented papers at the 1999 conference on "New Ideas About Old Age Security," re-examine the evidence and thinking on pensions and retirement security. This report examines global issues on pension reform which help put in perspective three major sets of questions. A first set of questions deals with generic issues that concern policymakers worldwide, almost independently of apporaches to reform. Most prominent but also least understood are the economic policy questions regarding the economic circumstances that are most conducive to the initiation of a reform and to its eventual success. Equally important are questions relating to the coverage of the labor force under a reformed system. Other questions concern the distributive effects of reformed systems with respect to generation, income group, and gender. A second set of questions is linked with a move toward funded provisions under a multipillar approach. A third set of questions concerns the multipillar reform approach itself. A wide consensus has emerged inside and outside the World Bank about the multipillar framework...

The Swiss Multi-Pillar Pension System: Triumph of Common Sense?

Queisser, Monika; Vittas, Dimitri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The authors provide a detailed study of the Swiss pension system, analyzing its strengths and weaknesses. The unfunded public pillar is highly redistributive. It has near universal coverage, a low dispersion of benefits (the maximum public pension is twice the minimum), and no ceiling on contributions. Low-income pensioners receive means-tested supplementary benefits. Payroll taxes are low, but government transfers cover 27 percent of total benefits. Total benefits amount to 9.1 percent of GDP, equivalent to 15.2 percent of covered earnings. The funded private pillar was made compulsory in a defensive move against the relentless expansion of the public pillar. The compulsory pillar stipulates minimum benefits in the form of age-related credits, a minimum interest rate on accumulated credits, and a minimum annuity conversion factor, aimed to smooth changes in interest rates over time. Low-income workers are not required to participate in the second pillar. The first and second pillars as well as supplementary benefits are admirably integrated. Company pension plans are free to set terms and conditions in excess of these minimums, and most offer benefits exceeding obligatory levels. The second pillar has accumulated large financial resources...

Defining, Measuring, and Benchmarking Administrative Expenditures of Mandatory Social Security Programs

Sluchynsky, Oleksiy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This study provides a framework for comparison and benchmarking of administrative expenditures of public and private social security programs. The paper presents the genesis of the inquiries into the subject, reviewing some of the most relevant literature on administrative expenditures and the costs of mandatory programs produced over the past two decades. The quantitative analysis builds on the extensive body of literature, but our framework evolved considerably from earlier studies. Our dataset includes over 100 observations and a broad set of explanatory variables. The authors developed and compared a number of standardized cost indices discussing their advantages and limitations. The author also discusses major cost components and their shares in total program costs. The analysis explains over 90 percent of variation in administrative expenditures. It confirms some of the hypotheses expressed in the earlier studies and presents new evidence of driving factors for costs. The author developed three different specifications for statistical analysis. The first set looks at the impact of design of a program on total costs. The second group of specifications assesses differences in costs of managing pension liabilities between the public and private mandatory pension schemes. Finally...

L’Union fait la force? Potential and Limitations of the European Neighbourhood Policy as an Integrated EU Foreign and Security Policy

CREMONA, Marise; HILLION, Christophe
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 264376 bytes; application/pdf; digital
Português
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The external policies of the European Union may be viewed as the outcome of the interaction between the Member States, the European Community (acting in the context of the ‘first pillar’) and the European Union (acting on the basis of the second and third pillars). This tripartite interaction, which involves a large number of actors operating within different institutional logics, makes it challenging for the Union to conduct coherent policies, or to fulfil its objective of affirming its identity on the world stage (Article 2 TEU). The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a particularly developed expression of a policy designed to meet the challenge of ensuring coherence between the three EU pillars. As an alternative mechanism designed to offer coherent policy-making in the cross-pillar context of relations with the EU’s strategically important neighbours, the ENP does not rely on new instruments but rather offers a way of integrating existing instruments via ‘soft’ frameworks, such as European Council and Council Conclusions and Commission policy papers. This paper aims to analyse the ENP as a contribution to the EU’s efforts to evolve a more coherent external action. Ukraine will serve as an example, as the advanced implementation of the ENP towards this country offers the best illustration of the policy...

A Vision for the EU Gas Target Model: the MECO-S Model

GLACHANT, Jean-Michel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The discussion on a target model for European gas network access started at the 18th Madrid Forum in 2010. This model shall provide a unifying vision on the future layout of the European gas market architecture. That vision shall assist all stakeholders in implementing the 3rd EU energy market package on the internal gas market in a consistent way. Here is my proposal for the European gas target model termed MECO-S Model. It is a "Market Enabling, Connecting and Securing Model" describing an end-state of the gas market to be achieved over time. It rests on three pillars that share a common foundation, being that economical investments in pipelines are realized: Pillar 1: Structuring network access to the European gas grid in a way that enables functioning wholesale markets; Pillar 2: Fostering short- and mid-term price alignment between the functioning wholesale markets by tightly connecting the markets; Pillar 3: Enabling the establishment of secure supply patterns to the functioning wholesale markets.; A previous version of this paper was replaced on 14/09/2011.

Scaling Up Knowledge Sharing for Development; A Working Paper for the G-20 Development Working Group, Pillar Nine

Task Team on South-South Cooperation; UNDP; OECD; World Bank Institute
Fonte: G-20 Development Working Group Publicador: G-20 Development Working Group
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The objective of this paper is to recommend, at the request of the Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States - along with the European Union (EU) (G-20), how knowledge sharing (KS), through North-South, South-South, and triangular cooperation, can be scaled up in support of growth and development processes. The working group collaborates closely with the steering committee for pillar nine, which, besides the working group members, also includes Korea and Mexico as co-facilitators for pillar nine, France as this year’s G-20 Chair, and Colombia and Indonesia as co-chairs of the task team on South-South cooperation. The paper is organized into four sections: section one presents a description of how KS is increasingly viewed as a complementary third leg to financial and technical cooperation in the changing global development landscape; section two presents a set of emerging...

El Otro Pilar de la Filología Inglesa. Historia y Cultura de los Países de Habla Inglesa

Cañero Serrano, Julio
Fonte: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones Publicador: Universidad de Alcalá. Servicio de Publicaciones
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 632403 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The difficulty in deiimiting the contents of Cultural Studies forced the departments of modern languages to establish a more tangible teaching alternative. Teachers in those departments acknowledged that the students in their programs shouid learn about the cultural practices of the countries they were studying, besides the traditional literary and linguistic subjects. Their primary objective was to keep the new subject cióse enough to Cultural Studies, but equipped with a set of objectives and contents, and a methodology which Cultural Studies lacked. The result was the creation of 'History and Culture' or Área Studies. Yet, this new subject has remained a minor área within the teaching of Modern Philology. This paper will try to evalúate the subject 'History and Culture of Englishspeaking Countries' from three perspectives: (1) in its relation to Cultural Studies; (2) through its defínition as a subject in the curriculum of modern languages teaching; and (3) pointing out its objectives, contents and methodology. The purpose of this work is, thus, to make the public acquainted with the 'so-called' third pillar of modern languages teaching; and more specifically, with the third pillar of English Philology.; La dificultad de trazar unos límites a los contenidos de los Estudios Culturales llevó a los departamentos de filología moderna a establecer alternativas docentes mucho más tangibles. Los profesores de estas áreas eran conscientes de que...

Repaving the road to Damascus

Kramarzewski, Emma
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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26.4%
Australia's Embassy in Syria's capital of Damascus was closed in 1999 under the Howard Government. In order to explore the possibility of reopening the Embassy, there needs to be a clear understanding of Australian foreign policy and also of Syria's value to Australia. Decisions in Australian foreign policy are made by the Prime Minister. He is influenced however, to varying degrees, by Parliament, the media, lobby groups, industry, non-governmental organisations and the general public. The more economic and political power these groups possess, the more likely they are to influence foreign policy. Foreign policy priorities are quite vulnerable to changes in government and context. Just as foreign policies have transformed over time, over the next few years the Rudd government will develop a new foreign policy. The current policy priorities have been depicted by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and Foreign Minister Stephen Smith as constituting three pillars. The first pillar is Australia's alliance with the United States. The second pillar is Australia's membership of the United Nations. Finally, the third pillar is regional engagement in the Asia-Pacific. Syria occupies an interesting political position in relation to its region and to key powers such as the United States and Europe. Events of the recent past have resulted in Syria representing the Middle East as a state with a clear alliance with Iran...

Uruguay : Sources of Growth, Policies for the Development of Human Capital, Integration, Competition and Innovation; Uruguay - Fuentes de crecimiento - politicas para el desarrollo del capital humano, la integracion, competencia e innovacion

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.28%
Uruguay, with a prosperity built on beef and other meat exports, was among the fastest-growing economies in the world at the turn of the twentieth century. In parallel with economic successes driven by exports under a liberal trade regime, early in the 20th century, Uruguay had already initiated a strong and efficient welfare state. By contrast, the slowdown in per capita GDP growth has been more severe in the past 40 years (over 1961-99 per capita GDP growth averaged 1.1 percent, which is two-thirds of the rate achieved by Latin America) - except in the nineties when Uruguay (temporarily) grew at a faster rate than the region. In the 1961-1999 period, the rate of growth was less than half that of industrial countries, and less than one-fourth of that of East Asia. Uruguay must consolidate its incipient economic recovery following a prolonged, and deep recession: the economy shrank 17 percent, and household incomes dropped over 20 percent in real terms over 1999-2003. Notwithstanding, the economy bounced back strongly since mid-2003, and GDP growth in 2004 is estimated at 12.3 percent; the level of unemployment fell from almost 20 percent at the end of 2002, to 12.1 percent at the end of 2004. However, there is a qualitative difference between economic recovery and sustained growth. The country's relatively poor growth performance over the last half century can be traced to several key structural weaknesses...

Mauritius : Modernizing an Advanced Pension System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.28%
The report examines the pension system in Mauritius, a country which over the past two decades, has made enormous progress in economic development, and poverty reduction, and which today, is facing a much earlier demographic transition in its development cycle, than other upper income, and high income countries have experienced. The questions being addressed are whether the current pensions arrangements will be financially sustainable, given the projected ageing of the population, and whether they will be equitable and efficient, at a time when the system will be relied on by a growing number of people. Mauritius has a three-tiered pension system that helps the poor, and provides moderate (although declining, in the case of the private sector) replacement income for working people, and no regulatory protection for voluntary retirement schemes. The un-funded nature of the universal scheme, together with the income maintenance scheme of the civil service, are endangering the country's economic stability. At the same time...

Peru : Restoring the Multiple Pillars of Old Age Income Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.61%
In this report, the components of a national retirement security system are categorized - as "pillars", or as "tiers" according to their objective. This is in marked contrast to other publications that categorize the branches of a pension system in accordance with who administers them (the public or private sector); how are benefits structured (final-salary defined benefit formula, or defined contributions); or, their financing mechanism (pay-as-you-go, or full funding). Thus, the term "first pillar" or "pillar one" refers to that part of a pension system intended to keep elderly out of poverty; "second pillar" or "pillar two" to that part intended to help individuals smooth consumption over their life-cycle, i.e., to prevent a dramatic fall in income at retirement time; and, "third pillar" or "pillar three" to the instruments, and institutions available on a voluntary basis for workers to increase their income in old age. This report intends to explore, and present policy options to extend formal protection against old age poverty risks...

Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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26.35%
Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic strategy. This booklet highlights the three-pillar plan for job creation derived from the Tanzania country economic memorandum. The first pillar looks at job creation from the angle of small non-farm businesses, which have been growing very fast during the rapid urbanization. The second pillar focuses on farms because those still capture the largest share of employment in Tanzania, while the third pillar discusses the job-creation potential associated with business expansion into new markets. By focusing on a comprehensive set of concrete actions, the goal is to stimulate debate as well as to build ownership and accountability among policy-makers and key stakeholders in the country.

General Trends in Competition Policy and Investment Regulation in Mandatory Defined Contribution Markets in Latin America

Dayoub, Mariam; Lasagabaster, Esperanza
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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26.35%
Following Chile's pension reform in 1981, a wave of multi-pillar pension reforms took place in Latin America (LAC). Their implementation has revealed new policy challenges. To shed light on these issues, this paper reviews the structure and performance of mandatory DC pillars in LAC. The review highlights three important points. First, it suggests overall positive outcomes from reforms in the LAC countries that implemented multi-pillar pension systems. There is, however, scope for increasing efficiency. Second, management fees have declined but remain relatively high whereas decreases in operational costs have only been partially passed through to consumers reflecting inadequate competition. Limits on transfers and related measures have been ineffective in curtailing management fees but created new barriers to entry. In recent years, a few countries in LAC introduced or are in the process of introducing a combination of new measures that focus more directly on the two root causes of inadequate competition - the inelasticity of demand to fees and selective elimination of barriers to entry by facilitating unbundling of services. These new measures show some promise. Third...

Vivir tras el golpe. Trayectorias sociales de personas que sobreviven a in traumatismo craneoencefálico

Sanz Victoria, Silvia
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Los protagonistas de esta tesis doctoral son personas cuya existencia ha estado marcada por un golpe en la cabeza; un fuerte impacto en el cráneo consecuencia de un accidente de coche, un accidente de moto, de un atropello, de una caída en el trabajo… Un traumatismo craneoencefálico grave que hace cambiar la vida no sólo de la persona que lo sufre sino también de todo su entorno más cercano, especialmente, aquellos familiares que se convierten en sus cuidadores principales. Esta situación podría describirse como una consecuencia perversa del desarrollo tecnológico de nuestra sociedad. Por un lado, porque una de las causas que con más frecuencia y virulencia la origina son los accidentes de tráfico. Por otro, porque los avances tecnológicos tanto en el ámbito de la seguridad viaria como en la atención medica han hecho posible que estas personas, que antes morían en el lugar del accidente, ahora sobrevivan. Un desarrollo que, lamentablemente, no se ha producido de forma paralela en la atención a todas las problemáticas sociales que afrontan tras el paso por hospitales y centros de rehabilitación. El objetivo general que se propone con esta tesis doctoral es reflexionar y analizar las trayectorias sociales de las personas que sobreviven a un traumatismo craneoencefálico grave (TCE). Con este objetivo...

Cross pillar politics of the European Union. EU actors and the centralisation of foreign and interior policies.

Stetter, Stephan Erich
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
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The pillar structure of EU politics dates back to the Maastricht Treaty and has since then been subject to several reforms but has never been formally abolished. According to a standard view, there is a fundamental distinction between the allegedly 'supranational' first pillar and the 'intergovernmental' second and third pillars. This standard view asserts that policy making in foreign and interior affairs - those areas which are partly located in each of these pillars - also follows two different institutional logics. This thesis proposes a different perspective on foreign and interior policies and analyses the role of EU actors - the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council Secretariat, the Court of Justice and the Court of Auditors - in these two areas. It argues that policy making is not primarily characterised by the supranational-intergovernmental divide but rather by functionally induced cross pillar dynamics applying equally to both policy areas. It shows that EU actors were able to shape 'intergovernmental' bargains and that the primary division in foreign and interior policies is not on the supranational-intergovernmental dimension but rather between executive actors and those controlling the executive. Middle East and migration policies serve as case studies for this analysis. The thesis shows that both areas have since the Maastricht Treaty become an integral part of the political system of the EU. Moreover...