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Tetrades : um estudo da harmonia aplicado a guitarra eletrica; Four-note chord voicings : a harmony study applied to the electric guitar

Adriano de Carvalho Batista
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/01/2006 Português
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Essa dissertação é um estudo sobre a formação e aplicabilidade das chamadas Tétrades na guitarra elétrica. O presente trabalho descreve o processo de construção de tais acordes, além de sistematizar alguns procedimentos de expansão harmônica levando em consideração as características técnicas e idiomáticas do instrumento. O estudo ainda busca organizar, de maneira sistêmica, as principais aberturas de acordes usadas na guitarra elétrica para a confecção de encadeamentos harmônicos aplicados em acompanhamento de importantes gêneros da Música Popular. Por meio das análises de transcrições também é possível perceber claramente os procedimentos estudados ao longo da pesquisa. Desta forma, esse trabalho é uma tentativa de amenizar as lacunas existentes na metodologia de ensino da guitarra, e se propõe a contribuir para a organização e elaboração do material harmônico utilizado por este instrumento. Além disso, também poderá ser utilizado como método ao estudo da harmonia e construção de tétrades na guitarra, para alunos ingressantes no ensino superior, assim como alunos dos cursos de música em nível fundamental e médio; Four-Note Chord Voicings: A Harmonic Study of the Electric Guitar This research project is about the construction and application of four-note chord voicings for the electric guitar. The present work describes the building process of these chords and introduces a systematic procedure for harmonic expansion...

Structural Basis for Assembly of Hsp90-Sgt1-CHORD Protein Complexes: Implications for Chaperoning of NLR Innate Immunity Receptors

Zhang, Minghao; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Shirasu, Ken; Pearl, Laurence H.
Fonte: Cell Press Publicador: Cell Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2010 Português
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Hsp90-mediated function of NLR receptors in plant and animal innate immunity depends on the cochaperone Sgt1 and, at least in plants, on a cysteine- and histidine-rich domains (CHORD)-containing protein Rar1. Functionally, CHORD domains are associated with CS domains, either within the same protein, as in the mammalian melusin and Chp1, or in separate but interacting proteins, as in the plant Rar1 and Sgt1. Both CHORD and CS domains are independently capable of interacting with the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and can coexist in complexes with Hsp90. We have now determined the structure of an Hsp90-CS-CHORD ternary complex, providing a framework for understanding the dynamic nature of Hsp90-Rar1-Sgt1 complexes. Mutational and biochemical analyses define the architecture of the ternary complex that recruits nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) by manipulating the structural elements to control the ATPase-dependent conformational cycle of the chaperone.

An evolutionarily conserved protein CHORD regulates scaling of dendritic arbors with body size

Shimono, Kohei; Fujishima, Kazuto; Nomura, Takafumi; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Usui, Tadao; Kengaku, Mineko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Uemura, Tadashi
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/03/2014 Português
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Most organs scale proportionally with body size through regulation of individual cell size and/or cell number. Here we addressed how postmitotic and morphologically complex cells such as neurons scale with the body size by using the dendritic arbor of one Drosophila sensory neuron as an assay system. In small adults eclosed under a limited-nutrition condition, the wild-type neuron preserved the branching complexity of the arbor, but scaled down the entire arbor, making a “miniature”. In contrast, mutant neurons for the Insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) or TORC1 pathway exhibited “undergrowth”, which was characterized by decreases in both the branching complexity and the arbor size, despite a normal diet. These contrasting phenotypes hinted that a novel regulatory mechanism contributes to the dendritic scaling in wild-type neurons. Indeed, we isolated a mutation in the gene CHORD/morgana that uncoupled the neuron size and the body size: CHORD mutant neurons generated miniature dendritic arbors regardless of the body size. CHORD encodes an evolutionarily conserved co-chaperone of HSP90. Our results support the notion that dendritic growth and branching are controlled by partly separate mechanisms. The IIS/TORC1 pathways control both growth and branching to avert underdevelopment...

A radical reconsideration of serialism and chord stranding, applied to a personal jazz style (CD recordings and exegesis)

Martin, Christopher Robert
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.39978%
Despite a widely held view that serialism is incompatible with jazz improvisation, there are many instances of jazz musicians successfully engaging with this concept. This conflict seems likely to have arisen from differing interpretations of ‘serialism’; however, the question of how a jazz improviser’s approach to serialism might, or perhaps should, differ from a classical composer’s, has been left unasked. In addition, most attempts at the use of serialism within improvisation remain undocumented by the musicians concerned. The chord stranding techniques of Lutoslawski are less well known and less controversial than serialism. Connections between Lutoslawski’s twelve-note chords and traditional twelve-note rows are obvious, as are connections between the concept of harmonic ‘strands’ and the jazz harmonic device of superimposition. The possibilities for use of Lutoslawski’s ideas within a jazz context are interesting and worthy of consideration. This research project involves the composition and performance of jazz pieces applying serialism and chord stranding, as well as the exploration of precedents for these ideas within the jazz tradition. The four CD recordings within this thesis present the initial development of these concepts (CDs 1 and 2); an exploration of serialism in the music of John Coltrane (CD 3); and an album of original material demonstrating the integrated application of these concepts (CD 4). The exegesis describes the broader context of this project and examines the relevant music theory concepts. It uses analysis of transcriptions to show the specific application of techniques. The key outcomes from this research are (i) the development and (ii) the demonstration of techniques for pitch organisation based on serialism and chord stranding that are appropriate for jazz improvisation. The recordings and exegesis show the successful integration of these techniques with existing melodic and harmonic ideas familiar to jazz musicians. It is argued that the approach to jazz improvisation explored within this research represents a novel and radical reinterpretation of the traditional concept of serialism and that this approach is helpful when considering the effective use of serialism in a jazz context. From a broader perspective...

A more accurate reconstruction system matrix for quantitative proton computed tomography

Penfold, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Schulte, R.; Schubert, K.
Fonte: Amer AssocPhysicists Amer Inst Physics Publicador: Amer AssocPhysicists Amer Inst Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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An accurate system matrix is required for quantitative protonCT (pCT) image reconstruction with iterative projection algorithms. The system matrix is composed of chord lengths of individual proton path intersections with reconstruction pixels. In previous work, reconstructions were performed assuming constant intersection chord lengths, which led to systematic errors of the reconstructedprotonstopping powers. The purpose of the present work was to introduce a computationally efficient variable intersection chord length in order to improve the accuracy of the system matrix. An analytical expression that takes into account the discrete stepping nature of the pCT most likely path (MLP) reconstruction procedure was created to describe an angle-dependent effective mean chord length function. A pCT dataset was simulated with GEANT4 using a parallel beam of 200 MeV protons intersecting a computerized head phantom consisting of tissue-equivalent materials with known relative stopping power. The phantom stopping powers were reconstructed with the constant chord length, exact chord length, and effective mean chord length approaches, in combination with the algebraic reconstruction technique. Relative stopping power errors were calculated for each anatomical phantom region and compared for the various methods. It was found that the error of approximately 10% in the mean reconstructedstopping power value for a given anatomical region...

An improved chord based on counting bloom filter and topology-aware lookup

Zhao, L.; Wu, J.; Shen, H.; Li, Y.; Sang, Y.
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Chord is a popular and successful topology for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) data sharing. However, the conventional chord is challenged by two main drawbacks. First, it fails to consider the physical topology of the P2P network for designing the lookup solution, which may bring tremendous delay to network routing. Second, its performance of is usually limited by the high space complexity of data storage and thus data retrieval may suffer further network delay. In this work, we propose an improved chord based on Counting Bloom Filter and topology aware lookup to address the drawbacks. We first apply counting Bloom filter for data storage to reduce the space complexity. We then develop a topology-aware lookup mechanism to further speed up the search for local resources. Simulation results show that our improved chord scheme is significantly more efficient than the conventional chord method.; Limin Zhao, Jun Wu, Hong Shen, Yidong Li, Yingpeng Sang

Dynamic and location aware server discovery based on a fair distributed Hash table; Descubrimiento dinámico de servidores basado en información de localización usando una tabla de Hash distribuida balanceada

Cuevas Rumín, Rubén
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Português
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The current Internet includes a large number of distributed services. In order to guarantee the QoS of the communications in these services, a client has to select a close-by server with enough available resources. To achieve this objective, in this Thesis, we propose a simple and practical solution for Dynamic and Location Aware Server Discovery based on a Distributed Hash Table (DHT). Specifically, we decide to use a Chord DHT system (although any other DHT scheme can be used). In more detail, the solution works as follows. The servers offering a given service S form a Chord-like DHT. In addition, they register their location (topological and/or geographical) information in the DHT. Each client using the service S is connected to at least one server from the DHT. Eventually, a given client C realizes that it is connected to a server providing a bad QoS, then, it queries the DHT in order to find an appropriate server (i.e. a close-by server with enough available resources). We define 11 design criteria, and compare our solution to the Related Work based on them. We show that our solution is the most complete one. Furthermore, we validate the performance of our solution in two different scenarios: (i) NAT Traversal Server Discovery and (ii) Home Agent Discovery in Mobile IP scenarios. The former serves to validate our solution in a highly dynamic environment whereas the latter demonstrates the appropriateness of our solution in more classical environments where the servers are typically always-on hosts. The extra overhead suffered from the servers involved in our system comes from their participation in the Chord DHT. Therefore...

A Model to Quantify the Success of a Sybil Attack Targeting RELOAD/Chord Resources

Urueña, Manuel; Cuevas, Rubén; Cuevas, Ángel; Banchs, Albert
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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The Sybil attack is one of the most harmful security threats for distributed hash tables (DHTs). This attack is not only a theoretical one, but it has been spotted "in the wild", and even performed by researchers themselves to demonstrate its feasibility. In this letter we analyse the Sybil attack whose objective is that the targeted resource cannot be accessed by any user of a Chord DHT, by replacing all the replica nodes that store it with sybils. In particular, we propose a simple, yet complete model that provides the number of random node-IDs that an attacker would need to generate in order to succeed with certain probability. Therefore, our model enables to quantify the cost of performing a Sybil resource attack on RELOAD/Chord DHTs more accurately than previous works, and thus establishes the basis to measure the effectiveness of different solutions proposed in the literature to prevent or mitigate Sybil attacks.; This work has been partially supported by the EU FP7 TREND project (257740), the Spanish T2C2 project (TIN2008-06739-C04-01) and the Madrid MEDIANET project (S-2009/TIC-1468).; European Community's Seventh Framework Program

Strengthening T-Joints of Rectangular Hollow Steel Sections Using Through-Wall Bolts and Externally Bonded FRP Plates

Aguilera, JOSE Jr
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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T-joints are common in beam-column connections of steel frames, vierendeel girders and at mid-span of N-trusses. Strengthening the members of these structures increases the demand on the joints, which may require joint strengthening. This thesis examines different strengthening techniques of T-joints of RHS members. In Phase I, the effectiveness of through-wall steel bolts is examined. This is accomplished by controlling the web outward buckling of the chord under the brace axial load. The study examined the effect of the number and pattern of bolts, as well as the web height-to-wall thickness (h/t) ratio of the chord, on strengthening effectiveness. Rectangular 203x76x(3.09, 4.5, and 5.92) mm chord members were tested. The 8 mm diameter steel bolts varied from a single bolt to 15 bolts of various distributions. The joint strength increased by 3.1%, 6.2%, and 29% for chords with (h/t) of 34, 45, and 65, respectively. The number and distribution of bolts had little effect on their effectiveness. In Phase II, similar T-joint specimens were strengthened using adhesively bonded GFRP plates, 9.5 mm thick, of different configurations, and 2 mm thick high-modulus CFRP plates of equivalent stiffness. It was shown that strength gain increases significantly...

Meta-song evaluation for chord recognition

Ni, Yizhao; Mcvicar, Matt; Santos-Rodriguez, Raul; De Bie, Tijl
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/09/2011 Português
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We present a new approach to evaluate chord recognition systems on songs which do not have full annotations. The principle is to use online chord databases to generate high accurate "pseudo annotations" for these songs and compute "pseudo accuracies" of test systems. Statistical models that model the relationship between "pseudo accuracy" and real performance are then applied to estimate test systems' performance. The approach goes beyond the existing evaluation metrics, allowing us to carry out extensive analysis on chord recognition systems, such as their generalizations to different genres. In the experiments we applied this method to evaluate three state-of-the-art chord recognition systems, of which the results verified its reliability.; Comment: technique report and preparation for conference

A parity map of framed chord diagrams

Ilyutko, Denis; Manturov, Vassily
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/06/2015 Português
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We consider framed chord diagrams, i.e. chord diagrams with chords of two types. It is well known that chord diagrams modulo 4T-relations admit Hopf algebra structure, where the multiplication is given by any connected sum with respect to the orientation. But in the case of framed chord diagrams a natural way to define a multiplication is not known yet. In the present paper, we first define a new module $\mathcal{M}_2$ which is generated by chord diagrams on two circles and factored by $4$T-relations. Then we construct a "covering" map from the module of framed chord diagrams into $\mathcal{M}_2$ and a weight system on $\mathcal{M}_2$. Using the map and weight system we show that a connected sum for framed chord diagrams is not a well-defined operation. In the end of the paper we touch linear diagrams, the circle replaced by a directed line.; Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures

Chord diagrams, contact-topological quantum field theory, and contact categories

Mathews, Daniel V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We consider contact elements in the sutured Floer homology of solid tori with longitudinal sutures, as part of the (1+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theory defined by Honda--Kazez--Mati\'{c} in \cite{HKM08}. The $\Z_2$ $SFH$ of these solid tori forms a "categorification of Pascal's triangle", and contact structures correspond bijectively to chord diagrams, or sets of disjoint properly embedded arcs in the disc. Their contact elements are distinct and form distinguished subsets of $SFH$ of order given by the Narayana numbers. We find natural "creation and annihilation operators" which allow us to define a QFT-type basis of $SFH$, consisting of contact elements. Sutured Floer homology in this case reduces to the combinatorics of chord diagrams. We prove that contact elements are in bijective correspondence with comparable pairs of basis elements with respect to a certain partial order. The algebraic and combinatorial structures in this description have intrinsic contact-topological meaning. In particular, the QFT-basis of $SFH$ and its partial order have a natural interpretation in pure contact topology, related to the contact category of a disc: the partial order enables us to tell when the sutured solid cylinder obtained by "stacking" two chord diagrams has a tight contact structure. This leads us to extend Honda's notion of contact category to a "bounded" contact category...

Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams

Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.45831%
A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can, and cannot, be realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.; Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures

On a uniformly random chord diagram and its intersection graph

Acan, Huseyin
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2015 Português
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A chord diagram refers to a set of chords with distinct endpoints on a circle. The intersection graph of a chord diagram $\cal C$ is defined by substituting the chords of $\cal C$ with vertices and by adding edges between two vertices whenever the corresponding two chords cross each other. Let $C_n$ and $G_n$ denote the chord diagram chosen uniformly at random from all chord diagrams with $n$ chords and the corresponding intersection graph, respectively. We analyze $C_n$ and $G_n$ as $n$ tends to infinity. In particular, we study the degree of a random vertex in $G_n$, the $k$-core of $G_n$, and the number of strong components of the directed graph obtained from $G_n$ by orienting edges by flipping a fair coin for each edge. We also give two equivalent evolutions of a random chord diagram and show that, with probability approaching $1$, a chord diagram produced after $m$ steps of these evolutions becomes monolithic as $m$ tends to infinity and stays monolithic afterward forever.; Comment: 27 pages, 1 figure

The chord-length probability density of the regular octahedron

Ciccariello, Salvino
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.056953%
The chord length probability density of the regular octahedron is explicitly evaluated throughout its full range of distances by separating it into three contributions respectively due to the pairs of facets opposite to each other or sharing an edge or a vertex.; Comment: 24 pages, 9 figures

Connection matrices and Lie algebra weight systems for multiloop chord diagrams

Schrijver, Alexander
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.39978%
We give necessary and sufficient conditions for a weight system on multiloop chord diagrams to be obtainable from a metrized Lie algebra representation, in terms of a bound on the ranks of associated connection matrices. Here a multiloop chord diagram is a graph with directed and undirected edges so that at each vertex precisely one directed edge is entering and precisely one directed edge is leaving, and each vertex is incident with precisely one undirected edge. Weight systems on multiloop chord diagrams yield the Vassiliev invariants for knots and links. The $k$-th connection matrix of a function $f$ on the collection of multiloop chord diagrams is the matrix with rows and columns indexed by $k$-labeled chord tangles, and with entries equal to the $f$-value on the join of the tangles.

On Self-Approaching and Increasing-Chord Drawings of 3-Connected Planar Graphs

Nöllenburg, Martin; Prutkin, Roman; Rutter, Ignaz
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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An $st$-path in a drawing of a graph is self-approaching if during the traversal of the corresponding curve from $s$ to any point $t'$ on the curve the distance to $t'$ is non-increasing. A path has increasing chords if it is self-approaching in both directions. A drawing is self-approaching (increasing-chord) if any pair of vertices is connected by a self-approaching (increasing-chord) path. We study self-approaching and increasing-chord drawings of triangulations and 3-connected planar graphs. We show that in the Euclidean plane, triangulations admit increasing-chord drawings, and for planar 3-trees we can ensure planarity. We prove that strongly monotone (and thus increasing-chord) drawings of trees and binary cactuses require exponential resolution in the worst case, answering an open question by Kindermann et al. [GD'14]. Moreover, we provide a binary cactus that does not admit a self-approaching drawing. Finally, we show that 3-connected planar graphs admit increasing-chord drawings in the hyperbolic plane and characterize the trees that admit such drawings.; Comment: 22 pages, 9 figures, full version of a paper appearing in Graph Drawing 2014. Compared to the previous version, contains a new result on area requirements of strongly monotone drawings

How to Make Chord Correct

Zave, Pamela
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.540942%
The Chord distributed hash table (DHT) is well-known and frequently used to implement peer-to-peer systems. Chord peers find other peers, and access their data, through a ring-shaped pointer structure in a large identifier space. Despite claims of proven correctness, i.e., eventual reachability, previous work has shown that the Chord ring-maintenance protocol is not correct under its original operating assumptions. It has not, however, discovered whether Chord could be made correct with reasonable operating assumptions. The contribution of this paper is to provide the first specification of correct operations and initialization for Chord, an inductive invariant that is necessary and sufficient to support a proof of correctness, and the proof itself. Most of the proof is carried out by automated analysis of an Alloy model. The inductive invariant reflects the fact that a Chord network must have a minimum ring size (the minimum being the length of successor lists plus one) to be correct. The invariant relies on an assumption that there is a stable base, of the minimum size, of permanent ring members. Because a stable base has only a few members and a Chord network can have millions, we learn that the obstacles to provable correctness are anomalies in small networks...

A Survey of transition strategies to improve the performance of Chord in the face of rapidly changing IP addresses

Ecklund, Timothy
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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37.540942%
Mobile wi-fi enabled devices are becoming less expensive and more common all the time. The field is ripe for DHTs like Chord. Given the highly scalable nature of DHTs, the ability to efficiently tap the storage resources of so many devices is very attractive. Unfortunately DHTs have been having a difficult time finding a foothold on mobile devices due to poor performance, both in terms of network overhead and lookup failure. Much of the research that has been done attributes this poor performance to the extra hops packets must make due to the mismatch between the physical topology and the DHT overlay. This research has attempted to bring the logical overlay in line with the physical network to reduce the number of unnecessary hops each packet must make. A large amount of sophisticated and fascinating research has been done to match the physical and logical layers to alleviate this problem. While that mismatch is certainly important, another oft-ignored aspect of the problem is churn caused by changing IP addresses. This paper will present a survey of potential changes to the Chord algorithm (and eventually the network stack) to ameliorate the disruption that changing IP addresses have on the overlay. The first change this paper presents is simply to use the MAC address of the node as a unique identifier instead of the IP address as suggested in the original Chord paper. This allows the node to transition to a new IP address without fear of its key space changing. The next change is to the access point handoff process...

FLOW PHYSICS OF 3-BLADED STRAIGHT CHORD H-DARRIEUS WIND TURBINE

Gupta, Rajat; Biswas, Agnimitra
Fonte: JUEE Press Publicador: JUEE Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2013 Português
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Steady-state two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using Fluent 6.0 software to analyze the flow physics of 3-bladed straight chord H-Darrieus wind turbine having blade twist of 300 for 10% of its chord at the trailing ends. The flow was simulated using finite volume method coupled with moving mesh technique to solve mass and momentum conservation equations. The standard k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall condition was used. Second-order upwind discretization scheme was adopted for pressure-velocity coupling of the flow. Flow physics of the turbine was analyzed with the help of pressure and velocity contours. It was found that velocity magnitude decreases from upstream to downstream side across the turbine, which will cause overall lift for the turbine. Further, blade twist at the trailing ends creates circulations that interact with the blades in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the turbine which would enhance power production for the three bladed turbine.