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Jogos combinatórios e jogos de soma nula

Estrela, Rita Alexandra Pires
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.887056%
A teoria dos jogos pretende analisar situações competitivas que envolvem interesses conflituosos. Deste modo contempla vários tipos de jogos com características específicas. Neste trabalho são estudados os conceitos da teoria dos jogos como ferramenta a estratégia dos jogadores em alguns jogos combinatórios e em jogos de soma nula. Os jogos combinatórios caracterizam-se por serem de decisões alternadas, de informação completa, onde não há interferência do acaso, são imparciais e terminam sempre com a vitória de um dos jogadores. Em alguns casos é fácil encontrar uma estratégia vencedora, como no jogo do Nim e em algumas das suas variantes. Além destes, ainda são abordados os jogos de Ramsey e Sperner. Os jogos de soma nula são exemplos de situações em que os jogadores têm interesses totalmente opostos. Cada tomada de decisão visa maximizar os ganhos de um dos jogadores (e, consequentemente minimizar as perdas do outro jogador). Desta forma, mostra-se que, através de matrizes de payoffs, é fácil encontrar estratégias vencedoras, sejam elas puras ou mistas.; The game theory intends to analyze competitive situations involving con icts of interest. In this sense, it includes various types of games with speci c characteristics. In this work...

Reallocating Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Emission in EU15 Countries

Serrão, Amilcar J
Fonte: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association Publicador: AgEcon Search - University of Minnesota - Agricultural Applied Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.227%
This research work uses an alternative approach for modeling agricultural greenhouse gas emissions as an undesirable output, based on the zero sum gains DEA model (ZSG-DEA BCC model). This approach reallocates agricultural greenhouse gas emissions among EU15 countries. The reallocation analysis of greenhouse gas emissions permits countries that increase their emissions negotiate the emissions reduction with the others. This negotiation process might create a quota trade system for agricultural activity.

Large discreet resource allocation: a hybrid approach based on dea efficiency measurement

Gomes,Eliane Gonçalves; Mello,João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de; Meza,Lidia Angulo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.227%
Resource allocation is one of the traditional Operations Research problems. In this paper we propose a hybrid model for resource allocation that uses Data Envelopment Analysis efficiency measures. We use Zero Sum Gains DEA models as the starting point to decrease the computational work for the step-bystep algorithm to allocate integer resources in a DEA context. Our approach is illustrated by a numerical example.

Uniformization of frontiers in non-radial ZSG-DEA models: an application to airport revenues

Fonseca,Aline Bandeira de Mello; Mello,João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de; Gomes,Eliane Gonçalves; Meza,Lidia Angulo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.3786%
We propose in this paper an extension to the Zero Sum Gains Data Envelopment Analysis model (ZSG-DEA). The proposed approach takes into account, simultaneously, non-radial projections and cone-ratio weights restrictions. We developed an iterative approximate algorithm to solve this model, as in the case study it is oriented only to the constant sum output. The theoretical approach is applied to the concession of discounts and surcharges problem, in terms of airport fees.

A Geometrical Perspective for the Bargaining Problem

Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.887056%
A new treatment to determine the Pareto-optimal outcome for a non-zero-sum game is presented. An equilibrium point for any game is defined here as a set of strategy choices for the players, such that no change in the choice of any single player will increase the overall payoff of all the players. Determining equilibrium for multi-player games is a complex problem. An intuitive conceptual tool for reducing the complexity, via the idea of spatially representing strategy options in the bargaining problem is proposed. Based on this geometry, an equilibrium condition is established such that the product of their gains over what each receives is maximal. The geometrical analysis of a cooperative bargaining game provides an example for solving multi-player and non-zero-sum games efficiently.

Rules over Real Estate

Simmons, Beth
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.34691%
Territorial disputes between governments generate a significant amount of uncertainty for economic actors. Settled boundary agreements produce benefits to economic agents on both sides of the border. These qualities of borders are missed both by realists, who view territorial conflicts in overly zero-sum terms, and globalists, who claim borders are increasingly irrelevant. Settled borders help to secure property rights, signal much greater jurisdictional and policy certainty, and thereby reduce the transactions costs associated with international economic transactions. The plausibility of this claim is examined by showing that territorial disputes involve significant economic opportunity costs in the form of foregone bilateral trade. Theories of territorial politics should take into account the possibility of such joint gains in their models of state dispute behavior.; Government

Modelling undesirable outputs with zero sum gains data envelopment analysis models.

GOMES, E. G.
Fonte: Journal of the Operational Research Society, v.59, n.2, p. 616-623, 2008. Publicador: Journal of the Operational Research Society, v.59, n.2, p. 616-623, 2008.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.78129%
Data envelopment analysis (DEA) literature has proposed alternative models for performance assessment in the presence of undesirable outputs, such as pollutant emissions, where increased outputs imply reduced performance. However, the case where global equilibrium of outputs should be imposed has not yet been considered. We propose that the zero sum gains DEA (ZSG-DEA) models look especially suitable for treating equilibrium models, where the sum of the quantities produced by all decision-making units can be set as the upper admissible bound. This paper uses ZSG-DEA models to evaluate the carbon dioxide emission case study, which can be considered part of the Kyoto Protocol statement.; 2008

Large discreet resource allocation: a hybrid approach based on DEA efficiency measurement.

GOMES, E. G.; MELLO, J. C. C. B. S. de; MEZA, L. A.
Fonte: Pesquisa Operacional, v.28, n.3, p. 597-608, set./dez. 2008. Publicador: Pesquisa Operacional, v.28, n.3, p. 597-608, set./dez. 2008.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.227%
Resource allocation is one of the traditional Operations Research problems. In this paper we propose a hybrid model for resource allocation that uses Data Envelopment Analysis efficiency measures. We use Zero Sum Gains DEA models as the starting point to decrease the computational work for the step-bystep algorithm to allocate integer resources in a DEA context. Our approach is illustrated by a numerical example.; 2008

Allocating financial resources for competitive projects using a zero sum gains DEA model.

GOMES, E. G.; SOUZA, G. da S. e
Fonte: ENGEVISTA v. 12, n.. 1, p. 4-9, junh, 2010. Publicador: ENGEVISTA v. 12, n.. 1, p. 4-9, junh, 2010.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Formato: 4-9
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
98.688%
In this paper we use a Zero Sum Gains Data Envelopment Analysis model (ZSG-DEA) to allocate financial resources for competitive projects managed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) research centers. The initial output measurement in the production process modeled is the amount of financial resources available, uniformly distributed among research centers. The input variables are proxies for the intensity of projects externally funded, quality of project management, and level of participation in complex researches. The allocation proposed has maximum global efficiency.; 2010

Victim participation in a restorative justice process : the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments

Strang, Heather
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.038655%
This thesis addresses the role of victims in our criminal justice system and the shortcomings they perceive in the way they are treated. It examines whether restorative justice can offer then more justice that they receive from the formal court-based system. Before the rise of the modern state, restorative justice was the dominant model of resolution for disputes and criminal actions. However, the victim’s role in Western criminal justice declined over time, until only a vestigial and debased part as a witness for the prosecution remained. Research into the shortcomings of the court-based system has identified a number of issues that victims want to address. In brief, they are found to want a less formal process where their views count, more information about both the processing and the outcome of their case is dealt with, fairer and more respectful treatment, and emotional as well as material restoration as an outcome. Over the three decades, the victim movement worldwide has agitated for an enhanced role of victims in criminal justice. Despite some successes, it appears that structural as well as political factors may mean that victims have won as much as they are likely to gain form formal justice. The Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) in Canberra provide an opportunity to compare the impact on victims of court-based justice with a restorative justice program known as conferencing. This randomised controlled trial assigned middle-range property and violent offences committed by young offenders either to court (as they would normally have been treated) or to a conference. The study achieved a love level of treatment crossover (three percent) and a high victim interview response (85 percent). With material restoration...

A geometrical perspective for the bargaining problem

Wong, Kian Loong Kelvin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.887056%
A new treatment to determine the Pareto-optimal outcome for a non-zero-sum game is presented. An equilibrium point for any game is defined here as a set of strategy choices for the players, such that no change in the choice of any single player will increase the overall payoff of all the players. Determining equilibrium for multi-player games is a complex problem. An intuitive conceptual tool for reducing the complexity, via the idea of spatially representing strategy options in the bargaining problem is proposed. Based on this geometry, an equilibrium condition is established such that the product of their gains over what each receives is maximal. The geometrical analysis of a cooperative bargaining game provides an example for solving multi-player and non-zero-sum games efficiently.; Kelvin Kian Loong Wong

Judicial Evaluation in Context: Principles, Practices and Promise in Nine European Countries; Un’Ipotesi di Valutazione dell’Attività Giurisdizionale in Contesto: Principi, Pratiche e Prospettive in Nove Paesi Europei

MOHR, Richard; CONTINI, Francesco
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.34691%
The paper analyses the experience of nine European countries in developing ways of evaluating judicial activity within the context of courts and responsible authorities, whether ministries or judicial councils. Recognising that the judicial and executive branches bring very different traditions and expectations to evaluation, a theoretical base is developed by elaborating the notions of authority and accountability. These are not the exclusive domains of judges and managers respectively, since each can be seen to be authoritative and accountable in different ways. Both are authorised by and accountable to a sovereign people, and yet these people are conceived in multiple and often contradictory guises, as taxpayers, citizens and parties before the court. Practices in each of the countries under discussion revealed some common problems and uncommon successes. Conflict results when managers apply quantitative output measures, and in response judges insist on legal principles such as judicial independence as a shield against a misconceived accountability. Attempts to refine the measures without reconceptualising the task lead to ritualism that fails to achieve any improvements in either performance or understanding. Complaints mechanisms...

The economics and history of cronyism

Henderson, David R.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.636323%
Cronyism is the substitution of political influence for free markets. It comes about when government has a lot of power over private-sector decisions and when the government officials in power have great discretion over how to use it. Cronyism is not simply a zero-sum game that takes from some and gives to others; it is negative-sum. The losses to the losers substantially outweigh the gains to the winners. In short, cronyism destroys wealth. By shifting power to government, cronyism makes political power more important and increases the competition for that political power. The way to reduce or end cronyism is to reduce or end that government power.

Olympic ranking based on a zero sum gains DEA model.

LINS, M. P. E.; GOMS, E. G.; MELLO, J. C. C. B. S.; MELLO, A. J. R. S. de
Fonte: European Journal of Operational Research, n. 148, p. 312-322, 2003. Publicador: European Journal of Operational Research, n. 148, p. 312-322, 2003.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Formato: folhas avulsas
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.3786%
It is usual to rank the participant countries in the Olympic Games in accordance with the number of medals they have won. An alternative ranking is suggested in this paper. This ranking is based on each country's ability to win medals in relation to its available resources. This is an efficiency that can be measured with the help of data envelopment analysis (DEA) for which two models exist: the traditional DEA model, that takes into account variable returns to scale, and a DEA model based on the premise that the sum of the gains is zero (constant sum of outputs). It is the latter that is developed in this paper.; 2003

Exact Joint Distribution Analysis of Zero-Forcing V-BLAST Gains with Greedy Ordering

Ozyurt, Serdar; Torlak, Murat
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.588877%
We derive the joint probability distribution of zero-forcing (ZF) V-BLAST gains under a greedy selection of decoding order and no error propagation. Unlike the previous approximated analyses, a mathematical framework is built by applying order statistics rules and an exact closed-form joint probability density function expression for squared layer gains is obtained. Our analysis relies on the fact that all orderings are equiprobable under independent and identical Rayleigh fading. Based on this idea, we determine the joint distribution of the ordered gains from the joint distribution of the unordered gains. Our results are applicable for any number of transmit and receive antennas. Although we present our analysis in a ZF V-BLAST setting, our analytical results can be directly applied for the dual cases of ZF V-BLAST. Under the assumption of a low rate feedback of decoding order to the transmitter, a benefit of having exact expressions is illustrated by the calculation of the cutoff value under optimal power allocation that maximizes the sum of the substream outage capacities under a given sum power constraint. We provide numerical results and verify our analysis by means of simulations.; Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications...

Performance Analysis of Optimum Zero-Forcing Beamforming with Greedy User Selection

Ozyurt, Serdar; Torlak, Murat
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/07/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59764%
In this letter, an exact performance analysis is presented on the sum rate of zero-forcing beamforming with a greedy user scheduling algorithm in a downlink system. Adopting water-filling power allocation, we derive a compact form for the joint probability density function of the scheduled users' squared subchannel gains when a transmitter with multiple antennas sends information to at most two scheduled users with each having a single antenna. The analysis is verified by numerical results.; Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures

On repeated zero-sum games with incomplete information and asymptotically bounded values

Sandomirskiy, Fedor
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.16999%
We consider repeated zero-sum games with incomplete information on the side of Player2 with the total payoff given by the non-normalized sum of stage gains. In the classical examples he value $V_N$ of such $N$-stage game is of the order of $N$ or $\sqrt{N}$ as $N\to \infty$. Our aim is to present a general framework for another asymptotic behavior of the value $V_N$ observed for the discrete version of the financial market model introduced by De Meyer and Saley. For this game Domansky and independently De Meyer with Marino found that $V_N$ remains bounded as $N\to\infty$ and converges to the limiting value. This game is almost-fair, i.e. if Player1 forgets his private information the value becomes zero. We describe a class of almost-fair games having bounded values in terms of an easy-checkable property of the auxiliary non-revealing game. We call this property the trigger property and it says that there exists an optimal strategy of Player2 that is piecewise-constant as a function of a prior distribution $p$. Discrete market models have the trigger property. We show that for non-trigger almost-fair games with additional non-degeneracy condition $V_N$ is of the order of $\sqrt{N}$.; Comment: 12 pages

Balancing forward and feedback error correction for erasure channels with unreliable feedback

Sahai, Anant
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.59764%
The traditional information theoretic approach to studying feedback is to consider ideal instantaneous high-rate feedback of the channel outputs to the encoder. This was acceptable in classical work because the results were negative: Shannon pointed out that even perfect feedback often does not improve capacity and in the context of symmetric DMCs, Dobrushin showed that it does not improve the fixed block-coding error exponents in the interesting high rate regime. However, it has recently been shown that perfect feedback does allow great improvements in the asymptotic tradeoff between end-to-end delay and probability of error, even for symmetric channels at high rate. Since gains are claimed with ideal instantaneous feedback, it is natural to wonder whether these improvements remain if the feedback is unreliable or otherwise limited. Here, packet-erasure channels are considered on both the forward and feedback links. First, the feedback channel is considered as a given and a strategy is given to balance forward and feedback error correction in the suitable information-theoretic limit of long end-to-end delays. At high enough rates, perfect-feedback performance is asymptotically attainable despite having only unreliable feedback! Second...

ALLOCATING FINANCIAL RESOURCES FOR COMPETITIVE PROJECTS USING A ZERO SUM GAINS DEA MODEL

Eliane Gonçalves Gomes; Geraldo da Silva e Souza
Fonte: ENGEVISTA Publicador: ENGEVISTA
Tipo: Artigo Avaliado por Pares Formato: application/force-download
Publicado em 02/02/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.227%
In this paper we use a Zero Sum Gains Data Envelopment Analysis model (ZSG-DEA) to allocate financial resources for competitive projects managed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) research centers. The initial output measurement in the production process modeled is the amount of financial resources available, uniformly distributed among research centers. The input variables are proxies for the intensity of projects externally funded, quality of project management, and level of participation in complex researches. The allocation proposed has maximum global efficiency.

Busca sequencial de alvos intermediários em modelos DEA com soma de outputs constante

Gomes,Eliane Gonçalves; Mello,João Carlos Correia Baptista Soares de; Lins,Marcos Pereira Estellita
Fonte: APDIO - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Operacional Publicador: APDIO - Associação Portuguesa de Investigação Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.59764%
Uma suposição existente nos modelos DEA clássicos é a total liberdade de produção, ou seja, a produção de uma DMU não interfere na produção das demais. Em alguns casos, porém, esta liberdade não existe. É aqui proposta uma alteração no modelo DEA BCC clássico que considera estas limitações. Neste modelo a soma dos outputs é constante. Esta situação é semelhante à de um jogo com soma zero, no qual o que é ganho por um jogador é perdido pelos demais. São apresentadas sua formulação geral e uma estratégia de redução proporcional ao nível de output. Como o modelo obtido recai em Programação Não Linear, é demonstrado um teorema que permite sua solução imediata e o cálculo de alvos e de eficiências, conhecendo-se a solução do modelo DEA clássico. Entretanto, podem ser encontradas barreiras práticas na realização em curto prazo dos alvos calculados. É, assim, proposta uma busca de alvos por etapas, com alvos intermediários nas camadas de iso-eficiência. A busca pode ser feita por uma única DMU ou por várias em regime de cooperação.