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Optimizing personalized ranking in recommender systems with metadata awareness

Manzato, Marcelo Garcia; Domingues, Marcos Aurelio; Rezende, Solange Oliveira
Fonte: University of Warsaw; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - IEEE; Web Intelligence Consortium - WIC; Association for Computing Machinery – ACM; Warsaw Publicador: University of Warsaw; Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers - IEEE; Web Intelligence Consortium - WIC; Association for Computing Machinery – ACM; Warsaw
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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In this paper, we propose an item recommendation algorithm based on latent factors which uses implicit feedback from users to optimize the ranking of items according to individual preferences. The novelty of the algorithm is the integration of content metadata to improve the quality of recommendations. Such descriptions are an important source to construct a personalized set of items which are meaningfully related to the user’s main interests. The method is evaluated on two diferente datasets, being compared against another approach reported in the literature. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of supporting personalized ranking with metadata awareness.; CAPES; CNPq; FAPESP (grant #2013/22547-1 and #2012/13830-9)

Utilização de metadados no gerenciamento de acesso a servidores de vídeo.; Metadata utilization in the video servers access management.

Goularte, Rudinei
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/1998 Português
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A experiência com autoria de material didático multimídia para propósitos educacionais mostra um grande problema: como prover uma maneira de tratar objetos multimídia de modo que usuários inexperientes (como professores) possam estar aptos a projetar e construir suas próprias apresentações? A criação de tais apresentações envolve fatores como armazenamento, entrega, busca e apresentação de material multimídia (vídeo em especial). Uma infra-estrutura básica que armazene e entregue eficientemente os dados de vídeo é necessária, porém, outro ponto importante é organizar esses dados armazenados no servidor de forma a facilitar seu acesso por parte dos usuários. Neste trabalho, isto é alcançado através do uso de um sistema interativo de recuperação e gerenciamento de informações projetado para facilitar o acesso a itens (ou parte deles) armazenados no servidor. A principal característica de tal sistema é o uso de uma base de metadados contendo os atributos dos vídeos armazenados no servidor. Buscas podem ser feitas por título, assunto, tamanho, autor, conteúdo ou, mais importante no caso de material didático, por cenas ou frames específicos. O sistema foi implementado segundo uma abordagem cliente/servidor utilizando a linguagem de programação JAVA. A comunicação entre clientes e servidores é realizada através do uso do Visibroker 3.0...

Ontology-based metadata for e-learning content; Metadados para conteúdo educativo com base em ontologias

Silva Muñoz, Lydia
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Nowadays, the popularity of the Web encourages the development of Hypermedia Systems dedicated to e-learning. Nevertheless, most of the available Web teaching systems apply the traditional paper-based learning resources presented as HTML pages making no use of the new capabilities provided by the Web. There is a challenge to develop educative systems that adapt the educative content to the style of learning, context and background of each student. Another research issue is the capacity to interoperate on the Web reusing learning objects. This work presents an approach to address these two issues by using the technologies of the Semantic Web. The approach presented here models the knowledge of the educative content and the learner’s profile with ontologies whose vocabularies are a refinement of those defined on standards situated on the Web as reference points to provide semantics. Ontologies enable the representation of metadata concerning simple learning objects and the rules that define the way that they can feasibly be assembled to configure more complex ones. These complex learning objects could be created dynamically according to the learners’ profile by intelligent agents that use the ontologies as the source of their beliefs. Interoperability issues were addressed by using an application profile of the IEEE LOM- Learning Object Metadata standard.; Atualmente a popularidade da Web incentiva o desenvolvimento de sistemas hipermídia dedicados ao ensino a distância. Não obstante a maior parte destes sistemas usa os mesmos recursos do ensino tradicional...

MD-PROM : um mecanismo de deduplicação de metadados e rastreio da proveniência; MD-PROM : a mechanism for metadata deduplication and provenance tracing

Borges, Eduardo Nunes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Bibliotecas digitais são repositórios de objetos digitais que oferecem serviços aos seus usuários como pesquisa e publicação desses objetos. Cada objeto digital é descrito por um conjunto de metadados que especifica a forma como esse objeto pode ser recuperado. Sistemas de integração de bibliotecas digitais indexam objetos digitais adquiridos de fontes diferentes, os quais podem estar representados através de vários padrões de metadados. Estes metadados são heterogêneos tanto em conteúdo quanto em estrutura. Conseqüentemente, os sistemas de integração de bibliotecas digitais não estão aptos a fornecer respostas livres de informação redundante que integrem as várias fontes de dados. Quando um usuário realiza uma consulta sobre várias bibliotecas digitais, é interessante que sejam retornados metadados integrados das diversas fontes e a origem de cada informação recuperada, ou seja, a biblioteca digital que publicou aquela informação (metadado). O uso de proveniência de dados nas consultas a metadados em sistemas de integração de bibliotecas digitais, de modo a rastrear a origem das informações recuperadas, permite que usuários avaliem a qualidade das bibliotecas digitais. Este trabalho apresenta o MD-PROM (Metadata Deduplication and PROvenance tracing Mechanism)...

Extração de metadados utilizando uma ontologia de domínio; Metadata extraction using a domain ontology

Oliveira, Luis Henrique Gonçalves de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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O objetivo da Web Semântica é prover a descrição semântica dos recursos através de metadados processáveis por máquinas. Essa camada semântica estende a Web já existente agregando facilidades para a execução de pesquisas, filtragem, resumo ou intercâmbio de conhecimento de maior complexidade. Dentro deste contexto, as bibliotecas digitais são as aplicações que estão iniciando o processo de agregar anotações semânticas às informações disponíveis na Web. Uma biblioteca digital pode ser definida como uma coleção de recursos digitais selecionados segundo critérios determinados, com alguma organização lógica e de modo acessível para recuperação distribuída em rede. Para facilitar o processo de recuperação são utilizados metadados para descrever o conteúdo armazenado. Porém, a geração manual de metadados é uma tarefa complexa e que demanda tempo, além de sujeita a falhas. Portanto a extração automática ou semi-automática desses metadados seria de grande ajuda para os autores, subtraindo uma tarefa do processo de publicação de documentos. A pesquisa realizada nesta dissertação visou abordar esse problema, desenvolvendo um extrator de metadados que popula uma ontologia de documentos e classifica o documento segundo uma hierarquia pré-definida. A ontologia de documentos OntoDoc foi criada para armazenar e disponibilizar os metadados extraídos...

A classification-based approach for bibliographic metadata deduplication

Borges, Eduardo; Becker, Karin; Heuser, Carlos; Galante, Renata
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Digital libraries of scientific articles describe them using a set of metadata, including bibliographic references. These references can be represented by several formats and styles. Considerable content variations can occur in some metadata fields such as title, author names and publication venue. Besides, it is quite common to find references that omit same metadata fields such as page numbers. Duplicate entries influence the quality of digital library services once they need to be appropriately identified and treated. This paper presents a comparative analysis among different data classification algorithms used to identify duplicated bibliographic metadata records. We have investigated the discovered patterns by comparing the rules and the decision tree with the heuristics adopted in a previous work. Our experiments show that the combination of specific-purpose similarity functions previously proposed and classification algorithms represent an improvement up to 12% when compared to the experiments using our original approach.

Metadados de Bancos de Dados Relacionais: Extração e Exposição com o Protocolo OAI-PMH; Metadata of Relacional Database: Extraction and ExpositionWith OAI-PMH Protocol

KOWATA, Elisabete Tomomi
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência da Computação; Ciências Exatas e da Terra - Ciências da Computação Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Ciência da Computação; Ciências Exatas e da Terra - Ciências da Computação
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Information about a particular subject can be stored in different repositories such as databases, digital libraries, spreadsheets, text files, web pages etc. In this context of heterogeneous data sources, to query, possibly in natural language, to integrate information and to promote interoperability are tasks that depend, among other factors, on the prior knowledge that an user has regarding location, owner, content description of each information source etc. More specifically, in the case of database, this information are not usually stored in a catalogue of the database management system and to obtain is necessary to resort to the administrator s knowledge database. Another factor is the absence of search engines to databases in the web that access and make available the information in those repositories, data are limited due to the organizations themselves. In a shared information environment, it is highly relevant to make possible access to metadata that describe a data source, regardlessly of the device and format in which is stored. This study aims to describe a mechanism to promote interoperability of relational databases with other sources of information through the extraction and exposing of metadata using OAI-PMH; Informações sobre um determinado assunto podem estar armazenadas em diferentes repositórios como banco de dados...

Interoperability between classification systems using metadata

San Segundo Manuel, Rosa
Fonte: Rinton Press Publicador: Rinton Press
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2005 Português
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Metadata are structures which catalogue, classify, describe and articulate electronic information. The Subject element of Dublin Core is used for c1assification systems and subject headings. There are five ways of applying semantic interoperability: interoperability between controlled vocabularies in the same language; between controlled vocabularies in different languages and classification systems; between subject headings and c1assification systems; between c1assification systems; and between languages. The relations between diverse types of standards or systems present diverse difficulties. The electronic information container, which is Internet, guarantees the trend to try and achieve the interoperability of content analysis, whether it be between c1assification systems, or subject headings. The organisation of information in a physical format has transferred its organisational forms to the structuring of electronic information. The digital formal transforms the organisational form itself. If, in information the message is the medium, in organisation the structure is the medium.; The First on-Line conference on Metadata and Semantics Research Conference (MTSR'05): Approaches to advanced information systems, 21-30 November 2005

Savage Modeling and Analysis Language (SMAL) metadata for tactical simulations and X3D visualizations

Rauch, Travis M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxvi, 264 p. : col. ill. ;
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Visualizing operations environments in three dimensions (3D) supports the warfighters' ability to make rapid, well-informed decisions by presenting complex systems in a naturalistic, integrated display format. Unfortunately, constructing these environments is a time-consuming task requiring specific expertise not typically available in the command center. The future use of 3D visualization in military operations depends on the ability of personnel with minimal graphics experience to create virtual environments quickly and accurately by leveraging data-driven customization of content from model archives with the data available in the command center. Practical 3D visualization depends on standardized scene autogeneration. The Extensible 3D (X3D) Graphics family of specifications is approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as the Web-based format for the interchange and rendering of 3D scenes. Previous work has demonstrated that an archive of X3D scenes, such as the Scenario Authoring and Visualization for Advanced Graphical Environments (SAVAGE) library, can be used to autogenerate sophisticated 3D tactical environments. Assembling and making sense of the data necessary to autogenerate a 3D environment requires context and good documentation...

The Australian METS Profile – A Journey about Metadata

Pearce, Judith; Pearson, David; Williams, Megan; Yeadon, Scott
Fonte: D-Lib Magazine Publicador: D-Lib Magazine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In any journey, there's a destination but half the 'fun' is getting there. This article chronicles our journey towards a common way of packaging and exchanging digital content in a future Australian data commons – a national corpus of research resources that can be shared and re-used. Whatever packaging format is used, it has to handle complex content models and work across multiple submission and dissemination scenarios. It has to do this in a way that maintains a history of the chain of custody of objects over time. At the start of our journey we chose METS extended by PREMIS to do this. We learnt a lot during the first two stages that we want to share with those travelling to a similar destination.

Uma arquitetura de personalização de conteúdo baseada em anotações do usuário; An architecture for content personalization based on peer-level annotations

Manzato, Marcelo Garcia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2011 Português
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A extração de metadados semânticos de vídeos digitais para uso em serviços de personalização é importante, já que o conteúdo é adaptado segundo as preferências de cada usuário. Entretanto, apesar de serem encontradas várias propostas na literatura, as técnicas de indexação automática são capazes de gerar informações semânticas apenas quando o domínio do conteúdo é restrito. Alternativamente, existem técnicas para a criação manual dessas informações por profissionais, contudo, são dispendiosas e suscetíveis a erros. Uma possível solução seria explorar anotações colaborativas dos usuários, mas tal estratégia provoca a perda de individualidade dos dados, impedindo a extração de preferências do indivíduo a partir da interação. Este trabalho tem como objetivo propor uma arquitetura de personalização que permite a indexação multimídia de modo irrestrito e barato, utilizando anotações colaborativas, mas mantendo-se a individualidade dos dados para complementar o perfil de interesses do usuário com conceitos relevantes. A multimodalidade de metadados e de preferências também é explorada na presente tese, fornecendo maior robustez na extração dessas informações, e obtendo-se uma maior carga semântica que traz benefícios às aplicações. Como prova de conceito...

Metadata for semantic and social applications : proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications : Berlin, 22-26 September 2008 : DC 2008 : Berlin, Germany; Proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications DC-2008, Berlin

Greenberg, Jane (Ed.); Wolfgang, Klas (Ed.)
Fonte: Singapore : Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ; [Göttingen] : Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2008. Publicador: Singapore : Dublin Core Metadata Initiative ; [Göttingen] : Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2008.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
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vi, 217 p. : ill. ; 30 cm.; Metadata is a key aspect of our evolving infrastructure for information management, social computing, and scientific collaboration. DC-2008 will focus on metadata challenges, solutions, and innovation in initiatives and activities underlying semantic and social applications. Metadata is part of the fabric of social computing, which includes the use of wikis, blogs, and tagging for collaboration and participation. Metadata also underlies the development of semantic applications, and the Semantic Web — the representation and integration of multimedia knowledge structures on the basis of semantic models. These two trends flow together in applications such as Wikipedia, where authors collectively create structured information that can be extracted and used to enhance access to and use of information sources. Recent discussion has focused on how existing bibliographic standards can be expressed as Semantic Web vocabularies to facilitate the ingration of library and cultural heritage data with other types of data. Harnessing the efforts of content providers and end-users to link, tag, edit, and describe their information in interoperable ways (”participatory metadata”) is a key step towards providing knowledge environments that are scalable...

MIT's CWSpace project: packaging metadata for archiving educational content in DSpace

Reilly, William; Wolfe, Robert; Smith, MacKenzie
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 211350 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper describes work in progress on the research project CWSpace, sponsored by the MIT and Microsoft Research iCampus program, to investigate the metadata standards and protocols required to archive the course materials found in MIT’s OpenCourseWare (OCW) into MIT’s institutional repository DSpace. The project goal is “to harvest and digitally archive OCW learning objects, and make them available to learning management systems by using Web Services interfaces on top of DSpace.” The larger vision is one of complex digital objects (CDOs) successfully interoperating amongst MIT’s various learning management systems and learning object repositories, providing archival preservation and persistent identifiers for educational materials, as well as providing the means to richer shared discovery and dissemination mechanisms for those materials. The paper describes work to date on the analysis of the content packaging metadata standards METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard) and especially IMS-CP (IMS Global Learning Consortium, Content Packaging), and issues faced in the development and use of profiles, extensions, and external schema for these standards. Also addressed are the anticipated issues in the preparation of transformations from one standard to another...

Content Based Traffic Engineering in Software Defined Information Centric Networks

Chanda, Abhishek; Westphal, Cedric; Raychaudhuri, Dipankar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/01/2013 Português
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This paper describes a content centric network architecture which uses software defined networking principles to implement efficient metadata driven services by extracting content metadata at the network layer. The ability to access content metadata transparently enables a number of new services in the network. Specific examples discussed here include: a metadata driven traffic engineering scheme which uses prior knowledge of content length to optimize content delivery, a metadata driven content firewall which is more resilient than traditional firewalls and differentiated treatment of content based on the type of content being accessed. A detailed outline of an implementation of the proposed architecture is presented along with some basic evaluation.

SA_MetaMatch: Relevant document discovery through document metadata and indexing

Yau, Hiu; Hawker, J. Scott
Fonte: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Publicador: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Tipo: Proceedings
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SA_MetaMatch, a component of the Standards Advisor (SA), is designed to find relevant documents through matching indices of metadata and document content. The elements in the metadata schema are mainly adopted from the Dublin Core (DC). The implementation of the XML metadata schema and coding follows the DC recommended guidelines. After metadata is generated manually for an unstructured document, or is extracted automatically from documents of well defined layout, they are stored in metadata files or in a repository. The indices of the descriptive metadata elements and that of the document content are generated. They are searched and compared to find related documents, based on our observation that if the metadata and high frequency index words of document content are related, then the corresponding documents are likely to be related as well. A ranked list of possible relevant documents is returned as the result. Several matching algorithms have been explored. We selected a sum of word-scored approach which not only gives relevant scores for the matched documents, but also gives an individual score for each of the matching words which provide hints for domain experts to grasp the concepts in the documents.; 2004 ACM Southeast conference proceedings. This is a digitized copy derived from an ACM-copyrighted work. ACM did not prepare this copy and does not guarantee that it is an accurate copy of the originally published work.

The use of technical metadata in still digital imaging by the newspaper industry

Vogl, Howard
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 260217 bytes; 2865797 bytes; 133171 bytes; 404 bytes; 2061 bytes; 698 bytes; 5612 bytes; 49 bytes; 260217 bytes; 2865797 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf; text/plain; text/plain; text/plain; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; appli
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Newspapers are increasingly capturing images digitally. Included with these digital files is technical information about the conditions of the image and the conditions surrounding image capture. Technical metadata has the potential to be a valuable resource in image reproduction, management, and archiving. Nevertheless, even though digital devices capture a large amount of technical metadata, the use of such data in the digital imaging workflow is not widespread. The use of technical metadata requires a uniform set of technical metadata standards and an open encoding scheme to embed data. From their inception, image file formats, such as TIFF and JPEG, have allowed the inclusion of technical metadata tags. The Exif schema has extended the metadata inclusion capabilities of both of these formats. Additionally, XML has emerged as a standard for users to add metadata to image files. Consequently, organizations such as the World Wide Web Consortium and Adobe Systems all support XML. Moreover, organizations such as the Digital Imaging Group (DIG35) and the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) are defining standards for technical metadata inclusion. The purpose of this study was to answer two fundamental questions about technical metadata in the newspaper industry. First...

From Gutenberg to Berners-Lee: the Need for Metadata

Simons, Eduard
Fonte: euroCRIS Publicador: euroCRIS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Keynote at the 1st Workshop on CRIS, CERIF and Institutional Repositories.-- 23 slides; Metadata allow us to describe and classify research information in a systematic way, and as such they are indispensable for searching and finding academic publications and other results of research. In order to make full use of the information discovery potential of the Internet, the 'formal' and 'content' metadata commonly used in repositories should be supplemented with the 'context' metadata as stored in a CRIS. Whereas the "traditional" repository metadata stem from the “Gutenberg Era” – the past few centuries in which print on paper was the main research information and communication tool – and focus on (the description of) the individual publication, the context metadata used in a CRIS is more appropriate for our age of electronic and networked information supply.

Treatment of Semantic Heterogeneity using Metadata Extraction and Query Translation

Strötgen, Robert
Fonte: euroCRIS; Kassel University Press Publicador: euroCRIS; Kassel University Press
Tipo: Conference Paper
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Presented at the CRIS2002 Conference in Kassel.-- 9 pages.-- Contains: Conference paper (PDF) + PPT presentation.; The project CARMEN ("Content Analysis, Retrieval and Metadata: Effective Networking") aimed – among other goals – at improving the expansion of searches in bibliographic databases into Internet searches. We pursued a set of different approaches to the treatment of semantic heterogeneity (metadata extraction, query translation using statistic relations and cross-concordances). This paper describes the concepts and implementation of these approaches and the evaluation of the impact for the retrieval result.; The CARMEN Project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research in the context of the programme “Global Info”, FKZ 08SFC08 3.

Digital metadata: bibliographical review on evolution and trends using functional categories; Metadados digitais: revisão bibliográfica da evolução e tendências por meio de categorias funcionais 10.5007/1518-2924.2007v12n23p16

Campos, Luiz Fernando de Barros; UFMG - Belo Horizonte - MG
Fonte: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC Publicador: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Descritiva Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/11/2007 Português
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By means of a bibliographical review on digital metadata in the information science field, aiming to distinguish the various functionalities of metadata and employing thematic content analysis, it was noticed the recurrence of technologies like XML, RDFS, ontology, data warehouses, semantic Web, Web services, among others, and of certain categories connected to metadata functions that grounded the examined works. Based on these findings, adopting a technical and historical approach, the functional categories were related to the technologies and it was showed how the categories were expounded in 19 texts selected from the review. It was observed that studies and technologies that deal with models and standards for digital preservation adopt more comprehensive and integrated perspectives, encompassing all or nearly all categories. Based on the results, trends and issues noticed in the bibliographical review were commented and approaches and methodology for analysis of metadata and related technologies were suggested.; Revisão bibliográfica sobre metadados digitais no campo da ciência da informação, objetivando precisar as várias funcionalidades dos metadados. Empregando-se uma técnica de análise de conteúdo temática, constatou-se a recorrência de tecnologias como XML...

Another face of the metadata: information for management of the digital preservation 10.5007/1518-2924.2010v15n30p1; Uma outra face dos metadados: informações para a gestão da preservação digital

Sayão, Luís Fernando; CNEN - Rio de Janeiro - RJ
Fonte: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC Publicador: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Revisão de Literatura; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2010 Português
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The traditional concept of metadata can be expanded to provide a set of information to support the management activities of the preservation of digital materials. This type of metadata, called preservation metadata, is designed to inform and document the process of digital preservation of long-term, assuring that digital content can be accessed and interpreted in the future. In recent years many metadata schemes and infrastructure oriented for digital preservation have been developed; the greatest challenge they face has been to anticipate what information is actually required to support a particular process of digital preservation. The most important and comprehensive initiative in this field is the PREMIS Data Dictionary, developed based on the conceptual infrastructure defined by the OAIS ISO standard. The basic idea of this paper is to review the main concepts, standards and technologies involved in the development of metadata schemes of preservation metadata.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2010v15n30p1O conceito tradicional de metadado pode ser ampliado para abrigar um conjunto de informações que apóiem as atividades de gestão da preservação de materiais digitais. Esse tipo de metadados, chamados de metadados de preservação...