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Software adaptativo: método de projeto, representação gráfica e implementação de linguagem de programação.; Adaptive software: project method, graphical representation and programming language implementation.

Silva, Salvador Ramos Bernardino da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2011 Português
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Linguagem para programação adaptativa se apresenta como um tema relativo às tecnologias adaptativas que suscita muitas pesquisas, até que venha a se constituir em mais uma ferramenta disponível ao programador. Nessa perspectiva, esta dissertação apresenta uma linguagem de alto nível, básica, que permita a geração de código adaptativo, bem como os requisitos e características de uma linguagem dessa natureza, recomendações sobre como projetar um software nessa linguagem e a representação gráfica do mesmo, o respectivo compilador e o ambiente de run-time no qual os programas serão executados. Apresenta, ainda, um exemplo de um programa fonte escrito na linguagem proposta.; Programming Languages for coding adaptive programs constitute a very rich research subject in the field of adaptive technology. It aims to offer a tool for programmers to express adaptive programs in a user-friendly, high-level, machine- readable, abstract notation. This MSc thesis presents the specification of requirements and desirable attributes for high-level languages allowing the automatic generation of adaptive code, and recommends a design methodology for conceiving and implementing adaptive programs using such languages as well. A graphical notation is suggested for that purpose...

A Reference Architecture based on Reflection for Self-adaptive Software

Affonso, Frank Jose; Nakagawa, Elisa Yumi; IEEE
Fonte: Ieee Publicador: Ieee
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 129-138
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Self-adaptive Software (SaS) presents specific characteristics compared to traditional ones, as it makes possible adaptations to be incorporated at runtime. These adaptations, when manually performed, normally become an onerous, error-prone activity. In this scenario, automated approaches have been proposed to support such adaptations; however, the development of SaS is not a trivial task. In parallel, reference architectures are reusable artifacts that aggregate the knowledge of architectures of software systems in specific domains. They have facilitated the development, standardization, and evolution of systems of those domains. In spite of their relevance, in the SaS domain, reference architectures that could support a more systematic development of SaS are not found yet. Considering this context, the main contribution of this paper is to present a reference architecture based on reflection for SaS, named RA4SaS (Reference Architecture for SaS). Its main purpose is to support the development of SaS that presents adaptations at runtime. To show the viability of this reference architecture, a case study is presented. As result, it has been observed that RA4SaS has presented good perspective to efficiently contribute to the area of SaS.

Adaptive Software Transactional Memory

Marathe, Virendra Jayant (1977 - ); Scherer, William N. III ; Scott, Michael L. (1959 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
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Software Transactional Memory (STM) is a generic synchronization construct that enables automatic conversion of correct sequential objects into correct nonblocking concurrent objects. Recent STM systems, though significantly more practical than their predecessors, display inconsistent performance: differing design decisions cause different systems to perform best in different circumstances, often by dramatic margins. In this paper we consider four dimensions of the STM design space: (i) when concurrent objects are acquired by transactions for modification; (ii) how they are acquired; (iii) what they look like when not acquired; and (iv) the non-blocking semantics for transactions (lock-freedom vs. obstruction-freedom). In this 4-dimensional space we highlight the locations of two leading STM systems: the DSTM of Herlihy et al. and the OSTM of Fraser and Harris. Drawing motivation from the performance of a series of application benchmarks, we then present a new Adaptive STM (ASTM) system that adjusts to the offered workload, allowing it to match the performance of the best known existing system on every tested workload.

Framework para interface e gerenciamento computacional de sistemas de aquisição de dados; Framework for computational interfacing and management of data acquistion systems

Siqueira Junior, Ailton Luiz Dias
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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A maioria dos sistemas de aquisiçãao de dados atuais é baseada em mecanismos de hardware e software dedicados. Tal estratégia dificulta consideravelmente tarefas como a expansão e a atualização do hardware, uma vez que imp˜oem mudanças na estrutura do software, e vice-versa. Neste sentido, este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um framework para interfaceamento e gerenciamento de dispositivos de aquisição de dados. Seu principal objetivo é aumentar a modularização do sistema, separando a implementação do hardware do equipamento da implementação do software associado ao mesmo. O framework foi desenvolvido com a utilização de técnicas de construção de software adaptativo, como polimorfismo, padrões de projeto, plug-ins e reflexão. Com isso, foi possível criar dispositivos de software capazes de detectar as características específicas de equipamentos conectados a um computador, aumentando assim a compatibilidade entre os aplicativos de software e os equipamentos de aquisiçãoo. Desta forma, tal estratégia, permite que um mesmo aplicativo possa ser utilizado para trabalhar com equipamentos distintos, sem que seja necessária qualquer mudança ou ajuste. Os passos para a utilização do framework em sistemas reais são apresentados através de exemplos e estudos de caso. Os resultados dos experimentos demonstraram que o framework permite a modularização de sistemas...

On the role of primary and secondary assets in adaptive security: an application in smart grids

Pasquale, Liliana; Mazeiar, Salehie; Ali, Raian; Omoronyia, Inah; Nuseibeh, Bashar
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
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peer-reviewed; Adaptive security aims to protect valuable assets managed by a system, by applying a varying set of security controls. Engineering adaptive security is not an easy task. A set of effective security countermeasures should be identified. These countermeasures should not only be applied to (primary) assets that customers desire to protect, but also to other (secondary) assets that can be exploited by attackers to harm the primary assets. Another challenge arises when assets vary dynamically at runtime. To accommodate these variabilities, it is necessary to monitor changes in assets, and apply the most appropriate countermeasures at runtime. The paper provides three main contributions for engineering adaptive security. First, it proposes a modeling notation to represent primary and secondary assets, along with their variability. Second, it describes how to use the extended models in engineering security requirements and designing required monitoring functions. Third, the paper illustrates our approach through a set of adaptive security scenarios in the customer domain of a smart grid. We suggest that modeling secondary assets aids the deployment of countermeasures, and, in combination with a representation of assets variability...

Adaptive security and privacy in smart grids: a software engineering vision

Salehie, Mazeiar; Pasquale, Liliana; Omoronyia, Inah; Nuseibeh, Bashar
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
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peer-reviewed; Despite the benefits offered by smart grids, energy producers, distributors and consumers are increasingly concerned about possible security and privacy threats. These threats typically manifest themselves at runtime as new usage scenarios arise and vulnerabilities are discovered. Adaptive security and privacy promise to address these threats by increasing awareness and automating prevention, detection and recovery from security and privacy requirements’ failures at runtime by re-configuring system controls and perhaps even changing requirements. This paper discusses the need for adaptive security and privacy in smart grids by presenting some motivating scenarios. We then outline some research issues that arise in engineering adaptive security. We particularly scrutinize published reports by NIST on smart grid security and privacy as the basis for our discussions.

Towards a goal-driven approach to action selection in self-adaptive software

Salehie, Mazeiar; Tahvildari, Ladan
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Publicador: John Wiley & Sons
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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peer-reviewed; Self-adaptive software is a closed-loop system, since it continuously monitors its context (i.e. environment) and/or self (i.e. software entities) in order to adapt itself properly to changes. We believe that representing adaptation goals explicitly and tracing them at run time are helpful in decision-making for adaptation. While goal-driven models are used in requirements engineering, they have not been utilized systematically yet for run-time adaptation. To address this research gap, this article focuses on the deciding process in selfadaptive software, and proposes the Goal-Action-Attribute Model (GAAM). An action selection mechanism, based on cooperative decision-making, is also proposed, which uses GAAM to select the appropriate adaptation action(s). The emphasis is on building a light-weight and scalable run-time model which needs less design and tuning effort comparing with a typical rule-based approach. TheGAAMand action selection mechanism are evaluated using a set of experiments on a simulated multi-tier enterprise application, and two sample ordinal and cardinal preference lists. The evaluation is accomplished based on a systematic design of experiment and a detailed statistical analysis with ANOVA in order to investigate several research questions. The findings are promising...

Virtual community use for packaged software maintenance

Holmstrom Olsson, Helena; Fitzgerald, Brian
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
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peer-reviewed; In this study, we investigated the use of virtual communities for involving distributed customers in the maintenance of packaged software. On the basis of an empirical study, we suggest that virtual communities can be usefully leveraged for corrective, adaptive, and perfective software maintenance. Specifically, the virtual community allowed for quick discovery of bugs and a rich interaction between developers and customers in the categories of corrective and adaptive software maintenance. However, although contributing also to the perfective category of software maintenance, this was the category in which several customer suggestions for modification were actually ignored by the developers. This implies that community use is indeed beneficial for maintenance related to coding and design errors as well as for maintenance of an adaptive character. However, it has limitations when associated with major changes such as software functionality addition or modification as those experienced in the category of perfective maintenance.

A reference model as automated process for software adaptation at runtime

Affonso, F. J.; Carneiro, M. C. V. S.; Rodrigues, E. L. L.; Nakagawa, E. Y.
Fonte: Ieee-inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc Publicador: Ieee-inst Electrical Electronics Engineers Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 214-221
Português
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The development of self-adaptive software (SaS) has specific characteristics compared to traditional one, since it allows that changes to be incorporated at runtime. Automated processes have been used as a feasible solution to conduct the software adaptation at runtime. In parallel, reference model has been used to aggregate knowledge and architectural artifacts, since capture the systems essence of specific domains. However, there is currently no reference model based on reflection for the development of SaS. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is to present a reference model based on reflection for development of SaS that have a need to adapt at runtime. To present the applicability of this model, a case study was conducted and good perspective to efficiently contribute to the area of SaS has been obtained.

Caprice: a tool for engineering adaptive privacy

Omoronyia, Inah; Pasquale, Liliana; Salehie, Mazeiar; Cavallaro, Luca; Doherty, Gavin; Nuseibeh, Bashar
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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peer-reviewed; In a dynamic environment where context changes frequently, users’ privacy requirements can also change. To satisfy such changing requirements, there is a need for continuous analysis to discover new threats and possible mitigation actions. A frequently changing context can also blur the boundary between public and personal space, making it difficult for users to discover and mitigate emerging privacy threats. This challenge necessitates some degree of self-adaptive privacy management in software applications. This paper presents Caprice - a tool for enabling software engineers to design systems that discover and mitigate contextsensitive privacy threats. The tool uses privacy policies, and associated domain and software behavioural models, to reason over the contexts that threaten privacy. Based on the severity of a discovered threat, adaptation actions are then suggested to the designer. We present the Caprice architecture and demonstrate, through an example, that the tool can enable designers to focus on specific privacy threats that arise from changing context and the plausible category of adaptation action, such as ignoring, preventing, reacting, and terminating interactions that threaten privacy.

An adaptive image pre-processing system for quality control in production lines

Arroyo Esquivel, Esteban
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Adaptive and self-optimized behaviours in automated quality control systems based on computer vision and hence on digital image processing, constitute an approach that may signi cantly enhance the robustness, e ciency and exibility of the industrial systems. This work presents the development of an adaptive software system designed for the pre-processing of digital images captured in industrial production scenarios. The system is capable of characterizing and distinguishing between di erent image scenes, evaluating their current global quality, determining the best enhancement strategy to be executed and auto-adapting its functional parameters according to the actual generated data. Real images captured in a washing machines production line are presented and used to test and validate the system algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate the robust performance of the system, the image quality enhancements achieved and the improvement of the recognition e ectiveness of the posterior processing algorithms. The contribution of the present work consists in the implementation of a dynamic scene recognition algorithm, based on a neural network architecture and a parametric indexes extraction process, that allows the execution of customized quality correction strategies and it is capable of considering the system's history in order to self-adapt. With this project it is intended to incur in the automated industrial quality control eld by addressing a novel approach on adaptive pre-processing systems for quality enhancement purposes. Os comportamentos adaptativos e auto-optimizáveis nos sistemas de controlo de qualidade baseados em visão arti cial e...

A study of the impact of real-time constraints in Java/OSGi applications

Américo, João Claudio Rodrigues
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
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Restrições de tempo-real e adaptação de software em tempo de execução são duas necessidades frequentes nos sistemas modernos. De um lado, as características mais importante dos sistemas de tempo-real são a sua preditibilidade e o seu tempo de execução determinista. De outro lado, aplicações adaptáveis em tempo de execução tem como principal característica a capacidade de serem modificáveis e atualizáveis em tempo de execução, o que as torna flexíveis e robustas. No contexto da plataforma Java, muitas soluções lidando separadamente com estes dois aspectos foram desenvolvidas. Entre as soluções de tempo-real, a mais popular é a Especificação de Tempo-Real para Java (RTSJ) e suas implementações, que oferecem uma API completa para o desenvolvimento de aplicações de tempo-real em Java. Da mesma forma, a plataforma de serviços OSGi é uma das soluções mais populares para o desenvolvimento e implementação de software dinamicamente adaptável. Um dos motivos para sua popularidade é o fato de que ela combina conceitos de ambas abordagens orientada a serviços e baseada em componentes. A plataforma de serviços OSGi tornou-se o padrão de facto para o desenvolvimento de sistemas flexíveis e modulares, e muitas aplicações tem sido migradas e desenvolvidas utilizando o seu modelo de componentes. Entretando...

A Reference Architecture for Component-Based Self-Adaptive Software Systems

Castañeda Bueno, Lorena
Fonte: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería; Maestría en Gestión Informática y Telecomunicaciones Publicador: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería; Maestría en Gestión Informática y Telecomunicaciones
Tipo: masterThesis; Tesis de maestría Formato: PDF; Electrónico
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Contiene: Introduction/Context and Background/A Reference Architecture for Component-Based Self-Adaptive Software Sys- tems/Reference Architecture Evaluation/Conclusions and Future Work One/List of Tables/List of Figures/

On Designing Self-Adaptive Software Systems; Diseño de software autoadaptativo

Villegas Machado, Norha Milena; Müller, Hausi A.; Tamura Morimitsu, Gabriel
Fonte: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería Publicador: Universidad Icesi; Facultad de Ingeniería
Tipo: article; Artículo Formato: PDF; Electrónico
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Ante condiciones cambiantes del entorno, los sistemas autoadaptativos pueden modificarse a sí mismos para controlar la satisfacción de sus requerimientos en tiempo de ejecución. Durante el siglo pasado los sistemas de retroalimentación fueron importantes modelos para controlar el comportamiento dinámico de sistemas mecánicos, eléctricos, de fluidos y químicos, en sus respectivos campos de la ingeniería. Más recientemente fueron adoptados para diseñar software autoadaptativo. No obstante, lograr mapeos coherentes y explícitos consistentemente entre las arquitecturas de software adaptativo y los elementos de sistemas de retroalimentación es aún un reto abierto. Este artículo, sobre un modelo de referencia propuesto con ese propósito, discute aspectos clave del diseño de software autoadaptativo, en que los elementos de sistemas de retroalimentación se definen explícitamente como componentes de primer nivel en su arquitectura. Adicionalmente, ilustra la aplicación de este modelo de referencia a un ejemplo real de software adaptativo. El artículo ofrece a los ingenieros de software un punto de referencia para iniciar el diseño de software autoadaptativo.; Self-adaptive systems modify themselves at run-time in order to control the satisfaction of their requirements under changing environmental conditions. Over the past century...

Design Patterns for Self Adaptive Systems Engineering

Abuseta, Yousef; Swesi, Khaled
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/08/2015 Português
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Self adaptation has been proposed to overcome the complexity of today's software systems which results from the uncertainty issue. Aspects of uncertainty include changing systems goals, changing resource availability and dynamic operating conditions. Feedback control loops have been recognized as vital elements for engineering self-adaptive systems. However, despite their importance, there is still a lack of systematic way of the design of the interactions between the different components comprising one particular feedback control loop as well as the interactions between components from different control loops . Most existing approaches are either domain specific or too abstract to be useful. In addition, the issue of multiple control loops is often neglected and consequently self adaptive systems are often designed around a single loop. In this paper we propose a set of design patterns for modeling and designing self adaptive software systems based on MAPE-K Control loop of IBM architecture blueprint which takes into account the multiple control loops issue. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed design patterns.; Comment: 18 pages, 11 figures

Quality-aware Approach for Engineering Self-adaptive Software Systems

Abufouda, Mohammed
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/02/2014 Português
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Self-adaptivity allows software systems to autonomously adjust their behavior during run-time to reduce the cost complexities caused by manual maintenance. In this paper, an approach for building an external adaptation engine for self-adaptive software systems is proposed. In order to improve the quality of self-adaptive software systems, this research addresses two challenges in self-adaptive software systems. The first challenge is managing the complexity of the adaptation space efficiently and the second is handling the run-time uncertainty that hinders the adaptation process. This research utilizes Case-based Reasoning as an adaptation engine along with utility functions for realizing the managed system's requirements and handling uncertainty.; Comment: Third International Conference on Information Technology Convergence and Services (ITCS 2014), January 2 ~ 4, 2014, Zurich, Switzerland. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1402.2144

Using Models at Runtime to Address Assurance for Self-Adaptive Systems

Cheng, Betty; Eder, Kerstin; Gogolla, Martin; Grunske, Lars; Litoiu, Marin; Müller, Hausi; Pelliccione, Patrizio; Perini, Anna; Qureshi, Nauman; Rumpe, Bernhard; Schneider, Daniel; Trollmann, Frank; Villegas, Norha
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/05/2015 Português
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A self-adaptive software system modifies its behavior at runtime in response to changes within the system or in its execution environment. The fulfillment of the system requirements needs to be guaranteed even in the presence of adverse conditions and adaptations. Thus, a key challenge for self-adaptive software systems is assurance. Traditionally, confidence in the correctness of a system is gained through a variety of activities and processes performed at development time, such as design analysis and testing. In the presence of selfadaptation, however, some of the assurance tasks may need to be performed at runtime. This need calls for the development of techniques that enable continuous assurance throughout the software life cycle. Fundamental to the development of runtime assurance techniques is research into the use of models at runtime (M@RT). This chapter explores the state of the art for usingM@RT to address the assurance of self-adaptive software systems. It defines what information can be captured by M@RT, specifically for the purpose of assurance, and puts this definition into the context of existing work. We then outline key research challenges for assurance at runtime and characterize assurance methods. The chapter concludes with an exploration of selected application areas where M@RT could provide significant benefits beyond existing assurance techniques for adaptive systems.; Comment: 36 pages...

Building Resource Adaptive Software Systems (BRASS): Objectives and System Evaluation

Hughes, Jeffrey; Sparks, Cassandra; Stoughton, Alley; Parikh, Rinku; Reuther, Albert; Jagannathan, Suresh
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2015 Português
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As modern software systems continue inexorably to increase in complexity and capability, users have become accustomed to periodic cycles of updating and upgrading to avoid obsolescence -- if at some cost in terms of frustration. In the case of the U.S. military, having access to well-functioning software systems and underlying content is critical to national security, but updates are no less problematic than among civilian users and often demand considerable time and expense. To address these challenges, DARPA has announced a new four-year research project to investigate the fundamental computational and algorithmic requirements necessary for software systems and data to remain robust and functional in excess of 100 years. The Building Resource Adaptive Software Systems, or BRASS, program seeks to realize foundational advances in the design and implementation of long-lived software systems that can dynamically adapt to changes in the resources they depend upon and environments in which they operate. MIT Lincoln Laboratory will provide the test framework and evaluation of proposed software tools in support of this revolutionary vision.

A Framework for Enhancing Performance and Handling Run-Time Uncertainty in Self-Adaptive Systems

Abufouda, Mohammed
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2014 Português
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Self-adaptivity allows software systems to autonomously adjust their behavior during run-time to reduce the cost complexities caused by manual maintenance. In this paper, a framework for building an external adaptation engine for self-adaptive software systems is proposed. In order to improve the quality of self-adaptive software systems, this research addresses two challenges in self-adaptive software systems. The first challenge is to provide better performance of the adaptation engine by managing the complexity of the adaptation space efficiently and the second challenge is handling run-time uncertainty that hinders the adaptation process. This research utilizes Case-based Reasoning as an adaptation engine along with utility functions for realizing the managed system's requirements.

Towards a Requirements Specification Multi-View Framework for Self-Adaptive Systems

Muñoz-Fernández,Juan C.; Tamura,Gabriel; Mazo,Raúl; Salinesi,Camille
Fonte: CLEI Electronic Journal Publicador: CLEI Electronic Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
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The analysis of self-adaptive systems (SAS) requirements involves addressing uncertainty from several sources. Despite advances in requirements for SAS, uncertainty remains an extremely difficult challenge. In this paper, we propose REFAS, a framework to model the requirements of self-adaptive software systems. Our aim with REFAS is to address and reduce uncertainty and to provide a language with sufficient power of expression to specify the different aspects of self-adaptive systems, relative to functional and non-functional requirements. The REFAS modeling language includes concepts closely related to these kind of requirements and their fulfillment, such as context variables, claims, and soft dependencies. Specifically, the paper’s contribution is twofold. First, REFAS supports different viewpoints and concerns related to requirements modeling, with key associations between them. Moreover, the modeler can define additional models and views by exploiting the REFAS meta-modeling capability, in order to capture additional aspects contributing to reduce uncertainty. Second, REFAS promotes in-depth analysis of all of the modeled concerns with aggregation and association capabilities, especially with context variables. Furthermore, we also define a process that enforces modeling requirements...