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Contágio financeiro na América Latina; Financial contagion in Latin America

Contani, Eduardo Augusto do Rosário
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.108845%
A análise das interdependências e contágio dos países da América Latina em relação aos EUA é o objetivo principal deste trabalho. A dinâmica dos mecanismos de transmissão de volatilidade nos mercados de ações e de CDS (Credit Default Swap) foi alterada a partir da crise iniciada em 2008. A tese apresenta a revisão de literatura sobre crises financeiras, seus mecanismos de transmissão e a sua relação com os fatores macroeconômicos dos países latinos. Em seguida são apresentados os dados secundários, incluindo os índices regionais e internacionais das Bolsas de Valores e de CDS soberanos. A metodologia de análise dos dados utiliza estatística descritiva, séries temporais (DCC GARCH), regressão linear múltipla e testes de hipótese. Os resultados indicam que, notadamente durante a crise, os fatores regional e global aumentam e evidenciam potenciais de contágio na Colômbia, México e Peru. No mercado de CDS, há evidências de contágio no Brasil, Chile, Colômbia e México. Utilizando-se a comparação das correlações dinâmicas, identificou-se contágio para os seis países latino-americanos estudados, sendo que em quatro deles, Argentina, Brasil, Chile e Peru, houve contágio pré-crise e redução de correlações no período seguinte à crise. Na análise de regressão linear múltipla...

Previsão de volatilidade: uma comparação entre volatilidade implícita e realizada

Azevedo, Luis Fernando Pereira
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.636211%
Com origem no setor imobiliário americano, a crise de crédito de 2008 gerou grandes perdas nos mercados ao redor do mundo. O mês de outubro do mesmo ano concentrou a maior parte da turbulência, apresentando também uma explosão na volatilidade. Em meados de 2006 e 2007, o VIX, um índice de volatilidade implícita das opções do S&P500, registrou uma elevação de patamar, sinalizando o possível desequilíbrio existente no mercado americano. Esta dissertação analisa se o consenso de que a volatilidade implícita é a melhor previsora da volatilidade futura permanece durante o período de crise. Os resultados indicam que o VIX perde poder explicativo ao se passar do período sem crise para o de crise, sendo ultrapassado pela volatilidade realizada.; Started in the U.S. housing sector, the credit crisis of 2008 caused great damage in markets around the world. The effects were concentrated in October of the same year, which also showed an explosion in volatility. In mid-2006 and mid-2007, the VIX, an index of implied volatility of options on the S&P500, recorded a rise in level signaling the possible imbalance in the U.S. market. This dissertation examines whether the consensus that implied volatility is the best predictor of future volatility remains during the crisis. The results indicate that the VIX loses explanatory power to move from a period of economic stability for a period of crisis...

Market neutral volatility: a different approach to the S&P 500 options market efficiency

Ruas, João Pedro Bento
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 23/03/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.055781%
Mestrado em Finanças; Under the efficient market hypothesis, an options price’s implied volatility should be the best possible forecast of the future realized volatility of the underlying asset. In spite of this theoretical proposition, a vast number of studies in the financial literature found that implied volatility is a biased estimator of the future realized volatility. These findings suggest that we are either in the presence of an inefficient market or that econometric models fail on that purpose. In this thesis, by introducing the concept of Market Neutral Volatility and the derivation of a theoretical model, we show what in fact the implied volatility forecasts and we prove that the S&P 500 options market is efficient. This property of the S&P 500 options market assures that the implied volatility cannot be a biased forecast of its future realized volatility. Thus, we conclude that the bias of the implied volatility estimator is due to the inadequacy of the commonly used econometric approaches.; Sob a hipótese de eficiência dos mercados, a volatilidade implícita de uma opção deve ser a melhor previsão possível da futura volatilidade realizada do activo subjacente. Apesar deste argumento teórico, um vasto número de estudos realizados na literatura financeira...

Three essays on asset pricing

Wang, Zhiguang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.206394%
In this dissertation, I investigate three related topics on asset pricing: the consumption-based asset pricing under long-run risks and fat tails, the pricing of VIX (CBOE Volatility Index) options and the market price of risk embedded in stock returns and stock options. These three topics are fully explored in Chapter II through IV. Chapter V summarizes the main conclusions. ^ In Chapter II, I explore the effects of fat tails on the equilibrium implications of the long run risks model of asset pricing by introducing innovations with dampened power law to consumption and dividends growth processes. I estimate the structural parameters of the proposed model by maximum likelihood. I find that the stochastic volatility model with fat tails can, without resorting to high risk aversion, generate implied risk premium, expected risk free rate and their volatilities comparable to the magnitudes observed in data. ^ In Chapter III, I examine the pricing performance of VIX option models. The contention that simpler-is-better is supported by the empirical evidence using actual VIX option market data. I find that no model has small pricing errors over the entire range of strike prices and times to expiration. In general, Whaley’s Black-like option model produces the best overall results...

Three Essays on Asset Pricing

Wang, Zhiguang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.40993%
In this dissertation, I investigate three related topics on asset pricing: the consumption-based asset pricing under long-run risks and fat tails, the pricing of VIX (CBOE Volatility Index) options and the market price of risk embedded in stock returns and stock options. These three topics are fully explored in Chapter II through IV. Chapter V summarizes the main conclusions. In Chapter II, I explore the effects of fat tails on the equilibrium implications of the long run risks model of asset pricing by introducing innovations with dampened power law to consumption and dividends growth processes. I estimate the structural parameters of the proposed model by maximum likelihood. I find that the stochastic volatility model with fat tails can, without resorting to high risk aversion, generate implied risk premium, expected risk free rate and their volatilities comparable to the magnitudes observed in data. In Chapter III, I examine the pricing performance of VIX option models. The contention that simpler-is-better is supported by the empirical evidence using actual VIX option market data. I find that no model has small pricing errors over the entire range of strike prices and times to expiration. In general, Whaley’s Black-like option model produces the best overall results...

Medidas de risco extraídas de opções sobre petróleo

Preterote, Caroline das Neves Pacheco
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.417695%
Bali, Cakici e Chabi-Yo (2011) introduziram uma nova medida de risco, englobando as medidas de risco de Aumann e Serrano (2008) e Foster e Hart (2009). Trata-se de um modelo de medida de risco implícito de opções baseado na distribuição neutra ao risco dos retornos de ativos financeiros. Este trabalho se propõe a calcular a medida de risco de Bali, Cakici e Chabi-Yo (2011) com base nas opções de petróleo, a commodity mais importante da economia mundial. Como os preços das opções incorporam a expectativa do mercado, a medida de risco calculada é considerada forward-looking. Desta forma, esse trabalho também analisa a significância dessa medida em prever a atividade econômica futura. Os resultados indicaram poder preditivo em relação ao índice VIX, o qual representa a incerteza do mercado financeiro, e ao índice CFNAI, indicador da atividade econômica norte-americana.; Bali, Cakici e Chabi-Yo (2011) introduced a generalized measure of riskiness that nests the original measures proposed by Aumann and Serrano (2008) and Foster and Hart (2009). It is a model-free options’ implied measures of riskiness based on the risk-neutral distribution of financial securities. This study aims to calculate the risk measure of Bali...

Volatilidade implícita: estudo de caso

Vaz, Sílvia Fernanda Rehemtula
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.417695%
Mestrado em Controlo de Gestão dos Negócios; Dada a atual conjuntura de instabilidade dos mercados financeiros, o estudo da volatilidade pode fornecer importantes pistas aos investidores, no sentido de estes aplicarem de forma eficiente os seus excedentes de capital, visto terem à sua escolha uma grande variedade de instrumentos financeiros com diferentes características de risco e rendibilidade. Com efeito, a globalização e o desenvolvimento das tecnologias de informação provocaram um ambiente altamente competitivo e constante mudança nos mercados financeiros. Neste contexto surgiram os índices de volatilidade implícita, que têm em conta opções financeiras no seu cálculo, em vez de ativos, com o preço das opções a refletir as expectativas de mercado em relação à volatilidade futura para um determinado período, geralmente para os trinta dias subsequentes. Nesta dissertação é feita uma análise empírica a seis índices de volatilidade implícita com relevância no mercado internacional, procurando entender as suas principais características, o seu comportamento, a sua relação com o índice subjacente e com as tendências do mercado. Foram analisados os índices VIX, VXD, VAEX, VBEL, VCAC e VFTSE, no período de 03/01/2000 a 01/04/2011...

Risk and return: Long-run relations, fractional cointegration, and return predictability

Bollerslev, Tim; Osterrieder, Daniela; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; post-print
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.485596%
Univariate dependencies in market volatility, both objective and risk neutral, are best described by long-memory fractionally integrated processes. Meanwhile, the ex post difference, or the variance swap payoff reflecting the reward for bearing volatility risk, displays far less persistent dynamics. Using intraday data for the Standard & Poor's 500 and the volatility index (VIX), coupled with frequency domain methods, we separate the series into various components. We find that the coherence between volatility and the volatility-risk reward is the strongest at long-run frequencies. Our results are consistent with generalized long-run risk models and help explain why classical efforts of establishing a naïve return-volatility relation fail. We also estimate a fractionally cointegrated vector autoregression (CFVAR). The model-implied long-run equilibrium relation between the two variance variables results in nontrivial return predictability over interdaily and monthly horizons, supporting the idea that the cointegrating relation between the two variance measures proxies for the economic uncertainty rewarded by the market.

NEW TOOLS FOR VOLATILITY MODELS

SANTILLI, MANOLA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.794446%
In the first part of this work, we propose a new estimation method of the spot volatility, based on a semi-nonparametric model, which employs the information content of a complete panel of European options, daily quoted in the market, under no arbitrage assumptions. The technique we propose is based on the idea of model-free implied volatility and exploits the observed VIX term structure to make inference on the unobserved spot volatility. We show that this new estimation method can be applied to a very general class of stochastic volatility models, such as one-factor or two-factor models. Moreover, the presence of jumps both in return and volatility processes does not affect our spot volatility estimates. In the second part of the study, we propose a simple and flexible extension of the Heston (1993) model and its multifactor affine versions: the addition of a deterministic volatility factor meant to automatically fit the term structure of model-free implied volatilities. When calibrated on daily panels of FX EURUSD options for 5 strikes (ATM, 25Δ and 10Δ) and 10 maturities (from one week to two years) in the period 2005-2012, we can obtain a pricing error (in terms of RMSE on implied volatility) of 0,167%, and never above 1,72%. The proposed class of models is then a suitable stochastic volatility candidate for fast and arbitrage-free interpolation of the volatility surface.

Modeling and predicting the CBOE market volatility index

Fernandes, Marcelo; Medeiros, Marcelo Cunha; Scharth, Marcel
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.311924%
This paper performs a thorough statistical examination of the time-series properties of the daily market volatility index (VIX) from the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE). The motivation lies not only on the widespread consensus that the VIX is a barometer of the overall market sentiment as to what concerns investors' risk appetite, but also on the fact that there are many trading strategies that rely on the VIX index for hedging and speculative purposes. Preliminary analysis suggests that the VIX index displays long-range dependence. This is well in line with the strong empirical evidence in the literature supporting long memory in both options-implied and realized variances. We thus resort to both parametric and semiparametric heterogeneous autoregressive (HAR) processes for modeling and forecasting purposes. Our main ndings are as follows. First, we con rm the evidence in the literature that there is a negative relationship between the VIX index and the S&P 500 index return as well as a positive contemporaneous link with the volume of the S&P 500 index. Second, the term spread has a slightly negative long-run impact in the VIX index, when possible multicollinearity and endogeneity are controlled for. Finally, we cannot reject the linearity of the above relationships...

Análise do prêmio de risco de títulos de dívida brasileiros emitidos no exterior e o Credit Spread Puzzle

Gonçalves, Rodrigo Caldas
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.417695%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Economia, 2011.; Este trabalho aborda o modelo de precificação do CDS de emissões soberanas, proposto por Remolona in ‘A Ratings Based Approach to Measuring Sovereign Risk’ (International Journal of Finance and Economics, vol. 13, issue 1, 26-39) como forma de evidenciar parcelas do risco soberano não amparadas pela perda esperada, calculada de acordo com o rating soberano dos emissores, originando o que a literatura acadêmica chama de Credit Spread Puzzle. Foi avaliado o modelo para CDS com maturidades de 2, 3, 5, 7 e 10 anos, para grupos de 7 e 8 países emergentes, incluindo-se sempre o Brasil, considerando os períodos entre janeiro de 2002 e junho de 2006, e janeiro de 2002 e junho de 2010, utilizando para tal regressões em painel. Complementarmente, foram realizadas regressões lineares individuais pelo método OLS de 12 países, sendo 10 emergentes e 2 da zona do Euro que atualmente enfrentam problemas em relação à gestão de suas dívidas externas. Foi também avaliado o comportamento do indicador de Volatilidade VIX, elaborado pela Chicago Board of Options Exchange, e as implicações que possui na formação do CDS. Com base em dados de expectativas de perdas de todos os países...

Option Pricing Accuracy for Estimated Heston Models

Azencott, Robert; Gadhyan, Yutheeka; Glowinski, Roland
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.485596%
We consider assets for which price $X_t$ and squared volatility $Y_t$ are jointly driven by Heston joint stochastic differential equations (SDEs). When the parameters of these SDEs are estimated from $N$ sub-sampled data $(X_{nT}, Y_{nT})$, estimation errors do impact the classical option pricing PDEs. We estimate these option pricing errors by combining numerical evaluation of estimation errors for Heston SDEs parameters with the computation of option price partial derivatives with respect to these SDEs parameters. This is achieved by solving six parabolic PDEs with adequate boundary conditions. To implement this approach, we also develop an estimator $\hat \lambda$ for the market price of volatility risk, and we study the sensitivity of option pricing to estimation errors affecting $\hat \lambda$. We illustrate this approach by fitting Heston SDEs to 252 daily joint observations of the S\&P 500 index and of its approximate volatility VIX, and by numerical applications to European options written on the S\&P 500 index.

On the volatility of volatility

Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Murray, Brian M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
19.242932%
The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index, VIX, is calculated based on prices of out-of-the-money put and call options on the S&P 500 index (SPX). Sometimes called the "investor fear gauge," the VIX is a measure of the implied volatility of the SPX, and is observed to be correlated with the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX. Changes in the VIX are observed to be negatively correlated with changes in the SPX. However, no significant correlation between changes in the VIX and changes in the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX are observed. We investigate whether this indicates a mispricing of options following large VIX moves, and examine the relation to excess returns from variance swaps.; Comment: 15 pages, 12 figures, LaTeX

Consistent Modeling of VIX and Equity Derivatives Using a 3/2 plus Jumps Model

Baldeaux, Jan; Badran, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.106838%
The paper demonstrates that a pure-diffusion 3/2 model is able to capture the observed upward-sloping implied volatility skew in VIX options. This observation contradicts a common perception in the literature that jumps are required for the consistent modelling of equity and VIX derivatives. The pure-diffusion model, however, struggles to reproduce the smile in the implied volatilities of short-term index options. One remedy to this problem is to augment the model by introducing jumps in the index. The resulting 3/2 plus jumps model turns out to be as tractable as its pure-diffusion counterpart when it comes to pricing equity, realized variance and VIX derivatives, but accurately captures the smile in implied volatilities of short-term index options.; Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures

Spectral methods for volatility derivatives

Albanese, Claudio; Lo, Harry; Mijatović, Aleksandar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
29.18729%
In the first quarter of 2006 Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) introduced, as one of the listed products, options on its implied volatility index (VIX). This created the challenge of developing a pricing framework that can simultaneously handle European options, forward-starts, options on the realized variance and options on the VIX. In this paper we propose a new approach to this problem using spectral methods. We use a regime switching model with jumps and local volatility defined in \cite{FXrev} and calibrate it to the European options on the S&P 500 for a broad range of strikes and maturities. The main idea of this paper is to "lift" (i.e. extend) the generator of the underlying process to keep track of the relevant path information, namely the realized variance. The lifted generator is too large a matrix to be diagonalized numerically. We overcome this difficulty by applying a new semi-analytic algorithm for block-diagonalization. This method enables us to evaluate numerically the joint distribution between the underlying stock price and the realized variance, which in turn gives us a way of pricing consistently European options, general accrued variance payoffs and forward-starting and VIX options.; Comment: to appear in Quantitative Finance

Essays on the Econometrics of Option Prices

Vogt, Erik
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
18.05578%

This dissertation develops new econometric techniques for use in estimating and conducting inference on parameters that can be identified from option prices. The techniques in question extend the existing literature in financial econometrics along several directions.

The first essay considers the problem of estimating and conducting inference on the term structures of a class of economically interesting option portfolios. The option portfolios of interest play the role of functionals on an infinite-dimensional parameter (the option surface indexed by the term structure of state-price densities) that is well-known to be identified from option prices. Admissible functionals in the essay are generalizations of the VIX volatility index, which represent weighted integrals of options prices at a fixed maturity. By forming portfolios for various maturities, one can study their term structure. However, an important econometric difficulty that must be addressed is the illiquidity of options at longer maturities, which the essay overcomes by proposing a new nonparametric framework that takes advantage of asset pricing restrictions to estimate a shape-conforming option surface. In a second stage, the option portfolios of interest are cast as functionals of the estimated option surface...