Este trabalho aborda aspectos da caracterização morfológica dos elementos traqueais dos órgãos vegetativos de quatro espécies de Portulacaceae (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. werdermannii Poelln., e de P. mucronata Link.) ocorrentes na região Sudeste e Nordeste do Brasil. Os elementos de vaso observados são todos pequenos (< 25 μm) e com placa de perfuração simples. O padrão de espessamento da parede secundária varia de pontoado (mais comum em raízes) a escalariforme e helicoidal (mais comuns em caules e folhas). Testes estatísticos apontam para uma diferença significativa do diâmetro dos elementos de vaso entre os diferentes órgãos, sendo maior em raiz. Traqueídes foram observadas apenas em folhas de P. hirsutissima e P. werdermannii, semelhantes, morfologicamente, às traqueídes terminais ou aos idioblastos traqueoidais muito freqüentemente associados com as xerófitas. Características pedomórficas (juvenilismo) observadas neste trabalho podem, em parte, estar relacionadas com o transporte e estocagem de água como descrito em Cactaceae.; This paper deals with the morphological features of the tracheary elements of the vegetative organs in four Portulaca species (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb....
Elementos de vasos em monocotiledôneas apresentam diferenças morfológicas de acordo com o órgão onde ocorrem. Tais diferenças têm sido explicadas sobretudo de um ponto de vista evolutivo, com poucos dados acerca de como a função de um órgão ou o hábito de crescimento de uma planta influenciariam na morfologia dos elementos de vaso. Para responder tal pergunta, foram analisados os órgãos vegetativos de três palmeiras do mesmo gênero, Syagrus, crescendo em ambientes similares, mas com hábitos diferentes. Assim, buscamos detectar se os elementos de vaso apresentariam características similares em todas as espécies ou se mudariam de acordo com os diferentes hábitos. Tanto a largura quanto o tipo de placa de perfuração variaram de maneira semelhante em todas as espécies, ao passo que os comprimentos variaram de uma forma inédita. Primeiramente, todas as espécies apresentaram elementos de vaso nas raízes tão ou mais longos que aqueles dos caules e folhas. Além disso, os elementos de vaso dos caules variaram consideravelmente entre as espécies. Especifi camente, em Syagrus romanzoffi ana os elementos de vaso apresentaram igual comprimento em todos os órgãos, enquanto tanto Syagrus fl exuosa quanto Syagrus petraea...
This paper deals with the morphological features of the tracheary elements of the vegetative organs in four Portulaca species (Portulaca hirsutissima Camb., P. halimoides L., P. wedermannii Poelln. and P. mucronata Link.) occurring in Southeast and Northeast Brazil. The vessel elements are small (< 25 mu m) and with simple perforation plate. The pattern of wall thickening varied from bordered pitting (in roots) to scalariform and helicoidal (stem and leaves). Statistical methods show variation in vessel-element diameter in different vegetative organs; wider elements were observed in roots. Tracheids occurring in leaves of P. hirsutissima and P. wedermannii, have morphological features that are similar to terminal tracheids or tracheoid idiolasts frequently associated with xerophytes. The paedomorphic features (juvenlism) observed here may be related, in part, to aspects of water transport and storage as described in Cactaceae.
Vessel elements in Monocotyledons present morphological differences according to the organ where they occur. Usually such diff erences have been explained from an evolutionary perspective, with few data on how the vessel elements could be infl uenced by the diff erent functions of organs and the growth habits of the plants. To address this question, three vegetative organs of palms of the same genus, Syagrus, growing in similar environments, but with different habits, were analyzed. Accordingly, we aimed to detect whether the vessel elements would present similar features in all species or whether the vessel elements would change according to their different habits. We found that the width and type of perforation plates varied in the same way among all species, while the lengths varied in an unusual form. First, all species presented very long elements in the roots, either as long, or longer than those of the stems and leaves. Second, the vessel elements of the stems varied considerably among the species. Specifi cally, in Syagrus romanzoffi ana, vessel elements of the stem were equal in size to those of the other organs, while in both Syagrus fl exuosa and Syagrus petraea, shorter vessel elements were found in the stems. We surmise that vessel elements in palm roots may be related to the high pressure-potential required to avoid stem embolism. The dimorphism of the vessel elements in the stems most likely reflects the distinct habits of these species. Large stems...
Dispersed zinnia (Zinnia elegans) mesophyll cells cannot differentiate into tracheary elements (TEs) at low cell density conditions even if auxin and cytokinin are present in the medium, indicating the involvement of intercellular interactions during the initiation and/or subsequent progresses in TE differentiation. When zinnia cells were incubated at a low density (2.5 × 104 cells mL−1) in TE-inductive medium in the presence of various concentrations of phytosulfokine (PSK)-α, which was originally identified as an intercellular signal peptide involved in cell proliferation, TE differentiation was strongly stimulated in a dose-dependent fashion; more than 35% of the living cells differentiated into TEs by 5 d of culture in the presence of 10 nm PSK-α. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass spectroscopy confirmed that cultured zinnia cells produce nanomolar levels of PSKs under inductive conditions. These results suggest that PSK-α is a factor responsible for TE differentiation of zinnia mesophyll cells.
As the first step toward understanding the involvement of
endogenous brassinosteroids (BRs) in cytodifferentiation, we analyzed
biosynthetic activities of BRs in zinnia (Zinnia elegans
L. cv Canary Bird) cells differentiating into tracheary elements. The
results of feeding experiments suggested that both the early and late
C6-oxidation pathways occur during tracheary element differentiation.
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that five BRs,
castasterone, typhasterol, 6-deoxocastasterone, 6-deoxotyphasterol, and
6-deoxoteasterone, actually existed in cultured zinnia cells and
culture medium. Quantification of endogenous BRs in each stage of
tracheary element differentiation by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry exhibited that they increased dramatically prior to the
morphogenesis, which was consistent with the idea that BRs are
necessary for the initiation of the final stage of tracheary element
differentiation. Moreover, the proportion of each BR in culture medium
was quite different from that in cells, suggesting that specific BRs
are selectively secreted into medium and may function outside the
Tracheary elements (TEs) have a unique cell death program in which the rapid collapse of the vacuole triggers the beginning of nuclear degradation. Although various nucleases are known to function in nuclear DNA degradation in animal apoptosis, it is unclear what hydrolase is involved in nuclear degradation in plants. In this study, we demonstrated that an S1-type nuclease, Zinnia endonuclease 1 (ZEN1), functions directly in nuclear DNA degradation during programmed cell death (PCD) of TEs. In-gel DNase assay demonstrated the presence of a 24-kD Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent nuclease and a 40-kD Zn2+-dependent nuclease as well as ZEN1 in 60-h-cultured cells that included differentiating TEs. Such cell extracts possessed the ability to degrade the nuclear DNA isolated from Zinnia elegans cells in the presence of Zn2+, and its activity was suppressed by an anti-ZEN1 antibody, indicating that ZEN1 is a central DNase responsible for nuclear DNA degradation. The introduction of the antisense ZEN1 gene into Zinnia cells cultured for 40 h specifically suppressed the degradation of nuclear DNA in TEs undergoing PCD but did not affect vacuole collapse. Based on these results, a common mechanism between animal and plant PCD is discussed.
Isolated mesophyll cells from Zinnia elegans are induced by auxin and cytokinin to form tracheary elements (TEs) in vitro with high synchrony. To reveal the changing patterns of gene expression during the 48 h of transdifferentiation from meso-phyll to TE cell fate, we used a cDNA–amplified fragment length polymorphism approach to generate expression profiles of >30,000 cDNA fragments. Transcriptional changes of 652 cDNA fragments were observed, of which 304 have no previously described function or sequence identity. Sixty-eight genes were upregulated within 30 min of induction and represent key candidates for the processes that underlie the early stages of commitment and differentiation to a TE cell fate.
Conditioned medium from mesophyll cell-suspension cultures of Zinnia elegans L. has striking effects on cell expansion and tracheary element differentiation when applied to cultures of freshly isolated mesophyll cells. These effects include (a) induction of early cell expansion, (b) delay in differentiation by 48 h or more, (c) reduction in the synchrony of differentiation, and (d) early formation of very large, metaxylem-like tracheary elements. Like reduced osmotic potential and buffering at pH 5.5, conditioned medium appears to have its primary effect on cell expansion. Partial characterization of the expansion-inducing factor indicates that it is heat stable, of low molecular mass, and is resistant to protease. It also binds reversibly to concanavalin A but is not adsorbed by charcoal. We suggest that the secreted factor may be an oligosaccharide involved in the coordination of cell expansion and differentiation and the regulation of the protoxylem-like to metaxylem-like transition in xylogenic suspension cultures.
Mesophyll cells isolated mechanically from leaves of Zinnia elegans L. cv Canary bird differentiate into tracheary elements (TE) semisynchronously and at high frequency. Using this system, three cDNA clones, TED2 to TED4, whose corresponding mRNAs were expressed in a close association with tracheary element differentiation, were isolated by differential screening of a lambda gt11 cDNA library. The library was prepared using poly(A)+ RNA from cells cultured in a TE-induced medium for 48 h prior to morphological changes, including secondary cell-wall thickenings and autolysis. Northern analysis indicated that mRNAs corresponding to the clones were expressed preferentially in cells differentiating into TEs prior to the morphological changes. The expression of the mRNAs was found not to be induced by alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid or benzyladenine solely and not to be associated directly with cell division. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of TED4 showed that the cDNA contains an open reading frame of 285 bp, encoding a polypeptide comprising 95 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 10.0 kD. A homology search of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of TED4 with several data bases revealed a significant similarity to those of the barley aleurone-specific clone B11E...
Single cells were isolated mechanically from the mesophyll of adult plants and of seedlings of Zinnia elegans L. cv. Canary bird. When single cells isolated from the first leaves of seedlings were cultured in a liquid medium in the dark with rotation, they differentiated to tracheary elements with a reasonable degree of synchrony in the 24-hour period between days 2 and 3 after culture. The proportion of tracheary elements as a percentage of total cells reached nearly 30% 3 days after culture. Factors favoring cytodifferentiation were certain optimum levels of both α-naphthalene-acetic acid (0.1 milligram per liter) and benzyladenine (1 milligram per liter), a low concentration of ammonium chloride (0 to 1 millimolar), and an initial cell population density in the range 0.4 to 3.8 × 105 cells/ml. It was possible to follow analytically the sequence of cytodifferentiation in individual cells in this system.
A serial observation of the process of tracheary element differentiation from single cells isolated from the mesophyll of Zinnia elegans L. cv. Canary bird provided the first direct evidence for the cytodifferentiation without intervening mitosis. Percentage of the tracheary elements formed without cell division was about 60% of total tracheary elements formed on the 4th day of culture. The number of tracheary elements formed without intervening mitosis was not reduced in the presence of colchicine at the concentrations blocking cell division. These facts clearly indicate that cell division is not a prerequisite for tracheary element differentiation in this system.
Mechanically isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv Envy differentiate to tracheary elements when cultured in inductive medium containing 0.5 micromolar α-naphthaleneacetic acid and 0.5 micromolar benzyladenine. The cells do not differentiate when cultured in medium in which the concentration of auxin and/or cytokinin has been reduced to 0.005 micromolar. Cells require an initial 24-hour exposure to inductive cytokinin and 56-hour exposure to inductive auxin for differentiation at 72 hours of culture. Freshly isolated Zinnia cells can be maintained in medium having low concentrations of both auxin and cytokinin for only 1 day without significant loss of potential to differentiate upon transfer to inductive medium. Initial culture for up to 2 days in medium having high auxin and low cytokinin, or low auxin and high cytokinin, allows full differentiation on the third day after transfer to inductive medium and potentiates the early differentiation of some cells.
When cultured in inductive medium containing adequate auxin and cytokinin, isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv Envy differentiate into tracheary elements with lignified secondary wall thickenings. Differentiation does not occur when cells are cultured in control medium, which has reduced levels of auxin and/or cytokinin. The activities of two enzymes involved in lignin synthesis, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase and peroxidase, were examined. An induction-specific cationic isoperoxidase, visualized by low pH polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is detectable in soluble and wall fractions of cultured Zinnia cells long before tracheary elements visibly differentiate and is thus an early marker of differentiation. Compounds (such as antiauxins, anticytokinins, and tunicamycin) that inhibit or delay differentiation alter the expression of this isoperoxidase. 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase activity increases dramatically only as cells differentiate. Together, these results suggest that the onset of lignification in differentiating Zinnia cells might be controlled by the availability of precursors synthesized by way of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase. These precursors would then be polymerized into lignin in the cell wall by the induction-specific isoperoxidase.
Cortical microtubules participate in the deposition of patterned secondary walls in tracheary element differentiation. In this study, we established a system to induce the differentiation of tracheary elements using a transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell suspension stably expressing a green fluorescent protein-tubulin fusion protein. Approximately 30% of the cells differentiated into tracheary elements 96 h after culture in auxin-free media containing 1 μm brassinolide. With this differentiation system, we have been able to time-sequentially elucidate microtubule arrangement during secondary wall thickening. The development of secondary walls could be followed in living cells by staining with fluorescein-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin, and the three-dimensional structures of the secondary walls could be simultaneously analyzed. A single microtubule bundle first appeared beneath the narrow secondary wall and then developed into two separate bundles locating along both sides of the developing secondary wall. Microtubule inhibitors affected secondary wall thickening, suggesting that the pair of microtubule bundles adjacent to the secondary wall played a crucial role in the regulation of secondary wall development.
ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2)/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) family proteins are plant-specific nuclear proteins, and genes encoding several family members have been implicated in plant development. We investigated the function of two members of the Arabidopsis thaliana AS2/LBD family, AS2-LIKE19 (ASL19)/LBD30 and ASL20/LBD18, which encode homologous proteins. Both ASL19 and ASL20 were expressed in immature tracheary elements (TEs), and the expression was dependent on VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN PROTEIN6 (VND6) and VND7, which are transcription factors required for TE differentiation. Overexpression of ASL19 and ASL20 induced transdifferentiation of cells from nonvascular tissues into TE-like cells, similar to those induced upon VND6/7 overexpression. By contrast, aberrant TEs were formed when a cDNA encoding a fusion protein of ASL20 with an artificial repressor domain (ASL20-SRDX) was expressed from its native promoter. These results provide evidence that ASL proteins positively regulate TE differentiation. In transgenic plants overexpressing both ASL19 and ASL20, the xylem-deficient phenotype caused by the expression of dominant-negative versions of VND6/7 proteins was not rescued. However, ectopic expression of VND7 was detected in plants overexpressing ASL20. Moreover...
Phytosulfokine (PSK) is a sulfated peptide hormone required for the proliferation and differentiation of plant cells. Here, we characterize the physiological roles of PSK in transdifferentiation of isolated mesophyll cells of zinnia (Zinnia elegans ‘Canary Bird’) into tracheary elements (TEs). Transcripts for a zinnia PSK precursor gene, ZePSK1, show two peaks of expression during TE differentiation; the first accumulation is transiently induced in response to wounding at 24 h of culture, and the second accumulation is induced in the final stage of TE differentiation and is dependent on endogenous brassinosteroids. Chlorate, a potent inhibitor of peptide sulfation, is successfully applied as an inhibitor of PSK action. Chlorate significantly suppresses TE differentiation. The chlorate-induced suppression of TE differentiation is overcome by exogenously applied PSK. In the presence of chlorate, expression of stress-related genes for proteinase inhibitors and a pathogenesis-related protein is enhanced and changed from a transient to a continuous pattern. On the contrary, administration of PSK significantly reduces the accumulation of transcripts for the stress-related genes. Even in the absence of auxin and cytokinin, addition of PSK suppresses stress-related gene expression. Microarray analysis reveals 66 genes down-regulated and 42 genes up-regulated in the presence of PSK. The large majority of down-regulated genes show significant similarity to various families of stress-related proteins...
The chemical and structural organization of the plant cell wall was examined in Zinnia elegans tracheary elements (TEs), which specialize by developing prominent secondary wall thickenings underlying the primary wall during xylogenesis in vitro. Three imaging platforms were used in conjunction with chemical extraction of wall components to investigate the composition and structure of single Zinnia TEs. Using fluorescence microscopy with a green fluorescent protein-tagged Clostridium thermocellum family 3 carbohydrate-binding module specific for crystalline cellulose, we found that cellulose accessibility and binding in TEs increased significantly following an acidified chlorite treatment. Examination of chemical composition by synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy indicated a loss of lignin and a modest loss of other polysaccharides in treated TEs. Atomic force microscopy was used to extensively characterize the topography of cell wall surfaces in TEs, revealing an outer granular matrix covering the underlying meshwork of cellulose fibrils. The internal organization of TEs was determined using secondary wall fragments generated by sonication. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the resulting rings...
Here, we show that lignification occurs after programmed cell death in xylem tracheary elements (TEs) of Zinnia elegans xylogenic cell cultures. Living, parenchymatic xylem cells surrounding the TEs synthesize and transport lignin monomers and reactive oxygen species to the cell walls of the dead TEs, thereby contributing to TE lignification in a non-cell-autonomous manner.
The development of xylem tracheary elements (TEs) – the hydro-mineral sap conducting cells - has been an evolutionary breakthrough to enable long distance nutrition and upright growth of vascular land plants. To allow sap conduction, TEs form hollow laterally reinforced cylinders by combining programmed cell death and secondary cell wall formation. To ensure their structural resistance for sap conduction, TE cell walls are reinforced with the phenolic polymer lignin, which is deposited after TE cell death by the cooperative supply of monomers and other substrates from the surrounding living cells.