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A utilização do conceito de custos de transação na seleção de fornecedores de insumos produtivos na indústria farmacêutica.; Transaction costs concept use on suppliers selection to pharmaceutical area industries.

Correia, Germano Manuel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/05/2001 Português
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As drásticas reestruturações organizacionais originadas das transformações econômicas, sociais e políticas atuais, promoveram uma grande desintegração vertical das empresas industriais e o estabelecimento de uma rede de fornecedores com competências específicas para dar suporte às suas estratégias competitivas; a seleção e a contratação dos fornecedores adquiriu então um papel estratégico de compras na sua contribuição para a competitividade da empresa. A Teoria dos Custos de Transação serviu de base para o desenvolvimento de um quadro analítico, que foi complementado pelas abordagens teóricas da estratégia de compras e do processo de tomada de decisão na seleção dos fornecedores. Este quadro analítico foi utilizado e avaliado na investigação empírica fundamentada em múltiplos estudos de casos realizados em indústrias do setor industrial farmacêutico. Através de um questionário detalhado foram coletadas informações sobre os fatores utilizados pelas empresas na avaliação de seus potenciais fornecedores, o processo da tomada de decisão na seleção do fornecedor e no que este processo poderia contribuir estrategicamente para os diferenciais competitivos da empresa. A análise dos resultados obtidos permite concluir no âmbito das empresas pesquisadas...

A compreensibilidade das informações contábeis e sua relação com os custos de transação sob a óptica dos profissionais de investimento; Understandability of financial information and its relationship with the transaction costs under the approach of investment professionals

Cazzari, Roberto Bomgiovani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/01/2013 Português
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Essa dissertação foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de responder ao seguinte problema de pesquisa: há indícios de que notas explicativas das demonstrações financeiras que sejam menos compreensíveis, na visão de profissionais de investimento, conduzem a custos de transação maiores no estabelecimento de contratos? Por custos de transação, entendem-se aqueles referentes à coleta de informações, os custos de negociação e os de estabelecimento de contratos (COASE, 1991). Uma informação de difícil compreensibilidade, portanto, seria um catalisador de novos custos de transação, trazendo ineficiências no estabelecimento de contratos futuros. Para atingir os objetivos desejados, foram distribuídos questionários aos profissionais de investimento no 22º Congresso APIMEC que foi realizado nos dias 30 a 31 de agosto de 2012. Do total de participantes, 54 pessoas responderam o mesmo. De modo geral, verificou-se que sob a situação de tempo escasso e um grande custo de decodificação das notas explicativas, o que aumenta os custos de transação, pode-se conjecturar que algumas análises estejam sendo feitas de modo ineficiente, o que poderia conduzir a ineficiências no estabelecimento de contratos futuros. Verificou-se também que há indícios de que há excesso de informações e não falta das mesmas...

Endogenous Transaction Costs

Martins-da-Rocha, Victor Filipe; Vailakis, Yiannis
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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The paper proposes an alternative general equilibrium formulation of financial asset economies with transactions costs. Transaction costs emerge endogenously at equilibrium and reflect agents decisions of intermediating financial activities at the expense of providing labor services. An equilibrium is shown to exist in the case of real asset structures.

How to indirectly assess transaction costs to evaluate market integration : evidence from the international ethanol market

Serigati, Felippe Cauê
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Mercados são instituições criadas para facilitar uma atividade de comercialização. Isto é possível porque um mercado é constituído por instituições que foram desenhadas para reduzir os custos de transação associados a este processo de troca. A partir dessas duas ideias, esta tese possui três objetivos principais. (i) Analisar por que a literatura de análise de cointegração tem mensurado estes custos de forma imprecisa. A principal razão é certa confusão entre os conceitos de custos de transação, de transporte e de comercialização. (ii) Propor um procedimento para mensurar indiretamente os custos de transação de mercado variáveis combinando os modelos de cointegração com mudança de regime e a estrutura teórica oferecidas pela Nova Economia Institucional. Este procedimento é aplicado para quantificar quanto custa comercializar etanol no mercado internacional usando suas atuais instituições. (iii) Por fim, usando os mesmos modelos e a mesma estrutura teórica, esta dissertação contesta a hipótese de que já existe um mercado internacional de etanol bem desenvolvido, tal qual a literatura tem assumido. De forma semelhante, também é avaliada a hipótese de que a remoção das barreiras comerciais norte-americanas para o etanol brasileiro seria uma condição suficiente para o desenvolvimento deste mercado internacional. Os testes aplicados rejeitam ambas as hipóteses.; Markets are organizations created to facilitate an exchange. This is possible because the institutions that constitute a market are established to reduce the transaction costs. Assuming those two ideas...

Transaction costs: an empirical analysis of their relationship with investment and foreign direct investment

Wink Junior,Marcos Vinício; Sheng,Hsia Hua; Eid Junior,William
Fonte: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo Publicador: Fundação Getulio Vargas, Escola de Administração de Empresas de S.Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
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As stated by the New Institutional Economics theory, transaction costs play a relevant role in economics and, according to the extent of such costs, agents make investment decisions. Actually, transaction costs may represent a disincentive to entrepreneurship. This work aims to verify whether transaction costs are related to investment rate and foreign direct investment rate (FDI) in different business environments. The results suggest that foreign investors do not have precise information about other countries as domestic investors do; as it is observed, only the relation between transaction costs and investment rate is significant. Furthermore, there is evidence that the business environments of BRIC countries are less developed when compared to business environments of other countries in the study

Quality management as a resource of transaction costs reduction: empirical inputs from the international fruit trade

Carvalho,José Márcio; Thomé,Karim Marini; Leitão,Fabrício Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Publicador: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Fruit is a highly perishable product, susceptible to biological, physical and chemical hazards. All these risks are higher when fruit are transacted in international trade. In this case fruit suppliers and fruit buyers are exposed to elevated transaction costs, since both sides need to deal with questions like product specifications, post-harvest processing and logistics. Quality management can be employed in order to organize all production, processing and logistics operations. Our aim in this paper was to verify if producers, exporters and importers of fruit are making use of quality management concepts in order to reduce risks and transaction costs. As investigation method, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Brazil and the UK. The content of the semi-structured interview questions was chosen based on the literature review of TCE, the international fruit trade and quality management. The questions were carefully chosen to reveal the factors which are determinant for the configuration of transaction arrangements in the fruit trade. The topics investigated were: the technical activities performed by the organisations operating in the fruit commerce; the main types of commercial clients (partners) of the firm; the nature of the market type relations maintained by the firm; the level of quality problems perceived by the firm; and the quality management strategies adopted by the firm. These topics served as the foundation for the elaboration of the main questions and the probe questions. They also gave the direction for possible follow-up questions. The results of the interviews support the idea that quality consciousness is fundamental in the fruit trade. The majority of companies approached in the research were shown not to perceive as a problem the several parameters that affect the quality of the final product. In other words...

Effective Interfirm Collaboration: How Firms Minimize Transaction Costs and Maximize Transaction Value

Dyer, Jeffrey
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 1927244 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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This study of automotive transaction relationships in the U.S.A. and Japan offers data which indicate that transaction costs do not necessarily increase with an increase in relationship-specific investments. We empirically examine the conditions under which transactors can simultaneously achieve the twin benefits of high asset specificity and low transaction costs. This is possible because the different safeguards which can be employed to control opportunism have different set-up costs and result in different transaction costs over different time horizons. We examine in detail the practices of Japanese firms which result in effective interfirm collaboration.

THE APPLICABILITY OF TRANSACTION COSTS ECONOMICS TO VERTICAL INTEGRATION DECISION: EVIDENCES FROM A BRAZILIAN BEEF PROCESSOR

Fonte: Organizações Rurais & Agroindustriais Publicador: Organizações Rurais & Agroindustriais
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This article aims to explore the vertical integration decision of a beef processor from an integrated approach operations strategy and transaction costs economic theory. In this research, vertical integration as a structural decision of operations strategy determined by the occurrence of transaction costs. The paper presents one case study carried out in one beef Processor Company which illustrates the main theoretical assumptions. The results suggest that transaction costs economics helps to identify key points of major strategic decisions on vertical integration due to its behavioural perspective, reducing the effect of uncertainty and asset specificity of this decision. At the end of the paper, future research is suggested.

A cadeia produtiva de caqui no município de Antônio Carlos sob a ótica da economia dos custos de transação; Transaction costs economics in the kaki productive chain in the Antônio Carlos district

Fonte: Organizações Rurais & Agroindustriais Publicador: Organizações Rurais & Agroindustriais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This work discusses the importance of the kaki productive chain in the Antônio Carlos district and its growing potentialities, analysed from the perspective of Transaction Costs Economics. The objective is to verify how the transactions between the kaki producers from the Antônio Carlos district and the downstream and upstream agents of the productive chain occur, as well as to study the governance structure in this chain. The data were obtained from semi-structured interviews carried out with seven producers, who were chosen according to criteria such as accessibility and representativity of the district’s production. It was verified that the contracts made between the producers and the downstream industry are classic and the form of governance is the market. In transactions between the producers and the distributors, the contracts are relational and governance is bilateral. It was observed that an effective association is necessary to provide better conditions for the purchase of inputs and the distribution of the product.

Reducing the Transaction Costs of Development Assistance : Ghana’s Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) Experience from 2003 to 2007

Cavalcanti, Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper examines whether the structure of the Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS) in Ghana evolved over time to minimize transaction costs commonly found in accessing and delivering development assistance in multi-donor settings. While the MDBS was expected to reduce the transaction costs involved in dealing with multiple development agencies, it created three additional sources of transaction costs: coordination failures, the costs of collective action, and measurement costs. The answer that emerges from this paper is that the structure of the MDBS evolved to mitigate these transaction costs. The problems associated with coordination was addressed by delegating the policy dialogue to sector-specific groups aimed at reaching agreements over a narrower set of issues and amongst a smaller group of participants. Also, the MDBS reduced the cost of collective action by devising rules that allowed all the participating agencies to have a role in the decision-making process, and, in doing so, encouraged these agencies to increase the share of their contribution coming through the MDBS...

Transaction Costs Analysis of Low-Carbon Technologies

Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda
Fonte: Taylor and Francis Publicador: Taylor and Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transaction costs (TCs) must be taken into account when assessing the performance of policy instruments that create markets for the diffusion and commercialization of low-carbon technologies (LCTs). However, there are no comprehensive studies on the development and application of transaction cost analysis to LCTs. In this meta-analysis, a wide-ranging evaluation of TCs associated with energy efficiency, renewable energy, and carbon market technologies is provided. There is a plethora of different definitions of, and measurement techniques to estimate, TCs. There is wide variation in the quantitative estimates, which can be attributed to factors such as the definition used, data collection, quantification methods, the type and size of technologies, the regulatory frameworks, the complexity of transactions, and the maturity of policy instruments. It is concluded that TCs are highly specific to both LCTs and policy instruments and that a common methodological approach is needed to avoid misleading policy analysis of the extant and future assessments. Policy relevance: Transaction costs (TCs) accrued by, for instance, the search for information, due diligence, monitoring and verification (M&V) activities, must be considered in the design...

Transaction Costs of Low-Carbon Technologies and Policies : The Diverging Literature

Mundaca, Luis; Mansoz, Mathilde; Neij, Lena; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Transaction costs are major challenge to moving forward toward low-carbon economic growth, as new technologies or policies tend to have higher transaction costs compared with those in the business as usual situation. However, neither a well-developed theoretical foundation nor a consensus interpretation is available for those transaction costs in the existing literature. The definitions and therefore the estimations of transaction costs vary across existing studies. The wide variations in the estimates could be attributed to several factors such as the very definitions and scope of transaction costs considered in the studies, the methodology for quantifying these costs, the type and size of low-carbon technologies, and complexities involved in the transactions. Nevertheless, the existing literature converges on addressing market failures, such as lack of information, in developing regulatory and institutional capacity to enhance private sector confidence in energy efficiency business as a key means to help reduce the transaction costs of low-carbon technologies.

Transaction costs and the assessment of greenhouse policies in the transport energy sector

Ofei-Mensah, Albert; Bennett, Jeff
Fonte: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University.; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au Publicador: Environmental Management and Development Programme, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Government, Australian National University.; http://www.crawford.anu.edu.au
Tipo: Other; Working/Technical Paper Formato: 29 pages
Português
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This study, which is at data-collection stage, employs a comparative analysis of alternative policy instruments to identify institutional structures that lower transaction costs. Policy institutions are supposed to be designed to help reduce transaction costs through information generation, in the form of signals and incentives, to help markets to function efficiently and policies to be implemented successfully. However, the relative effectiveness of market-based policies and/or command-and-control policies is often assessed without consideration of the impact of transaction costs. Policy analysis incorporating transaction costs is a shift from current practice, including analysis of greenhouse policies in the transport energy sector.; The authors presented an earlier version of this paper at the 48th annual conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society held on 11-13 February 2004 in Melbourne Victoria.

An analysis of transaction costs and governance structures of artisan tuna fisheries in East Java, Indonesia.

Satria, Dias
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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This study examines transaction costs and the contract relationship formed by artisan fishermen (AFs) in the artisan tuna fishing economies (ATFEs) in East Java, Indonesia. More specifically, this study investigates: (a) the various types of governance structures in ATFEs; (b) the roles of the key actors in the marketing value chain; (c) contracts and relationships; (d) transaction characteristics; (e) the importance of risk behaviour; (f) factors affecting transaction costs in AFTEs; and (g) the role of trust in contract fishing. This study used a combination of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, which is known as a mixed methods approach. A qualitative approach was applied to gain better understanding of the application of the transaction costs economics (TCE) framework in the context of contract fishing. Further to this, a quantitative approach was employed to examine factors influencing AFs to engage in the contract relationship, as well as to investigate factors affecting transaction costs. The mixed method approach is applied to gain a holistic understanding about the marketing value chain in artisan tuna fishing economies The survey study, which involved 440 AFs, from December 2012 to February 2013, in five sample areas...

Remittances: Transaction Costs, Determinants, and Informal Flows

Freund, Caroline; Spatafora, Nikola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Recorded workers' remittances to developing countries have grown rapidly, to more than $100 billion in 2004, bringing increasing attention to these flows as a potential tool for development. But even these statistics are likely to significantly understate true remittances, as a large share is believed to flow through informal channels. Estimates of the importance of the informal sector vary widely, ranging from 35 percent to 250 percent of total remittances. The primary motivation of the authors is to develop the first empirical methodology to estimate informal flows. They use insights from the literature on shadow economies and empirically estimate informal remittances for more than 100 countries using historical data on the balance of payments (BOP), migration, transaction costs, and country characteristics. Their results imply that informal remittances amount to about 35-75 percent of official remittances to developing countries. There is significant regional variation: informal remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are relatively high, while those to East Asia and the Pacific are relatively low. These estimates are supplemented with detailed household survey data on remittance receipts in a number of countries. The results also shed light on the determinants of recorded remittances and the associated fees in the formal sector. The authors find that the stock of migrants in OECD countries is the primary determinant of remittances. In addition...

Liquidity Clienteles : Transaction Costs and Investment Decisions of Individual Investors

Anginer, Deniz
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Theoretical papers link the liquidity premium to the optimal trading decisions of investors facing transaction costs. In particular, investors' holding periods determine how transaction costs are amortized and priced in asset returns. Using a unique data set containing two million trades, this paper investigates the relationship between holding periods and transaction costs for 66,000 households from a large discount brokerage. The author finds that transaction costs are an important determinant of investors' holding periods, after controlling for household and stock characteristics. The relationship between holding periods and transaction costs is stronger among more sophisticated investors. Households with longer holding periods earn significantly higher returns after amortized transaction costs, and households that have holding periods that are positively related to transaction costs earn both higher gross and net returns. The author shows that there is correlation in the demand for liquid assets across households and...

Transaction costs, institutional rigidities and the size of the clean development mechanism

Michaelowa, Axel; Jotzo, Frank
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transaction costs and institutional rigidities will reduce the attractiveness of the Kyoto Protocol flexibility mechanisms compared to domestic greenhouse gas abatement options. The clean development mechanism (CDM) in particular is likely to entail considerable costs of baseline development, project registration, verification and certification. The activities implemented jointly pilot phase and the prototype carbon fund programme give indications about these costs. There is evidence that projects with high implementation costs have high transaction costs as well. Moreover, CDM projects have to be approved by host country institutions, and so far only a small share of host countries has been able to set up these institutions. Several of the larger host countries intend to only approve projects if the market price is above a certain threshold. Some governments will also levy fees to finance costs of approval bodies. We assess these issues using a quantitative model of the Kyoto Protocol permit market. We conclude that while changes in demand from Annex B countries remain the crucial factor, the size of the CDM will depend to a significant degree on transaction costs and institutional barriers in host countries.

Relacionamento interorganizacional e hold-up no setor automotivo: uma análise sob o enfoque da Economia dos Custos de Transação; Inter organizational relationship and hold-up in the automotive sector: an analysis focused on the Economics of Transaction Costs

Ferrato, Elio; Carvalho, Ruy de Quadros; Spers, Eduardo Eugênio; Pizzinatto, Nádia Kassouf
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2006 Português
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As mudanças institucionais ocorridas a partir da década de noventa forçaram os fornecedores de peças da indústria automotiva brasileira a ajustar seus processos para atender às exigências de um mercado globalizado. Surge, então, uma complexa relação interorganizacional entre os fornecedores e as montadoras. Este estudo analisa essa relação pela ótica da teoria da Economia dos Custos de Transação (ECT). Analisando-se uma montadora e doze de seus fornecedores, foram levantadas proposições sobre a percepção do risco de quebra contratual (hold-up). Os resultados demonstraram que o tempo de relação fornecedor/montadora, o detalhamento na elaboração do contrato e um menor monitoramento da montadora sobre o fornecedor implicam menor percepção de risco de hold-up, assim como ficou demonstrado que a estrutura de governança dominante nessa relação é o modelo híbrido, que permite redução de custos de transação. Outros estudos que aprofundem a relação interorganizacional sob a ótica da ECT com um campo amostral mais amplo e heterogêneo podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento e aplicação desta teoria.; Institutional changes since the decade of 1990 have forced parts suppliers for the Brazilian automotive industry to adjust to demands of a globalized market resulting in a more complex inter organizational relationship between suppliers and automotive assemblers. An analysis was made of this relationship from the perspective of the Transaction Costs Economics (TCE) theory. Based upon the relationship of an automotive assembly company with 12 suppliers...

Market efficiency and transaction costs: theory and case studies of the Electronic Purchase System of the State of São Paulo and the Purchase Office of the Institute of Technological Research; Eficiencia de mercado y costos de transacción: teoría y estudios de casos de la Bolsa Electrónica de Compras del Estado de São Paulo y de la Central de Suministros del Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnológicas; Eficiência de mercado e custos de transação: teoria e estudos de caso da Bolsa Eletrônica de Compras do Estado de São Paulo e da Central de Suprimentos do Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas

Campanario, Milton de Abreu; Silva, Marcello Muniz da; Rovai, Ricardo Leonardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Economia, Administração e Contabilidade
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2006 Português
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Diversos estudos destacam as vantagens do e-commerce, apresentando sua crescente importância no desempenho organizacional. Sistemas eletrônicos de compras aumentam a eficiência e adicionam valor aos canais de interação entre compradores e vendedores. O aprimoramento de metodologias que permitam tornar eficaz a implantação desses sistemas aumenta a eficiência dos mercados, contribuindo para eliminar imperfeições econômicas. No presente artigo discutem-se, com base na moderna literatura, os fundamentos econômicos da introdução e da operação de sistemas de compras baseados na Internet e na Intranet. Isso é feito a partir da caracterização do funcionamento dos mercados e da análise e classificação dos principais componentes dos custos de transação, conceito trazido pela escola conhecida como Nova Economia Institucional. Custos de transação representam uma nova e revolucionária dimensão da tradicional análise neoclássica de custos de produção. Com base nessa investigação, é apresentada a formalização de um modelo teórico geral que permite verificar sob quais variáveis são relevantes e como as tecnologias da informação, empregadas em sistemas de gestão de suprimentos, podem contribuir para gerar economias no curto e no longo prazos. Dados empíricos são retirados de duas experiências: Bolsa Eletrônica de Compras do Estado de São Paulo (BEC/SP) e Central de Suprimentos do Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (CS/IPT).; Many studies point out the advantages of the e-commerce...

Effects of transaction costs on mushroom producers' choice of marketing channels: implications for access to agricultural markets in Swaziland

Mabuza,Majola L; Ortmann,Gerald; Wale,Edilegnaw
Fonte: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences Publicador: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Mushrooms are highly perishable agricultural commodities, and as such their marketing is invariably associated with high transaction costs. Despite the mushroom enterprise gaining popularity in a number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, where production is dominated by rural-based small-scale farmers, no research has been done to study the nature and complexity of transaction costs encountered by these producers in attempting to participate in mainstream supply chains. This study uses cross-section data obtained in 2011/2012 from mushroom producers in Swaziland to study the effects of transaction costs on producers' choice of marketing channels and the quantity of mushrooms supplied. Having used Cragg's model for analysis, the results indicate that producers' decisions of where to sell their mushrooms are significantly affected by household labour endowment, production capacity, access to cooling facilities and market information, and producers' bargaining position. Meanwhile, the quantities of mushrooms sold are significantly influenced by the difficulty in accessing reliable transport and producers' level of uncertainty in meeting buyers' quality requirements. The study concludes by highlighting potential interventions that could minimise marketing and transaction costs and further improve the general agricultural marketing environment in Swaziland.