Na construção de edifícios, o cumprimento dos prazos dos projetos é um problema recorrente, pois, freqüentemente, os contratantes reclamam que os projetos atrasam. O processo de projeto é gerido de maneira informal, com técnicas de planejamento inadequadas e com a subutilização dos recursos da Tecnologia da Informação. Pelo lado dos profissionais de projeto, também são grandes as reclamações causadas pelo retrabalho, fator responsável por perda de rentabilidade. Com base nessas justificativas, foi desenvolvida a presente pesquisa com o objetivo principal de estudar o planejamento do processo de projeto e propor formas de melhorar a sua eficácia. O método de pesquisa adotado consistiu em uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os principais modelos gerenciais e técnicas de planejamento adequados ao processo de projeto, e que possam ser aplicadas em nosso mercado. Uma survey com os usuários das extranets de projeto avaliou o estágio atual da utilização dessas ferramentas como suporte à gestão do processo de projeto. Foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma importante empresa de São Paulo, no qual foram analisados seus métodos de planejamento e, a partir do uso da DSM (Design Structure Matrix) como ferramenta de planejamento...
O presente trabalho apresenta uma análise da aplicação da ferramenta DSM Design Structure Matrix ao planejamento do processo de projeto de edificações. O objetivo principal desta pesquisa é a análise dos Manuais de Escopo de Projetos e Serviços para a Indústria Imobiliária do ponto de vista do planejamento do processo de projeto, utilizando a ferramenta DSM. Para desenvolvimento da pesquisa primeiramente foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica, onde selecionou-se a metodologia ADePT para o desenvolvimento do planejamento do processo de projeto. Em seguida foram aplicadas as duas primeiras etapas da metodologia ADePT definição do processo e otimização do processo, que forneceram material para uma análise da aplicação da ferramenta DSM ao planejamento do processo de projeto e uma análise crítica sobre os Manuais de Escopo de Projetos e Serviços para a Indústria Imobiliária. O cumprimento das duas primeiras etapas da metodologia ADePT forneceu material com informações que permitiram a observação de algumas incoerências e permitiu a apresentação de críticas e sugestões de alterações em seu conteúdo, como proposta de melhoria à ferramenta-guia que estes se propõem a ser. Por fim, a partir da validação da DSM como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento do planejamento do processo de projeto e com base nas alterações sugeridas para os manuais...
No desenvolvimento e na integração dos sistemas de uma aeronave comercial, o fator segurança em projeto (Design for Safety) é considerado de fundamental importância, uma vez que a certificação do produto pelas autoridades internacionais de aviação civil exige o cumprimento de regulamentações que atestam que um determinado produto (aeronave, componente ou sistema) possui as características mínimas que assegurem seu uso seguro para o tipo de operação pretendida. O processo de projeto que permite a consecução de tais objetivos é conhecido como Safety Assessment, que envolve a aplicação de técnicas de análise de risco desde as fases iniciais de projeto até a certificação de tipo do produto. Este processo, devido a sua complexidade, apresenta interdependência entre atividades (ciclo de iteração) e este cenário representa uma barreira para a redução do tempo de ciclo de projeto. Para endereçar esta questão, é proposto um método que tem como foco a aplicação da matriz de estrutura de projetos (Design Structure Matrix), que é uma técnica de programação de projeto cujo objetivo é o de otimizar o sequenciamento das atividades do processo através do mapeamento do fluxo de informações e da identificação dos ciclos de iteração; In the commercial aircraft systems development & integration...
This paper argues, using two real-world applications from
the automotive industry, that the biggest benefit of a Design
Structure Matrix (DSM) model may come not from resequencing
and partitioning, but rather from rewiring the
process/blocks. Rewiring means redefining relationships
among elements and/or inserting new elements into the
matrix. This requires intimate understanding of the process
and cannot be done with application of context-free
The Do-it-Right-First-Time (DRFT) approach to DSM
restructuring is another way to look at a DSM by inspecting
the sources of iteration within a block and reversing it through
inserting a DRFT activity at the beginning of the block. In this
way, the traditional Design-Build-Test Cycle is reversed into
a DRFT-Design-Build Sequence." That is, the "wiring
diagram" of a process or system overpowers the behavior of the
individual nodes, so changing the system requires changing
This paper uses the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) to
model and simulate the performance of development processes.
Though the simulation is a powerful tool for analyzing process
performance, its ability is limited by the quality of input
information used in the analysis. DSM simulation requires
process data that is hard to assess or estimate directly from
development participants. In this paper, we propose a
methodology that allows a more practical estimation of an
important simulation parameter: rework probabilities.
Furthermore, we show how does this assessment method
(combined with simulation) allow managers to evaluate process
improvement plans based on two resulting process measures:
reliability and robustness. The method is illustrated with a real
application from the automotive industry.
This paper presents a product development process
modeling and analysis technique using advanced simulation.The model computes the probability distribution of lead time in a resource-constrained project network where iterations take
place among sequential, parallel and overlapped tasks. The model uses the design structure matrix representation to capture the information flows between tasks. In each simulation run,
the expected durations of tasks are initially sampled using the Latin Hypercube Sampling method and decrease over time as the model simulates the progress of dynamic stochastic processes. It is assumed that the rework of a task occurs for the
following reasons: (1) new information is obtained from overlapped tasks after starting to work with preliminary inputs,
(2) inputs change when other tasks are reworked, and (3) outputs fail to meet established criteria. The model can be used for better project planning and control by identifying leverage points for process improvements and evaluating alternative planning and execution strategies. An industrial example is used to illustrate the utility of the model.; Center for Innovation in Product Development
The automatic transmission is a very complex system in a modern automobile with several hundred components performing mechanical, hydraulic and electronic functions. System integration and attribute management are key challenges in the design and development of an automatic transmission. The system and sub system team structure can play a key part in the success of this development. A properly structured team can enhance the communication between the engineers designing the individual components, ensure that all interfaces between the components are properly managed and appropriate design actions are in place for best in class attributes. This thesis analyzes the current team structure and composition that is in place in the Automatic Transmission Division at Ford Motor Company and offers recommendations to improve the composition to better align the sub system teams with the actual workings of the transmission. The main tool that is used to enable this work is the Design Structure Matrix (DSM). Communication between individual team members is compared to components that physically touch or exchange energy through hydraulic means, or exchange electrical signals and preferred team compositions for effectively engineering these sub systems are proposed. The efficacy of these teams to manage attributes like noise and shift quality is also discussed.; by Ram Krishnaswami.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
Automobiles are complex products. High product complexity drives high levels of design and process complexity and complicatedness. This thesis attempts to reduce complicatedness in the automotive vehicle design and development process utilizing systems engineering tools including the design structure matrix (DSM) and axiomatic design concepts. The title of the thesis is a misnomer; complexity in automotive design and development is not "going away", but through the use of system engineering tools it is believed that the complicatedness of automotive design can be reduced and the consequences of decisions can be better understood at earlier stages in product development. A holistic view of the complexity and complicatedness challenge is considered, in order to identify high leverage points and generic insights that can be carried forward to future product development efforts. The goal is to translate generalized learning and systems thinking to the application of systems tools and processes that enable an understanding of complexity, in order to design better operating policies that guide positive change in systems. The analysis starts with considerations across the automotive enterprise, then the focus sharpens to the early stages of the product development process. Then a more detailed level of abstraction is considered when the automotive chassis tuning process and the interactions between the vehicle dynamics and noise and vibration (NVH) attributes are considered. The automotive rear suspension design is used to illustrate the concepts at the detailed level of abstraction. A rear suspension system case study is included...
The increasing use of digital design tools and broadband information networks is creating an environment that permits the geographic distribution of design engineers. In order to successfully distributed engineering the consequences need to be understood. Through the examination of records of project execution, this thesis investigates whether the decision to geographically distribute engineers has a measurable impact on the pace of engineering development. A task-based Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was developed and showed that the projects studied were developed using a highly integral process. It is hypothesized the unanticipated consequences of distributing engineers geographically will slow the pace of engineering development to such an extent that costs incurred in protracted engineering development outweigh the benefits.; (cont.) Three findings result from of this study. First, the geographic distribution of design engineers proved to have a negative affect on schedule performance causing distributed projects to overrun their schedules by more than twice as much as localized projects. Second, the development process for the systems studied was found to be highly iterative rather than adhering to the anticipated waterfall model espoused by the process documentation. Third...
It is broadly accepted among software managers and architects that maintaining the integrity of software designs is important for the long-term health and viability of software product platforms. The use of modular, information-hiding architectures is considered beneficial in this regard, because they enable the addition of new features and the correction of software defects without widespread changes (Parnas, 1972; Parnas, 1978). Moreover, modular architectures in general add value to system designs by creating options to improve the system by substituting or performing experiments on individual modules (Baldwin and Clark, 2000). Recent research has sought to clarify and to define formally these notions of modularity, and their value in the software domain, though the use of software dependency models and software design structure matrices. These models provide a graphic representation of the relationships between the building blocks of large software systems, which can be used to aid visual understanding of their structure, and which also form the basis for quantitative metrics for evaluating the degree of modularity of a software system (MacCormack et al., 2005; Sangal et al., 2005; Sullivan et al., 2006).; (cont.) The goal of this thesis is to contribute to the development and validation of formal models of modularity and value...
This thesis presents a new modeling framework and research methodology for the study of engineering systems. The thesis begins with a formal conceptualization of Engineering Systems based upon a synthesis of various literatures. Using this conceptualization, a new modeling framework is presented called the Engineering Systems Matrix (ESM). The ESM is an improvement to existing system-level modeling frameworks, such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM), by providing a dynamic, end-to-end representation of an engineering system. In support of this contribution, a new research methodology is presented called Qualitative Knowledge Construction (QKC). QKC can be thought of as a Bayesian-type approach to grounded theory. The methodology integrates qualitative social science with quantitative methods by developing a procedure for translating textual reports of observations, interview transcripts, system documentation, and figures into coded data represented in the ESM. The thesis develops the ESM framework and the QKC methodology in the context of a real world engineering system, a US Air Force miniature uninhabited air vehicle (MAV) product development system.; by Jason E. Bartolomei.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...
Project scheduling is an important research and application area in engineering management. Recent research in this area addresses resource constraints as well as stochastic durations. This thesis presents a simulation-based optimization model for solving resource-constrained product development project scheduling problems. The model uses design structure matrix (DSM) to represent the information exchange among various tasks of a project. Instead of a simple binary precedence relationship, DSM is able to quantify the extent of interactions as well. In particular, these interactions are characterized by rework probabilities, rework impacts and learning. As a result, modeling based on DSM allows iterations to take place. This stochastic characteristic is not well addressed in earlier literatures of project scheduling problems. Adding resource factors to DSM simulation is a relatively new topic. We not only model the constraints posed by resource requirements, but also explore the effect of allocating different amount of resources on iterations. Genetic algorithm (GA) is chosen to optimize the model over a weighted sum of a set of heuristics. GA is known for its robustness in solving many types of problems. While the normal branch-and-bound method depends on problem specific information to generate tight bounds...
In today's engineering project management, there is no lack of strategies to plan and assign task items to reduce the overall project timeline. However, as the product gets more complicated and organization gets much larger, the implementation of those strategies becomes the real challenge. Operational issues such as the objectives alignment across teams, transparent and consistent vertical and horizontal communications, and unexpected requirements changes are becoming causative factors for project delay. These issues are seen particularly often in microprocessor product development. Besides its high technology complexity, microprocessor development involves huge uncertainties, frequent changes, closely coupled inter-team efforts, and iterative design processes. The cost of microprocessor project delay is huge, not only because the development process is capital intensive, but also because the demand is technology sensitive-a project delay of several months could keep a product from entering the market and kill the project. As the design process gets more matured in this industry, firms are competing on execution. This thesis argues that a great amount of execution delay comes from organizational barriers, a lack of organizational processes in situations of exception and uncertainty management and the inadequate incentive system that aligns the interests of the project with its team. The author evaluated the effectiveness of the traditional organization structure and other standard structures for this industry...
The automobile steering system can be thought of as a system within a system. The steering system has clear functions and requirements as well as many interrelated components and subsystems including the front tires, wheels, front suspension, steering gear, intermediate shaft, column and steering wheel. System decomposition is an important aspect of this system analysis. The scope of this thesis is the steering system and steering attributes of a particular new model program code named UXXX. An important element of this research is a case study where an error state called Nibble was discovered late in the program. The attempted resolution of the concern caused much turmoil and drove higher component costs, engineering costs, launch delays, warranty costs and decreased customer satisfaction. The main objective of this work was to execute good system analysis to understand key interactions within the system and to provide documentation and knowledge transfer of key discoveries. A requirement based Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was used as the primary methodology for system analysis. In order to construct the DSMs, Axiomatic Design's Design Matrix (DM) was used to develop Functional Requirements (FRs) and Design Parameters (DPs). The requirements based DSM was derived from the DM. DSMs were created from requirements based interactions...
Automobiles are becoming increasingly complicated and are creating more of a challenge for the engineering teams working on them. This thesis focuses on improving the methods of managing powertrain attributes and the interactions between them. We are concentrating on the particular attributes of Shift Quality, Performance Feel, Driveability, and Trailer Towing. Engineering work to achieve specific attributes is currently handled attribute by attribute and the system is brought together later. This lack of a more holistic view results in a large amount of engineering rework as attributes are balanced. Reducing or eliminating this rework is the goal. A Design Structure Matrix (DSM) was used to document interactions between the powertrain attributes, sub-attributes and design parameters. Research on various reporting formats was done to determine the best method to communicate the interactions. DSM experts were interviewed about the benefits and pitfalls of using a DSM for reference. Several surveys were done to determine engineering's familiarity with various methods of displaying system interactions and their preferences for reporting the interactions. We also compared the interactions to existing CAE capability to determine the current state of attributes management. The DSM showed numerous interactions between powertrain attributes...
This thesis describes a project that applies the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) in support of the Manufacturing Excellence (MX) program at Cisco Systems, Inc to reduce the cycle time of new product development initiatives (NPI). Because they are inherently iterative with interdependent tasks, NPIs are difficult to manage. Two case studies applying the DSM were performed and used to study the inputs and outputs of the process as well as the dependencies between the process steps. Both case studies indicated that defining product requirements and needs upfront helped to eliminate rework later on in the process. The DSMs also showed that cycle time and standard deviation of cycle time were especially sensitive to interactions between changes in the Bill of Materials (BOM) and other tasks. In fact there was a "tipping point" where reducing the dependency between tasks could yield significant reductions in cycle time and standard deviation of cycle time. More significantly, the case studies highlighted the large number of stakeholders involved in the process and revealed the degree to which engineering and manufacturing must work together to reduce NPI cycle times.; (cont.) In fact, the name "Manufacturing Excellence Initiative in NPI" is a misnomer. New Product Introduction is not just the job of manufacturing but is highly integrated between such groups as marketing...
A challenging aspect of managing complex product development process is the ability to account for iterations, which are inherent in the design process. A leading edge approach to account for iterations in development process is Design Structure Matrix (DSM). This thesis presents an application of DSM methodology to the project planning and management phase of an integrated product development process. The thesis starts by introducing the project management and planning phase of Raytheon's integrated product development process. It presents the DSM methodology applied to construct the baseline DSM model including the analysis performed. The thesis then describes the characterizations performed to augment the DSM capability to study the information exchange dynamics. To capture the hierarchical structure of the integrated product development process, the thesis employed a hierarchical DSM analysis tool, Arch. An improved process architecture is thus developed by applying DSM partitioning analysis. Finally, the thesis concludes by presenting the improvements gained and the proposed process for the project management and planning phase.; by Yonas Nebiyeloul-Kifle.; Thesis (M.B.A.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management...
Fonte: South African Journal of Industrial EngineeringPublicador: South African Journal of Industrial Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
Risk interactions exist within a system and its sub-systems, between functional and physical elements in various dimensions such as spatial interaction, information exchange, material transfer, and energy exchange. These interactions are of a multi-dimensional complexity, and thus are not sufficiently interpreted using conventional management tools. Alternative system representation and analysis techniques are proposed - in particular the design structure matrix (DSM) and fuzzy logic thinking - to quantify the risk management effort necessary to deal with uncertain and imprecise interactions. A cement grinding plant case study is used to elaborate on the risk management methodology