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Aplicação de modelos de estimação de fitness em algoritmos geneticos; Fitness estimation models applied to genetic algorithms

Francisco Osvaldo Mendes Mota Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
Para obter uma solução satisfatória, algoritmos genéticos avaliam, em geral, um número grande de indivíduos durante o processo evolutivo. É comum, em aplicações práticas, encontrar funções de avaliação computacionalmente complexas e caras. Porém, nesses casos, o tempo é um fator determinante no desempenho de algoritmos genéticos. Dessa forma, os algoritmos genéticos devem encontrar soluções adequadas em curto intervalo de tempo. Uma alternativa promissora para contornar os custos computacionais referentes à função de avaliação considera o fato de que pode ser mais atrativo avaliar diretamente somente indivíduos selecionados e estimar os fitness dos restantes do que avaliar diretamente toda a população. Este trabalho propõe o uso de modelos de estimação de fitness em algoritmos genéticos. Especificamente, são sugeridos modelos de estimação baseados em agrupamento nebuloso supervisionado (Fuzzy C-Means) e não supervisionado (Aprendizagem Participativa). O objetivo é aproximar as funções de avaliação por meio de modelos de estimação de fitness, sem afetar significativamente a qualidade das soluções. Inicialmente, os modelos de estimação propostos são comparados e analisados experimentalmente com alternativas sugeri das por outros autores...

Algoritmo de distribuição e alocação vagões em tempo real; Real time rail freight cars assignment algorithm

Joelma Cristina Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.2%
O processo de distribuição e alocação de vagões vazios nas companhias ferroviárias é dinâmico e envolve mecanismos complexos de planejamento. Formalmente, a distribuição de vagões vazios pode ser formulado como um problema de alocação de recursos cuja solução é uma atribuição vagão-demanda. Do mesmo modo, o processo de alocação de vagões também pode ser formulado como um problema de atribuição vagão-trem. Neste caso, o processo de alocação de vagões se inicia depois que as atribuições vagão-demanda são geradas. O algoritmo de alocação atribui vagões aos trens da programação de trens para que sejam transportados até as demandas a que foram atribuídos. A decisão de distribuição e alocação exige do tomador de decisão uma resposta rápida, visto que, os resultados devem ser rapidamente passados para os pátios, para que as manobras de anexação e desanexação sejam executadas antes da chegada dos trens. Este trabalho propõe um algoritmo para resolver o problema de decisão no planejamento de distribuição e alocação de vagões em tempo real. O algoritmo baseia-se em um modelo de fluxo em redes que considera a grade de trens, as rotas e capacidades dos trens e a operação ferroviária. Neste trabalho também foi construído um algoritmo de distribuição nebuloso para considerar informações estratégicas como: confiabilidade dos clientes...

Computers in Primary Care Teaching: New software can help train residents to diagnose and treat illness

Goldman, Brian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.01%
Physicians have used computers for years. Although the most popular applications are billing and scheduling software, physicians are increasingly turning to the computer as a tool for medical education. Computers can teach core topics to residents in family medicine and help assess their clinical competence, can help the program director monitor the quality of the educational experience for residents, and can help physicians improve the quality of patient care. Teachers in family medicine can play a role in apprising residents of these developments.

Efficient material flow in mixed model assembly lines

Alnahhal, Mohammed; Noche, Bernd
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.4%
In this study, material flow from decentralized supermarkets to stations in mixed model assembly lines using tow (tugger) trains is investigated. Train routing, scheduling, and loading problems are investigated in parallel to minimize the number of trains, variability in loading and in routes lengths, and line-side inventory holding costs. The general framework for solving these problems in parallel contains analytical equations, Dynamic Programming (DP), and Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Matlab in conjunction with LP-solve software was used to formulate the problem. An example was presented to explain the idea. Results which were obtained in very short CPU time showed the effect of using time buffer among routes on the feasible space and on the optimal solution. Results also showed the effect of the objective, concerning reducing the variability in loading, on the results of routing, scheduling, and loading. Moreover, results showed the importance of considering the maximum line-side inventory beside the capacity of the train in the same time in finding the optimal solution.

An Auction-Based Method for Decentralized Train Scheduling

Parkes, David C.; Ungar, Lyle H.
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: Conference Paper
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
We present a computational study of an auction-based method for decentralized train scheduling. The method is well suited to the natural information and control structure of mod- ern railroads. We assume separate network territories, with an autonomous dispatch agent responsible for the ow of trains over each territory. Each train is represented by a self-interested agent that bids for the right to travel across the network from its source to destination, submitting bids to multiple dispatch agents along its route as necessary. The bidding language allows trains to bid for the right to enter and exit territories at particular times, and also to represent indifference over a range of times. Computational results on a simple network with straight-forward best-response bid- ding strategies demonstrate that the auction computes near- optimal system-wide schedules. In addition, the method appears to have useful scaling properties, both with the number of trains and with the number of dispatchers, and generates less extremal solutions than those obtained using traditional centralized optimization techniques.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles Andrew; Landrigan, Christopher Paul; Leape, Lucian L.
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.2%
Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals...

SOLVING REAL-LIFE LOCOMOTIVE SCHEDULING PROBLEMS

Ahuja, Ravindra; Liu, Jian; Orlin, James; Sharma, Dushyant; Shughart, Larry
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 383049 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
The locomotive scheduling problem (or the locomotive assignment problem) is to assign a consist (a set of locomotives) to each train in a pre-planned train schedule so as to provide them sufficient power to pull them from their origins to their destinations. Locomotive scheduling problems are among the most important problems in railroad scheduling. In this paper, we report the results of a study of the locomotive scheduling problem faced by CSX Transportation, a major US railroad company. We consider the planning version of the locomotive scheduling model (LSM), where there are multiple types of locomotives and we need to decide the set of locomotives to be assigned to each train. We present an integrated model that determines the set of active and deadheaded locomotives for each train, light traveling locomotives from power sources to power sinks, and train-to-train connections (specifying which inbound train and outbound trains can directly connect). An important feature of our model is that we explicitly consider consist-bustings and consistency. A consist is said to be busted when the set of locomotives coming on an inbound train is broken into subsets to be reassigned to two or more outbound trains. A solution is said to be consistent over a week with respect to a train...

Fundamental Scheme for Train Scheduling

Fukumori, Koji
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 24 p.; 1484856 bytes; 1159616 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Traditionally, the compilation of long-term timetables for high-density rail service with multiple classes of trains on the same track is a job for expert people, not computers. We propose an algorithm that uses the range-constriction search technique to schedule the timing and pass-through relations of trains smoothly and efficiently. The program determines how the timing of certain trains constrains the timing of others, finds possible time regions and pass-through relations and then evaluates the efficiency of train movement for each pass-through relation.

SICUREZZA E CAPACITÀ DELLA CIRCOLAZIONE FERROVIARIA: RUOLO DELLE NORME REGOLAMENTARI

SORACE, FRANCESCO
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.01%
The aim of the research deals with three important themes of the railway system: regulation, safety and infrastructure’s capacity. The research wants to develop a methodology to quantify the performance of the railway system basing on three components: human factors, technological devices and regulations. The proposed methodology is applicable to several specific cases of the railway sector, once the system is defined in terms of infrastructure, signaling and safety systems, rolling stock, regulations and operational model. Pilot applications provide to: - outline the applicable operating procedures; - assess the possibility that critical safety situations may occur consequently to critical scenarios; - estimate the probability of occurrence of each critical scenario that has been identified and determine the corresponding level of risk; - examine the influence of technological and human components in operational processes; - determine possible effects on rail traffic in terms of delay, irregularity, etc. The obtained results can be useful when the technological innovation causes significant changes in the regulatory system and in the management of human behaviour, with the possibility to generate greater risks for people, environment...

Improving Utilization of F/A-18 Simulator CUBIC Instructors at VFA-106, Naval Air Station Oceana, VA

Mallory, William; Rivera, Rich; Swinford, William; BRB Consulting
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.21%
EMBA Project Report; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Strike Fighter Squadron ONE ZERO SIX (VFA-106), the only East Coast F/A-18 Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), has identified problems in Cubic Instructor (CI) capacity during periods of high demand as a result of combining series of aircraft, C/D and E/F, into larger “Super” classes. Subsequently, the squadron is forced to augment CIs with Instructor Pilots (IPs) or Instructor Weapons System Officers (IWSOs) to increase capacity or forego utilization of some of their 70 simulator hours allotted to them daily. A simulator process improvement study was undertaken to help VFA-106 address these issues, ultimately improving production and time-to-train. FINDINGS • The current CI contract is inefficient due to its inflexibility • Simply increasing CI manning is not a long-term solution • The current VFA-106 simulator scheduling construct is insufficient and lacks long-term vision RECOMMENDATIONS • Draft and utilize a more flexible CI contract • Institute simulator scheduling process improvements to provide more continuity and a long-term vision

Analysis of Current Flight Scheduling Practices and Recommendations to Efficiently Reduce Deviations from Syllabus Time-To-Train

Hall, Bentley (Tyler); Hargrove, Hayward (Trey); Willis, James (Marshall)
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.69%
EMBA Project Report; EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The objective of our project is to investigate current scheduling requirements, constraints, and procedures to identify problems with scheduling practices and syllabus management for Primary Flight Training in Training Wing 4. We analyzed three alternative scheduling approaches to reduce excess training time in the maximum efficient manner. Alternative 1: Prioritize students based on deviations from syllabus flow Changing the prioritization of students does not have a direct impact on reducing Training Timeline, since no additional production capacity is being added. However, changing the prioritization of scheduling students to give the highest priority to students who are the most behind should reduce gaps in training and increase proficiency, thereby reducing failures and required warm up flights for time out of the cockpit. This will reduce time-to-train (TTT) and additional overhead flights. The Training Timeline function of TIMS provides information on deviations from syllabus-designed TTT for use in the prioritization in scheduling. Alternative 2: Utilize aircraft availability in schedule builds Like instructors and students, aircraft are required to complete a flight event, and should be managed accordingly. Schedule writers can use current metrics of aircraft availability and make reasonable assumptions on the longevity of the information to predict follow-on production capacity. Events scheduled without considering aircraft availability should be presumed unlikely until availability is confirmed. Alternative 3: Monitor completer production / TTT deficits to trigger increased production When necessary...

A monthly sortie scheduling model for improved EA-6B Prowler combat readiness

Swords, Scott H.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.31%
EA-6B Prowler crews conduct a variety of missions and are required to fly and train with sufficient regularity to maintain combat proficiency. These crews maintain this proficiency by completing regularly scheduled training qualifications. Squadrons determine their readiness level based on the percentage completion of these qualifications. Squadrons currently use an ad hoc method for scheduling training. This thesis develops a mixed integer program to plan monthly sorties, as a decision aid for squadron operations officers. The goal is to maximize squadron combat readiness by minimizing the number of aviators not fully combat-ready, subject to the number of flights available. The model is programmed in the GAMS language and uses a spreadsheet interface for both input and output. It is typically solved in 10 minutes on a Pentium 120 MHz PC with the OSL solver. The output is a matrix of pilots to flight assignments and aircrew to flight and seat assignments. This approach immediately yields a 10% improvement in average monthly readiness as compared to the ad hoc method and should be implemented as a methodology for scheduling monthly sorties.

A simulation to determine the effect that the Army Basic Officer Leadership Course will have on accession training

Hovda, Erik K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 114 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.01%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The United States Army is currently considering a significant change in the way they train newly commissioned officers. The Army's Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) plans to add a course to accession training called the Basic Officer Leadership Course (BOLC), which would teach officers of all Army Competitive Category (ACC) branches core leadership and common skills requirements at three Army installations in the United States. This thesis develops a simulation that explores the length of time newly commissioned officers spend training once TRADOC implements BOLC and establishes training policies for the new course. The model is implemented in the Java programming language, with Simkit as the simulation package. The simulation output is a list of 225,000 simulated officers with their training time recorded, which I aggregate into mean and variance measurements for each design point. Upon this aggregated data I execute a regression analysis, which feeds into a loss function that penalizes excess time spent in accession training. Minimizing the loss function returns optimal policy settings for BOLC's implementation. This analysis shows that the most significant policies in the accession training system are the maximum and minimum class size for a BOLC class and the ratio of ROTC officers who receive immediate active duty status upon commissioning. My analysis also shows that placing BOLC into the simulated accession training system caused an increase of approximately 23 days in training time.; Captain...

Robust analysis of the joint strike fighter integrated training center pilot scheduling

Davidson, Pornchai
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xix, 50 p. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.01%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis focuses on analyzing factors that affect a student's time to train (TTT) as he/she completes the Joint Strike Fighters (JSF) pilot training syllabus at the Integrated Training Center (ITC) on Eglin Air Force Base. It identifies the most robust course of action (COA), provides accurate TTT estimates, and identifies a watch list of factors that have the most effect on TTT. The results of this thesis provide a basis and a justification for procurement and resource decisions for the JSF. They also provide a means to ensure a proper flow of pilots to operational commands, reduce unnecessary flights, and enable the ITC to complete its mission while remaining within monthly flight time and airframe limits. It can also help predict the impact of future resource decisions, and assist commanders in mitigating their operational effect. The primary recommendation for reducing TTT is to have students work 11 hours per day and have the workday start at or after 0900. Increasing the number of full motion simulator (FMS), while reducing TTT, is not justified. Although a limited resource, airspace is not a potential bottleneck in the system and any change, short of elimination, has very little influence on TTT.Flight refly rates and aircraft failure rates above 12% and 13% respectively significantly increase TTT and must be carefully monitored.

Optimally scheduling basic courses at the Defense Language Institute using integer programming

Scott, Joseph D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 39 p. : ill. ;
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.56%
The Defense Language Institute (DLI) offers 23 beginning language courses and in 2004 began to provide a smaller class size for these courses. Restrictions on when classes can begin and a limited number of instructors prevent all students from being trained in a smaller class. This thesis develops integer linear programs (ILPs) that generate schedules for all student classes and maximize the number of smaller class starts for a given number of instructors. Secondary scheduling goals include avoiding weekly changes to instructor levels and scheduling preferences such as the number of classes to start simultaneously. The ILPs solve in less than one minute and offer a significant improvement in the number of students that may be trained in the smaller class size. Computational results using real data for the Arabic, Chinese-Mandarin, and Persian-Farsi courses verify the ILPs find feasible multiyear schedules that incorporate the DLI's scheduling preferences while exceeding the DLI's published schedule results. For example, the ILPs find schedules for Arabic that train 8%, 34% and 76% of students in the smaller class in 2006, 2007, and 2008, whereas DLI's manual schedules at best can train 8%, 7% and 64%.

Optimal Location of Access Points in Controlled Entry Transportation Networks

Repolho, Hugo Miguel Varela
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.01%
Decisions regarding the location of access points in national transportation networks need to be made very carefully because of their economic and social implications. The success of any investment made in transportation networks is highly dependent on the amount of users/passengers captured by the networks, which in turn depends on the location of their access points. This thesis presents a set of strategic decision-making tools (optimization models) addressing the problem of locating access points in controlled entry transportation networks. Two particular types of networks are studied, motorways and railway lines. The location of controlled access points along with possible tolls dictates the level of service provided for individual trips. The corresponding investment along with the level of service provided by existing competitive modes is central to the work developed in this thesis. The models proposed choose the optimal subset of access points, from a set of possible locations defined a priori, according to a certain objective defined in each case (e.g. minimize travel costs, maximize profits, maximize travel cost savings, and maximize social welfare benefits). In general the models are based on hub location theory. Road users and potential rail passengers select their itineraries and transportation modes according to the routes' attractiveness...

Regulação de trens em sistemas metroviarios; Train regulation for mass transit systems

Wagner Schalch Mendes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
O problema de regulação de trens é particularmente importante entre os problemas de escalonamento encontrados nos sistemas de transporte metroviários, sendo caracterizados por trens percorrendo regiões urbanas levando passageiros de uma localização para outra. Se o intervalo entre trens desejado, tempos de parada em plataformas e os tempos de percurso entre plataformas são determinados e conhecidos a-priori, a solução de estado estável (tabela horária) pode ser calculada. Entretanto, sistemas reais estão sujeitos a perturbações como passageiros impedindo o fechamento de portas, falhas mecânicas ou elétricas, etc., que podem desviar os trens do estado estável. Nesse contexto, esse trabalho está direcionado para a determinação de uma lei de controle, i.e., uma lei para a determinação dos instantes de chegada e partida de cada trem em cada plataforma nos ciclos do sistema para restabelecer e manter a tabela horária (solução de referência). A lei de controle proposta está baseada nos conceitos da álgebra maxplus. Os instantes desejáveis de chegada e partida de cada trem em cada plataforma são calculados a partir dos últimos instantes de ocorrência dos eventos do sistema e de um conjunto de matrizes definido na álgebra max-plus; The train regulation problem is of particular importance among the scheduling problems found in mass transit systems...

A QoS-Aware Scheduling Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Communication System

Xu, Shengfeng; Zhu, Gang; Shen, Chao; Ai, Bo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
With the rapid development of high-speed railway (HSR), how to provide the passengers with multimedia services has attracted increasing attention. A key issue is to develop an effective scheduling algorithm for multiple services with different quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we investigate the downlink service scheduling problem in HSR network taking account of end-to-end deadline constraints and successfully packet delivery ratio requirements. Firstly, by exploiting the deterministic high-speed train trajectory, we present a time-distance mapping in order to obtain the highly dynamic link capacity effectively. Next, a novel service model is developed for deadline constrained services with delivery ratio requirements, which enables us to turn the delivery ratio requirement into a single queue stability problem. Based on the Lyapunov drift, the optimal scheduling problem is formulated and the corresponding scheduling service algorithm is proposed by stochastic network optimization approach. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional schemes in terms of QoS requirements.; Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, accepted by IEEE ICC 2014 conference

On the Benefits of Inoculation, an Example in Train Scheduling

Semet, Yann; Schoenauer, Marc
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The local reconstruction of a railway schedule following a small perturbation of the traffic, seeking minimization of the total accumulated delay, is a very difficult and tightly constrained combinatorial problem. Notoriously enough, the railway company's public image degrades proportionally to the amount of daily delays, and the same goes for its profit! This paper describes an inoculation procedure which greatly enhances an evolutionary algorithm for train re-scheduling. The procedure consists in building the initial population around a pre-computed solution based on problem-related information available beforehand. The optimization is performed by adapting times of departure and arrival, as well as allocation of tracks, for each train at each station. This is achieved by a permutation-based evolutionary algorithm that relies on a semi-greedy heuristic scheduler to gradually reconstruct the schedule by inserting trains one after another. Experimental results are presented on various instances of a large real-world case involving around 500 trains and more than 1 million constraints. In terms of competition with commercial math ematical programming tool ILOG CPLEX, it appears that within a large class of instances, excluding trivial instances as well as too difficult ones...

Automatic train control using neuro-fuzzy modeling and optimal control techniques

Natkin, Michael
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.47%
In rapid transit applications, it is often necessary to optimize the ride of the train for certain parameters based upon time of day, occupant density, and system-wide scheduling. Trade-offs have to be made between energy conservation, time minimization, and ride comfort. Typically the dynamics of the train are not well known (or not initially known at all), change over time, and are non-linear. In the past, a transit control engineer would typically use P-I control but could spend days or weeks on-site adjusting the P-I constants to obtain a ride that felt good and met the design constraints. This process was both time consuming and expensive. This paper presents a control scheme for a rapid transit train that uses optimal concepts coupled with fuzzy control and neuro-fuzzy modeling techniques. The optimal controller allows users to define different ride types by adjusting weights on the cost equation. The controller design is done almost automatically, with minimal control engineer effort needed, by post-processing data collected from the train. The post-processing process uses neuro-fuzzy modeling techniques to create a dynamic model for the train, which can be used with optimal techniques to obtain fuzzy control rules for controlling the train. Once the initial design is in place...