Página 1 dos resultados de 95 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Estudo sobre o impacto da expansão das universidades federais no Brasil; A study on the impact of expansion of federal universities in Brazil

Vinhais, Henrique Eduardo Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Dado o recente quadro de expansão da rede de universidades públicas federais, no qual se destaca a construção de novos campi em diversos municípios brasileiros, este trabalho se propõe a estimar o impacto regional de curto prazo desta expansão. Para tanto, primeiramente utiliza-se a abordagem de Insumo-Produto através da matriz de insumo-produto microrregionalizada. Aplicando-se a expansão de gastos públicos com universidades federais como choque no setor Educação Pública, constata-se, para o período de 2004 a 2010, um efeito total de R$ 19,9 bilhões sobre valor bruto da produção e R$ 11,5 bilhões sobre valor adicionado, que representa 0,39% sobre o PIB nacional e um efeito médio anual de R$ 1,9 bilhão. Com relação a pessoal ocupado, há um efeito de 467 mil pessoas ocupadas. No nível local, constata-se que as microrregiões menores economicamente, e que receberam campi universitários, apresentam os maiores impactos relativos. Com relação à segunda abordagem da questão, entende-se a expansão pela implantação de novos campi universitários federais como um tratamento de política pública, que tem impacto no curto prazo sobre a renda domiciliar per capita local. Desta forma, estima-se econometricamente um efeito do tratamento sobre os tratados...

Análise econométrica das notas do tesouro nacional série B

Velho, Francisco Schuh
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Este trabalho descreve econometricamente a série de preços das Notas do Tesouro Nacional Série B nos períodos analisados à luz da teoria de apreçamento de ativos de renda fixa de Fisher (1930). A hipótese deste trabalho é de que é possível realizar previsões futuras de preços através de ajustes de processos estacionários às séries temporais de preços e de que os preços flutuam de acordo com a equação de Fisher. Para isto serão investigados como se dão a evolução dos preços desses ativos, bem como suas principais características utilizando-se ferramentas de análises econométricas.; This monograph describes econometrically the price series of the Brazilian treasury bonds called Notas do Tesouro Nacional Série B according to the theory of asset pricing fixed income Fisher (1930). The hypothesis is that it is possible to forecast future prices through processes of stationary time series of prices and that prices fluctuate according to the Fisher equation. To this will be investigated how the evolution of the prices of these assets behave, as well as its main features exposed through econometric analysis.

The determinants of advertising intensity in the Brazilian manufacturing industry: an econometric study

Resende,Marcelo
Fonte: Nova Economia Publicador: Nova Economia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
The paper econometrically investigates the determinants of advertising intensity in the manufacturing industry of São Paulo, Brazil in 1996 taking as reference an extensive survey carried out by Fundação SEADE. The preliminary investigation indicated a substantial degree of endogeneity in structure and performance variables. The instrumental variables estimation also considered instruments referring to information technology and organizational practices and indicated relevant roles for industrial concentration, barriers to entry, profitability and prevalence of durable goods in explaining advertising intensity. The results lend some support to an informative role of advertising in the Brazilian case.

Judging Statistical Models of Individual Decision Making under Risk Using In- and Out-of-Sample Criteria

Drichoutis, Andreas C.; Lusk, Jayson L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/07/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Despite the fact that conceptual models of individual decision making under risk are deterministic, attempts to econometrically estimate risk preferences require some assumption about the stochastic nature of choice. Unfortunately, the consequences of making different assumptions are, at present, unclear. In this paper, we compare three popular error specifications (Fechner, contextual utility, and Luce error) for three different preference functionals (expected utility, rank-dependent utility, and a mixture of those two) using in- and out-of-sample selection criteria. We find drastically different inferences about structural risk preferences across the competing functionals and error specifications. Expected utility theory is least affected by the selection of the error specification. A mixture model combining the two conceptual models assuming contextual utility provides the best fit of the data both in- and out-of-sample.

HIGHLIGHTING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONDITIONAL AND UNCONDITIONAL QUANTILE REGRESSION APPROACHES THROUGH AN APPLICATION TO ASSESS MEDICATION ADHERENCE

BORAH, BIJAN J.; BASU, ANIRBAN
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
The quantile regression (QR) framework provides a pragmatic approach in understanding the differential impacts of covariates along the distribution of an outcome. However, the QR framework that has pervaded the applied economics literature is based on the conditional quantile regression method. It is used to assess the impact of a covariate on a quantile of the outcome conditional on specific values of other covariates. In most cases, conditional quantile regression may generate results that are often not generalizable or interpretable in a policy or population context. In contrast, the unconditional quantile regression method provides more interpretable results as it marginalizes the effect over the distributions of other covariates in the model. In this paper, the differences between these two regression frameworks are highlighted, both conceptually and econometrically. Additionally, using real-world claims data from a large US health insurer, alternative QR frameworks are implemented to assess the differential impacts of covariates along the distribution of medication adherence among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

CAN WE MAKE SMART CHOICES BETWEEN OLS AND CONTAMINATED IV METHODS?

Basu, Anirban; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
In the outcomes research and comparative effectiveness research literature, there are strong cautionary tales on the use of instrumental variables (IVs) that may influence the newly initiated to shun this premier tool for casual inference without properly weighing their advantages. It has been recommended that IV methods should be avoided if the instrument is not econometrically perfect. The fact that IVs can produce better results than naïve regression, even in nonideal circumstances, remains underappreciated. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic criterion and related software that can be used by an applied researcher to determine the plausible superiority of IV over an ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator, which does not address the endogeneity of a covariate in question. Given a reasonable lower bound for the bias arising out of an OLS estimator, the researcher can use our proposed diagnostic tool to confirm whether the IV at hand can produce a better estimate (i.e., with lower mean square error) of the true effect parameter than the OLS, without knowing the true level of contamination in the IV.

Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy

Sue Wing, Ian.; Eckaus, Richard S.
Fonte: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Publicador: MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change
Formato: 483474 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Recent events have revived interest in explaining the long-run changes in the energy intensity of the U.S. economy. We use a KLEM dataset for 35 industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ratio into shifts in sectoral composition (structural change) and adjustments in the energy demand of individual industries (intensity change). We find that although structural change offsets a rise in sectoral energy intensities from 1960 until the mid-1970s, after 1980 the change in the industrial mix has little impact and the average sectoral energy intensity experiences decline. Then, we use these data to econometrically estimate the influence on within-industry changes in energy intensity of price-induced substitution of variable inputs, shifts in the composition of capital and embodied and disembodied technical progress. Our results suggest that innovations embodied in information technology and electrical equipment capital stocks played a key role in energy intensity’s long-run decline.; Abstract in HTML and technical report in PDF available on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change website (http://mit.edu/globalchange/www/).; U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (BER) Grant No. DE-FO2-02ER63484

Electricity demand in primary aluminum smelting

Mork, Knut Anton
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1698374 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
The demand for electricity by primary aluminum smelters is estimated econometrically. Cross section data is used, including plant data for the U.S. and Norway and a national average for Japan. The data are sampled for two periods, one before and one after the 1973-74 energy price increase. The paper estimates the elasticity of substitution between electricity and an aggregate of all other inputs, assumed to exist. The estimated value of 0.1 is low, but significantly different from zero. Large price in- creases, such as the equalization of hydro and other power prices are found to result in substantial energy savings.

CO2 Abatement in the UK Power Sector: Evidence from the EU ETS Trial Period

Ellerman, A. Denny; McGuinness, Meghan
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
This paper provides an empirical assessment of CO2 emissions abatement in the UK power sector during the trial period of the EU ETS. Using an econometrically estimated model of fuel switching, it separates the impacts of changes in relative fuel prices and changes in the EUA price on the utilization and emissions of coal and natural gas-fired generating units. We find clear statistical evidence that the CO2 price did impact dispatch decisions, resulting in natural gas utilization that was from 19% to 24% higher and coal utilization that was 16% to 18% lower than would have otherwise occurred in 2005 and 2006. Abatement as a result of fuel switching in the power sector is estimated to have been between 13 million and 21 million tons of CO2 in 2005 and 14 and 21 million tons in 2006.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Análise econométrica da competitividade entre Brasil e Colômbia no mercado de café arábica

Alvarenga, Guilherme Lara
Fonte: UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS; DAE - Programa de Pós-graduação; UFLA; BRASIL Publicador: UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE LAVRAS; DAE - Programa de Pós-graduação; UFLA; BRASIL
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 27/05/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Há vários anos o café vem sendo um dos principais produtos indiscutivelmente essencial para a obtenção de uma balança comercial positiva para o Brasil. Com o fim da regulamentação do mercado na década de 90 e consequentemente a abertura para a competitividade externa, os produtores que apenas buscavam o aumento no volume produzido se depararam com uma nova visão de mercado. A qualidade do produto já era o fator de destaque na demanda mundial, fator este trabalhado muito bem pela Colômbia, principal concorrente do café arábica brasileiro no mundo. Ou seja, o mercado de café arábica atual se vê cada vez mais acirrado e competitivo, os diversos fatores de riscos, incluindo a alta volatilidade dos preços, além obviamente de inúmeras variáveis climáticas e biológicas, variáveis macroeconômicas como o câmbio e a renda externa, vão criando cenários que afetam diretamente a atividade, principalmente em relação ao destino do produto, e a opção pelo mercado internacional em optar pelo café brasileiro ou pelo colombiano. Portanto, no presente trabalho propôs-se uma análise econométrica dos principais fatores macroeconômicos impactantes na competitividade do café brasileiro e do café colombiano, buscando detectar cenários que identifiquem momentos favoráveis de comercialização com o exterior. A pesquisa é de cunho quantitativo...

Determinants of ownership concentration in the Chilean stock market

Morales, Marco; Meléndez, María José; Ramírez, Vanessa
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Tipo: Texto
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Includes bibliography.; This paper analyses econometrically the determinants of ownership concentration in the Chilean stock market, paying particular attention to the effects of the Public Tender Offer Act (Ley de Ofertas Públicas de Adquisición de Acciones). Although the Public Tender Offer Act achieves its central purpose, the tender offer mechanism increases the concentration of ownership, mainly because of the "residual tender offer" obligation for which the Act provides. In addition, the study has found significant opposite responses between the controlling shareholder and the next two largest shareholders, which should sound a warning for international comparisons based on a common measure of ownership concentration that do not take account of the ownership structures characterizing Latin American markets. These aspects must be considered if the regulatory goals aimed at by minority shareholder protection bills are to be achieved.

The Impact Of Climate Change On The Water Sector In The Caribbean

Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Tipo: Texto
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
In the Caribbean, many countries face constraints in obtaining high quality and adequate supplies of freshwater due to their small size and geo-climatic conditions. This is especially so for coral-based islands which have a limited ground water supply. The management of freshwater is further complicated by the threat of climate change, which could potentially have a significant effect on the hydrologic cycle and, hence, on key parameters such as rainfall and temperature, as global warming is generally expected to increase if current human emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated. This study econometrically analyses the projected impact of climate change on the water sector of nine Caribbean countries to 2100: Aruba, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Montserrat, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, all countries, with the exception of Trinidad and Tobago, are expected to suffer aggregate losses as result of climate change in the early periods ca. 2020 under one or more scenarios. Over time, some countries experience declining negative impacts, as in the case of Guyana under the B2 scenario. Some countries, such as the Dominican Republic, is projected to suffer increasing losses under the B2 scenario and...

The impact of climate change on the water sector in the Caribbean

Fonte: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean Publicador: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean
Tipo: Texto
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
This study econometrically analyses the projected impact of climate change on the water sector of nine Caribbean countries to 2100: Aruba, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Montserrat, Jamaica, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. Overall, all countries, with the exception of Trinidad and Tobago, are expected to suffer aggregate losses as result of climate change in the early periods ca. 2020 under one or more scenarios. Over time, some countries experience declining negative impacts, as in the case of Guyana under the B2 scenario. Some countries, such as the Dominican Republic, is projected to suffer increasing losses under the B2 scenario and, for others, the impacts do not follow a defined trend. The A2 scenario offers the best outcome for all countries, except Jamaica (where BAU is most desirable), Montserrat (which performs most poorly under the A2 scenario), and the Netherlands Antilles, which does best under the B2 case. Overall, relative to 2006, the total demand for water in the Caribbean is expected to fall by 2030 by 11.3% to approximately 12,967 million cubic meters. This is due to the expected fall in agricultural water demand by approximately 36% in that period. However, by 2050...

Power Relationships along the Value Chain: Multinational Firms, Global Buyers and Performance of Local Suppliers

Pietrobelli, Carlo; Saliola, Federica
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
There is a growing literature exploring the role of international trade channels on economic growth, looking at the mechanisms through which import and export flows might affect productivity, technology diffusion and output growth. However, most of this literature appears to neglect an important part of the story, which is the form and the organisation of the relationships (the governance) among the various actors involved in these activities and their implications for development. The recent literature on global value chains and their governance takes this element explicitly into account, and we explore it empirically with a new dataset on Thailand. To this aim, we study global and domestic value chains in Thailand, and develop a quantitative measure of their governance, which takes into account different levels and types of buyer involvement with supplier activities. We then use this measure to explore econometrically its relationship with performance of suppliers. An important finding is that in value chains led by a multinational corporation, the relationships that the leaders have with their suppliers is multifold and generally more intense than for domestic value chains. Our estimates suggest that more intense buyer involvement with local suppliers...

Trends in Tariff Reforms and in the Structure of Wages

Galiani, Sebastian; Porto, Guido G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
This paper provides new evidence on the impacts of trade reforms on wages. We first introduce a model of trade that combines a noncompetitive wage-setting mechanism due to unions with a factor abundance hypothesis. The predictions of the model are then econometrically investigated using Argentine data. Instead of achieving identification by comparing industrial wages before and after one episode of trade liberalization, our strategy exploits the recent historical record of policy changes adopted by Argentina: from significant protection in the early 1970s, to the first episode of liberalization during the late 1970s, then back to a slowdown of reforms during the 1980s, and finally to the second episode of liberalization in the 1990s. These swings in trade policy represent broken trends in trade reforms that we can compare with observed trends in wages and wage inequality. We use unusual historical data sets of trends in tariffs, wages, and wage inequality to examine the structure of wages in Argentina and explore how it is affected by tariff reforms. We find that trade liberalization, ceteris paribus, reduces wages; industry tariffs reduce the industry skill premium; and conditional on the structure of tariffs at the industry level...

Household Financial Assets in the Process of Development

Honohan, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.62%
Systematic information on household financial asset holdings in developing countries is very sparse. The author reviews some available data and current policy debates. Although financial asset holdings by households are highly concentrated, deeper financial systems are correlated with improved income distribution. For low-income countries, the relevant question for poor households is not how much financial assets they have, but whether they have any access to financial products at all. Building on and synthesizing disparate data collection efforts by others, the author produces new estimates of access percentages for over 150 countries. Across countries access is negatively correlated with poverty rates, but the correlation is not a robust one: thus the supposed anti-poverty potential of financial access remains econometrically elusive. Despite policy focus on the value of credit instruments, it is deposit products that tend to be the first to be used as prosperity increases, before more sophisticated savings products and borrowing.

Emissions trading, capital flows and the Kyoto Protocol

McKibbin, Warwick J; Ross, Martin T; Shackleton, Robert; Wilcoxen, Peter J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 173477 bytes; 351 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
We use an econometrically estimated multi-region, multi-sector general equilibrium model of the world economy to examine the effects of the tradable emissions permit system proposed in the 1997 Kyoto protocol, under various assumptions about that extent of international permit trading. We focus, in particular, on the effects of the system on international trade and capital flows. Our results suggest that consideration of these flows significantly affects estimates of the domestic effects of the emissions mitigation policy, compared with analyses that ignore international capital flows.; no

What to expect from an International System of Tradeable Permits for Carbon Emissions

McKibbin, Warwick J; Shackleton, Robert; Wilcoxen, Peter J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 109411 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
We use an econometrically-estimated multi-region, multi-sector general equilibrium model of the world economy to examine the effects of using a system of internationally-tradable emissions permits to control world carbon dioxide emissions. We focus, in particular, on the effects of the system on flows of trade and international capital. Our results show that international trade and capital flows significantly alter projections of the domestic effects of emissions mitigation policy, compared with analyses that ignore international capital flows, and that under some systems of international permit trading the United States is likely to become a significant permit seller, the opposite of the conventional wisdom.; no

The potential effects of international carbon emissions permit trading under the Kyoto Protocol [Working paper EEN9805]

McKibbin, Warwick J; Shackleton, Robert; Wilcoxen, Peter J
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 250841 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23%
We use an econometrically estimated multi-region, multi-sector general equilibrium model of the world economy to examine the effects of the tradable emissions permit system proposed in the 1997 Kyoto protocol, under various assumptions about that extent of international permit trading. We focus, in particular, on the effects of the system on international trade and capital flows. Our results suggest that consideration of these flows significantly affects estimates of the domestic effects of the emissions mitigation policy, compared with analyses that ignore international capital flows.; no

Industrial demographics, industrial dynamics, and aggregate total factor productivity growth in Indonesian manufacturing, 1975-95.

Vial, Virginie G
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
17.23%
After an introductory chapter, chapter 2 reviews and assesses the existing theoretical and empirical literature on TFP growth. A detailed review of the economic and historical literature on productivity growth in Indonesian manufacturing follows. This allows constructing a new methodology for the estimation of aggregate TFP growth in Indonesian manufacturing, using a panel dataset of establishments over the period 1975-95. New estimates are presented and compared with historical evidence. Chapter 3 further emphasises the issue of establishments' heterogeneity by presenting a meticulous review of both the theoretical and empirical literature on industrial demography. Chapter 4 investigates further the heterogeneity of manufacturing establishments in terms of productivity, and size. It offers a comprehensive demographic study of manufacturing establishments over the 21-year period, focusing on productivity and size differentials, as well as on establishments' entry and exit. In a second part, relaxing the representative plant hypothesis and taking establishments' turnover effect into account, I present several decompositions of aggregate TFP growth into incumbents' contribution and the contribution of entrants and exiters. Chapter 5 draws on this literature and tests econometrically the different hypotheses aiming at an explanation of establishments' productivity heterogeneity. Hypotheses are tailored to the Indonesian manufacturing sector through a careful reference to the economic history of the sector. Chapter 6 offers three detailed historical and economic industry studies...