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Uso eficiente de energia elétrica no setor residencial do Equador: estratégias tecnológica, política e econômica; Efficient use of electricity in the residential sector in Ecuador: strategies technological, political and economic

Ortega, Daniel Mahauad
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/1994 Português
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O Setor Residencial (SR) do Equador necessita introduzir estratégias de uso eficiente de energia elétrica nos três usos finais de maior consumo: refrigeração (44%), iluminação (21%) e aquecimento da água (12%). O consumo residencial é responsável por 40% do consumo de energia elétrica do país, abrange 86% dos usuários e tem uma taxa média de crescimento da demanda de energia elétrica de 6,3% ao ano, desde 1990. Continuando com esse ritmo de crescimento, no ano 2005, a demanda atingiria 5.338GWh ( 21% a mais que em 1992). Além disso, é o setor mais favorecido pelo governo, com subsídios tarifários que ocasionaram uma perda aproximada de 89,4 milhões de dólares em 1993. Os principais aspectos que impedem o uso eficiente da energia elétrica são a falta de informação aos consumidores, as tecnologias de uso final ineficientes, uma inadequada política de aprovisionamento de energia elétrica, preços da eletricidade inferiores aos seus custos de fornecimento e escassez de recursos financeiros para investimentos. O potencial de energia elétrica que poderia ser economizado com a implementação de tecnologias eficientes em 2005 é de cerca de 1.975GWh (13% do consumo nacional previsto, sem nenhum programa de conservação)...

Catalyzing Mass Production of Solar Photovoltaic Cells Using University Driven Green Purchasing

Pearce, Joshua M.
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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36.47%
Purpose: This paper explores the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity. Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct “Solar City Factories”, factories that possess equipment and processes sized, dedicated and optimized to produce only solar photovoltaic systems. Inexpensive solar cells from these factories could produce solar electricity at rates comparable to conventional fossil-fuel derived electricity. Then it was determined if sufficient demand could be guaranteed by green purchasing from the international university system. Findings: A focused effort from the university community to purchase on-sight produced electricity would make it possible to construct truly large-scale dedicated solar photovoltaic factories rather than follow the piecemeal production increases currently observed in the industry. Practical Implications: Direct economic competitiveness of an energy source having markedly lower environmental, social and health externalities would have a positive-spiral (virtuous cycle) effect encouraging the transition of the global energy infrastructure away from polluting fossil fuels to green solar energy. Originality/value: Despite significant commercial progress in the conversion efficiency of sunlight into electricity with solar photovoltaic cells...

Maximizing the Productive Uses of Electricity to Increase the Impact of Rural Electrification Programs : An Operational Methodology

de Gouvello, Christophe; Durix, Laurent
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Rural electrification programs are generally motivated by the effective and lasting impacts that they are expected to generate in the field. While there may be some natural trickle down effect from the massive investments required to reach high rates of rural electrification, spontaneous positive effects on social and economic development are generally limited by a number of local bottlenecks. Two of the most important deterrents to the productive uses of electricity are the lack of technical knowledge and skills of potential users and the financial means to acquire the relevant equipment. This paper argues that to be successful, rural electrification programs should target direct impact on livelihoods and revenue generation beyond the provision of connections and kilowatt-hours by implementing electricity projects that affect livelihoods and generate new revenues.

Political Economy of Power Sector Subsidies : A Review with Reference to Sub-Saharan Africa

Kojima, Masami; Bacon, Robert; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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36.66%
Power sector subsidies in Sub-Saharan Africa are substantial and highly regressive. While subsidies can be quick, easy, and politically expedient to implement, they are equally quick to take root and challenging to remove. Optimal policies that are technically sound and welfare-enhancing over the long run have nevertheless been found difficult to launch and even more challenging to sustain. Of the barriers to reform, those associated with political economy are among the most powerful, yet their analysis is often lacking due consideration in the reform design process. This paper reviews the literature on power subsidies and their reform with emphasis on the political economy of such reform. It examines pricing principles in the power sector and different types of subsides; drivers for subsidies, benefits and costs of subsidy reform, and their distribution; and approaches to political economy analysis, tools available, and methodological issues. The paper draws examples from Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere...

Explaining Telecoms and Electricity Internationalization in the European Union: A Political Economy Perspective

CLIFTON, Judith; DIAZ-FUENTES, Daniel; REVUELTA LOPEZ, Julio
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.

Explaining telecoms and electricity internationalization in the European Union: a political economy perspective

Clifton, Judith Catherine; Díaz Fuentes, Daniel; Revuelta López, Julio
Fonte: MPRA Publicador: MPRA
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; publishedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.

The political economy of telecoms and electricity internationalization in the single market

Clifton, Judith Catherine; Díaz Fuentes, Daniel; Revuelta López, Julio
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; acceptedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
As a consequence of liberalization policies in the European Union (EU), a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity transformed themselves into some of the world's leading multinationals. The relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization, however, is contested. Three political economy arguments on this relationship are tested. The first claims that incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalize most. The second asserts that incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance internationalization. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of EU telecoms and electricity incumbent multinationals, evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.

Romania - Functional Review : Ministry of Economy, Energy Sector and Business Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.53%
The objective of the functional review of the Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Business Environment (MEC) is to analyze its current structure and operations, to provide recommendations so that the Ministry and the Government can improve the delivery of its key functions and respond effectively to the emerging challenges. The focus of the Review was on the Ministry's energy and business environment functions. The coverage of the energy sector review goes beyond the Ministry, into electricity and gas market issues, governance of energy SOEs under MEC, the institutional capacity of the energy regulator ANRE, and the coordination with energy-related functions in other ministries. The coverage of the business environment review similarly goes beyond the Ministry and assesses institutional capacities across the Government - as responsibilities are scattered across the Romanian administration, it was necessary to expand the analysis in order to provide sound policy recommendations to improve the business environment as a key strategy for government action. The draft final report is organized into two main parts...

Key Drivers of PPPs in Electricity Generation in Developing Countries : Cross-Country Evidence of Switching between PPP Investment in Fossil Fuel and Renewable-Based Generation

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper presents new global evidence on the key determinants of public-private partnership investment in electricity generated by fossil fuels and renewable energy based on a panel data analysis for 105 developing countries over a period of 16 years from 1993 to 2008. It aims to identify the key factors affecting private investors' decision to enter electricity generation, through probit analysis, and the amount of investment sunk in this market segment, based on Heckman's sample selection analysis. The paper shows some evidence of switching from investment in fossil fuels to investment in hydro and renewables and within fossil fuels from oil to natural gas. An interesting result of the econometric analysis is that the likelihood of switching toward renewable investment is driven by long-run environmental factors, such as the increases in the price of oil and the introduction of the Kyoto protocol. Another interesting result is that sector governance support schemes, provided by feed-in tariffs, affect only the entry in renewable based electricity generation and have no impact in reducing the amount of investment in fossil fuel based generation. Economy-wide governance factors...

Turkey Green Growth Policy Paper : Towards a Greener Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The report is organized in seven chapters. Following the introductory chapter, chapter two sets the stage by reviewing the structure of Turkey's economy and its performance, as well as the challenges and opportunities provided by Turkey's current growth path from implementing a 'green agenda' linked to achieving standards set by European Union (EU) Directives and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles; this is followed by a review of where Turkey stands compared to developed and emerging economies, in terms of what is broadly understood as a comprehensive approach to green growth. Chapter three uses a narrower, more operational, definition of green growth for the purposes of the analysis undertaken in the policy note. Chapter four presents an assessment of the seven strategic sectors selected for a more focused analysis. It also highlights the greening potential within these sectors. Chapter five reviews the range of policy instruments available in the European Union (EU) and other emerging international experiences...

Transition to a Low-Emissions Economy in Poland; Tranzitia catre economia cu emisii scazute in Polonia

Jorgensen, Erika; Kąsek, Leszek
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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Poland is not among the largest emitters of greenhouse gases globally, but its economy is among the least emissions-efficient in the European Union (EU). Poland's global share in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is just 1percent and its per capita emissions are similar to the EU overall. Its lower income level, the Polish economy comes out as among the least carbon-efficient. Poland's transition to a market economy since 1989 had a co-benefit of sharply reduced CO2 emissions; however, the link between growth and emissions has re-emerged in recent years. A critical difference in the make-up of Poland's emissions is the dominance of the power sector and its extraordinary dependence on coal. Over 90 percent of electricity in Poland is generated from coal and lignite, the highest share in the EU. This makes Poland an outlier, both globally and in Europe.

The Transition from Underpricing Residential Electricity in Bangladesh : Fiscal and Distributional Impacts

Ahmed, Faizuddin; Trimble, Chris; Yoshida, Nobuo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The electricity sector in Bangladesh has been facing unprecedented challenges, with severe capacity constraints and sector subsidies that quadrupled from 0.2 percent to 0.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) between 2010 and 2012, driving the government's fiscal deficit deeper. This policy note examines the poverty and distribution impact of one such reform-residential electricity tariff increases-along with their fiscal implications. A challenge of such adjustments is how to minimize their impact on the poor and vulnerable. Using household survey data, this report studies the distributional and fiscal implications of the residential tariff adjustments between March 2010 and March 2012 on to inform policy dialogue on the provision and targeting of electricity subsidies. Electricity subsidies are defined as the difference between the cost of supplying a unit of electricity and the tariff the end-user is charged for a given unit. Between 2010 and 2012, real cost of supply increased almost 20 percent. This policy note focuses on just one part of a much broader and complex system of connected energy policies. The policy implications of this analysis should only be considered in light of this broader context. In particular...

Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy : Path to Low Carbon Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian Economy: Path to Low Carbon Development is the product of a collaborative effort between the World Bank and the Government of India, under the overall leadership of the Planning Commission and the Ministry of Power, and with the financial assistance of the Department for International Development (DFID) and the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study was requested by the Government of India to develop the analytical capacity for identifying low carbon growth opportunities up to the end of the 15th Five Year Plan (March 2032) in major sectors of the economy; and to facilitate informed decision making by improving the knowledge base and raising national and international awareness of India efforts to address global climate change. The study uses an innovative engineering based, bottom up model to examine CO2 emissions from energy use during 2007 to 2031. It focuses on sectors and areas that are expected to contribute significantly to India's future growth in CO2 emissions. The report received significant support from ministries and agencies of the Government of India...

Transition to a Low Carbon Economy in Poland

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.65%
Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish Government, supported by the UK Department for International Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an industrialized 'annex one' country for the purposes of international climate discussions, and an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland, developing insights via a suite of models that should provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These policymakers may find reassuring the main message that Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full package of technologically feasible and economically sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early action by the government.

Demand-Side Management in China's Restructured Power Industry : How Regulation and Policy Can Deliver Demand-Side Management Benefits to a Growing Economy and a Changing Power System

Hu, Zhaoguang; Moskovitz, David; Zhao, Jianping
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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China expects its gross domestic product in 2020 to be four times that of 2000. Limits on energy resources and China's environmental needs require that electricity use grow at a much lower rate than the economy. Demand-side management (DSM) is a critical component of China's sustainable development. It is a set of tools and practices taken by utilities to influence the amount and/or timing of customers' energy demand in order to utilize scarce electric supply resources most efficiently. DSM is a proven method of meeting economic goals in an environmentally sustainable way, and it is also a fast and effective way to address power shortages. This report reviews China's experience with DSM, explores the barriers to and the potential for new demand-side investment, and examines successful DSM strategies in other countries. It suggests the near-and long-term regulatory and government policies needed to support substantial new investment in comprehensive, cost-effective programs for end-use efficiency and load management.

Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization

Audoly, Richard; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Guivarch, Celine
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2 to 3°C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers is not whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it. Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies -- such as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage -- turn out to be unavailable. Third, progressive decarbonization of electricity is part of every country's cost-effective means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition, this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon content of electricity -- computed from the results of AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison study. These pathways may be used to benchmark existing decarbonization targets...

Economy-Wide Impact of Oil Discovery in Ghana

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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36.5%
Ghana's oil will start to flow in 2011, maybe even before, and most of its known reserves will be extracted in the immediate years after. The promise of oil generates expectations of all sorts, the more so as Ghana currently grapples with a macroeconomic crisis of significant proportions. This overview discusses the Ghana-specific nature of these challenges and explores possible options to address them. In doing so, it builds on seven thematic chapters which look at different aspects of the question: (1) oil facts, (2) political economy, (3) public financial management, (4) infrastructure, (5) private sector development, (6) agriculture, and (7) poverty. While the overview tries to bring together the findings of these different chapters, further details and discussions on each of these topics can be found in o f the chapters themselves. It concludes that while oil revenue will not be large enough to radically transform Ghana, it could, if improperly managed, impose enough stress on non-oil sectors to severely undermine Ghana's medium term development prospects. Hence the huge premium and responsibilities put on Ghana's successive authorities to wisely manage the oil wealth to promote the development of the non-oil sectors.

TINKER, TORY, WOBBLER, WHY? : the political economy of electricity restructuring in Ontario, 1995-2003

Martin, Charles Francis James
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1347554 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario. For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power? It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special...

Overview of the Chinese Electricity Industry and Its Current Issues

Yang, Hongliang
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: 708692 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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36.48%
In China, many ongoing problems in the electricity sector can be traced back to the old ?centrally planned? economy. Since the start of liberalization in the 1980s, the clash between a liberalized economy (excluding a few so-called strategic industries) and a centrally controlled electricity industry has gradually become more and more apparent. The Chinese electricity industry is in need of constructive restructuring. In the absence of a universal agreement on optimal industry design, the Chinese government should have a firm and clear understanding of the implications of electricity restructuring for long-term social welfare. Otherwise the electricity industry might, again, be locked into an inferior industry design which would be very costly to change.

The political economy of electricity market liberalization

Erdogdu, Erkan
Fonte: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK Publicador: Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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More than half of the countries in the world have introduced a reform process in their power sectors and billions of dollars have been spent on liberalizing electricity markets around the world. Ideological considerations, political composition of governments and educational/professional background of leaders have played and will play a crucial role throughout the reform process. Adapting a political economy perspective, this paper attempts to discover the impact of political economy variables on the liberalization process in electricity markets. Empirical models are developed and analysed using panel data from 55 developed and developing countries covering the period 1975?2010. The research findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between electricity market liberalization and the size of industry sector, meaning that countries with larger industry sectors tend to liberalize less. Also, we detect a negative correlation between polity score and power sector liberalization, that is; it cannot be argued that liberalization policies are stronger in more democratic countries. On the other hand, our results imply that countries that receive foreign financial aid or assistance are more likely to liberalize their electricity markets. In OECD countries...