O Setor Residencial (SR) do Equador necessita introduzir estratégias de uso eficiente de energia elétrica nos três usos finais de maior consumo: refrigeração (44%), iluminação (21%) e aquecimento da água (12%). O consumo residencial é responsável por 40% do consumo de energia elétrica do país, abrange 86% dos usuários e tem uma taxa média de crescimento da demanda de energia elétrica de 6,3% ao ano, desde 1990. Continuando com esse ritmo de crescimento, no ano 2005, a demanda atingiria 5.338GWh ( 21% a mais que em 1992). Além disso, é o setor mais favorecido pelo governo, com subsídios tarifários que ocasionaram uma perda aproximada de 89,4 milhões de dólares em 1993. Os principais aspectos que impedem o uso eficiente da energia elétrica são a falta de informação aos consumidores, as tecnologias de uso final ineficientes, uma inadequada política de aprovisionamento de energia elétrica, preços da eletricidade inferiores aos seus custos de fornecimento e escassez de recursos financeiros para investimentos. O potencial de energia elétrica que poderia ser economizado com a implementação de tecnologias eficientes em 2005 é de cerca de 1.975GWh (13% do consumo nacional previsto, sem nenhum programa de conservação)...
Purpose: This paper explores the use of the purchase power of the higher education system to catalyze the economy of scale necessary to ensure market competitiveness for solar photovoltaic electricity.
Design/methodology/approach: The approach used here was to first determine the demand necessary to construct “Solar City Factories”, factories that possess equipment and processes sized, dedicated and optimized to produce only solar photovoltaic systems. Inexpensive solar cells from these factories could produce solar electricity at rates comparable to conventional fossil-fuel derived electricity. Then it was determined if sufficient demand could be guaranteed by green purchasing from the international university system.
Findings: A focused effort from the university community to purchase on-sight produced electricity would make it possible to construct truly large-scale dedicated solar photovoltaic factories rather than follow the piecemeal production increases currently observed in the industry.
Practical Implications: Direct economic competitiveness of an energy source having markedly lower environmental, social and health externalities would have a positive-spiral (virtuous cycle) effect encouraging the transition of the global energy infrastructure away from polluting fossil fuels to green solar energy.
Originality/value: Despite significant commercial progress in the conversion efficiency of sunlight into electricity with solar photovoltaic cells...
Rural electrification programs are
generally motivated by the effective and lasting impacts
that they are expected to generate in the field. While there
may be some natural trickle down effect from the massive
investments required to reach high rates of rural
electrification, spontaneous positive effects on social and
economic development are generally limited by a number of
local bottlenecks. Two of the most important deterrents to
the productive uses of electricity are the lack of technical
knowledge and skills of potential users and the financial
means to acquire the relevant equipment. This paper argues
that to be successful, rural electrification programs should
target direct impact on livelihoods and revenue generation
beyond the provision of connections and kilowatt-hours by
implementing electricity projects that affect livelihoods
and generate new revenues.
Power sector subsidies in Sub-Saharan
Africa are substantial and highly regressive. While
subsidies can be quick, easy, and politically expedient to
implement, they are equally quick to take root and
challenging to remove. Optimal policies that are technically
sound and welfare-enhancing over the long run have
nevertheless been found difficult to launch and even more
challenging to sustain. Of the barriers to reform, those
associated with political economy are among the most
powerful, yet their analysis is often lacking due
consideration in the reform design process. This paper
reviews the literature on power subsidies and their reform
with emphasis on the political economy of such reform. It
examines pricing principles in the power sector and
different types of subsides; drivers for subsidies, benefits
and costs of subsidy reform, and their distribution; and
approaches to political economy analysis, tools available,
and methodological issues. The paper draws examples from
Sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere...
One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of
formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed
themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship
between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three
persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first
claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The
second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit
monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a
diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and
internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and
electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis.
Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and
this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.
One consequence of the liberalization of certain services in the European Union was that a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity rapidly transformed themselves into some of the world’s leading Multinationals. However, the precise relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization is contested. This article tests three persuasive arguments derived from the political economy literature on this relationship. The first claims that those incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalise most. The second asserts the opposite: incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance their aggressive internationalisation. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of the sample of all major EU telecoms and electricity incumbent Multinationals evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.
As a consequence of liberalization policies in the European Union (EU), a number of formerly inward-looking incumbents in telecommunications and electricity transformed themselves into some of the world's leading multinationals. The relationship between liberalization and incumbent internationalization, however, is contested. Three political economy arguments on this relationship are tested. The first claims that incumbents most exposed to domestic liberalization would internationalize most. The second asserts that incumbents operating where liberalization was restricted could exploit monopolistic rents to finance internationalization. The third argument claims that a diversity of paths will be adopted by countries and incumbents vis-à-vis liberalization and internationalization. Using correlation and cluster analysis of EU telecoms and electricity incumbent multinationals, evidence is found in favour of the third hypothesis. Internationalization as a response to liberalization took diverse forms in terms of timing and extent and this is best explained using a country, sector and firm logic.
The objective of the functional review
of the Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Business
Environment (MEC) is to analyze its current structure and
operations, to provide recommendations so that the Ministry
and the Government can improve the delivery of its key
functions and respond effectively to the emerging
challenges. The focus of the Review was on the
Ministry's energy and business environment functions.
The coverage of the energy sector review goes beyond the
Ministry, into electricity and gas market issues, governance
of energy SOEs under MEC, the institutional capacity of the
energy regulator ANRE, and the coordination with
energy-related functions in other ministries. The coverage
of the business environment review similarly goes beyond the
Ministry and assesses institutional capacities across the
Government - as responsibilities are scattered across the
Romanian administration, it was necessary to expand the
analysis in order to provide sound policy recommendations to
improve the business environment as a key strategy for
government action. The draft final report is organized into
two main parts...
This paper presents new global evidence
on the key determinants of public-private partnership
investment in electricity generated by fossil fuels and
renewable energy based on a panel data analysis for 105
developing countries over a period of 16 years from 1993 to
2008. It aims to identify the key factors affecting private
investors' decision to enter electricity generation,
through probit analysis, and the amount of investment sunk
in this market segment, based on Heckman's sample
selection analysis. The paper shows some evidence of
switching from investment in fossil fuels to investment in
hydro and renewables and within fossil fuels from oil to
natural gas. An interesting result of the econometric
analysis is that the likelihood of switching toward
renewable investment is driven by long-run environmental
factors, such as the increases in the price of oil and the
introduction of the Kyoto protocol. Another interesting
result is that sector governance support schemes, provided
by feed-in tariffs, affect only the entry in renewable based
electricity generation and have no impact in reducing the
amount of investment in fossil fuel based generation.
Economy-wide governance factors...
The report is organized in seven
chapters. Following the introductory chapter, chapter two
sets the stage by reviewing the structure of Turkey's
economy and its performance, as well as the challenges and
opportunities provided by Turkey's current growth path
from implementing a 'green agenda' linked to
achieving standards set by European Union (EU) Directives
and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) principles; this is followed by a review of where
Turkey stands compared to developed and emerging economies,
in terms of what is broadly understood as a comprehensive
approach to green growth. Chapter three uses a narrower,
more operational, definition of green growth for the
purposes of the analysis undertaken in the policy note.
Chapter four presents an assessment of the seven strategic
sectors selected for a more focused analysis. It also
highlights the greening potential within these sectors.
Chapter five reviews the range of policy instruments
available in the European Union (EU) and other emerging
Poland is not among the largest emitters
of greenhouse gases globally, but its economy is among the
least emissions-efficient in the European Union (EU).
Poland's global share in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
is just 1percent and its per capita emissions are similar to
the EU overall. Its lower income level, the Polish economy
comes out as among the least carbon-efficient. Poland's
transition to a market economy since 1989 had a co-benefit
of sharply reduced CO2 emissions; however, the link between
growth and emissions has re-emerged in recent years. A
critical difference in the make-up of Poland's
emissions is the dominance of the power sector and its
extraordinary dependence on coal. Over 90 percent of
electricity in Poland is generated from coal and lignite,
the highest share in the EU. This makes Poland an outlier,
both globally and in Europe.
The electricity sector in Bangladesh has
been facing unprecedented challenges, with severe capacity
constraints and sector subsidies that quadrupled from 0.2
percent to 0.8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP)
between 2010 and 2012, driving the government's fiscal
deficit deeper. This policy note examines the poverty and
distribution impact of one such reform-residential
electricity tariff increases-along with their fiscal
implications. A challenge of such adjustments is how to
minimize their impact on the poor and vulnerable. Using
household survey data, this report studies the
distributional and fiscal implications of the residential
tariff adjustments between March 2010 and March 2012 on to
inform policy dialogue on the provision and targeting of
electricity subsidies. Electricity subsidies are defined as
the difference between the cost of supplying a unit of
electricity and the tariff the end-user is charged for a
given unit. Between 2010 and 2012, real cost of supply
increased almost 20 percent. This policy note focuses on
just one part of a much broader and complex system of
connected energy policies. The policy implications of this
analysis should only be considered in light of this broader
context. In particular...
Energy Intensive Sectors of the Indian
Economy: Path to Low Carbon Development is the product of a
collaborative effort between the World Bank and the
Government of India, under the overall leadership of the
Planning Commission and the Ministry of Power, and with the
financial assistance of the Department for International
Development (DFID) and the Energy Sector Management
Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study was requested by the
Government of India to develop the analytical capacity for
identifying low carbon growth opportunities up to the end of
the 15th Five Year Plan (March 2032) in major sectors of the
economy; and to facilitate informed decision making by
improving the knowledge base and raising national and
international awareness of India efforts to address global
climate change. The study uses an innovative engineering
based, bottom up model to examine CO2 emissions from energy
use during 2007 to 2031. It focuses on sectors and areas
that are expected to contribute significantly to
India's future growth in CO2 emissions. The report
received significant support from ministries and agencies of
the Government of India...
Transition to a low carbon economy in
Poland is a study by the World Bank for the Polish
Government, supported by the UK Department for International
Development and donors to the Energy Sector Management
Assistance Program (ESMAP). The study poses the question of
how Poland, an European Union (EU) member state, an
industrialized 'annex one' country for the
purposes of international climate discussions, and an
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) member, can successfully transition to a low carbon
economy as successfully as it underwent transition to a
market economy in the early 1990s. Transition to a low
carbon economy in Poland provides a detailed assessment of
many aspects of a low carbon growth strategy for Poland,
developing insights via a suite of models that should
provide ongoing assistance to policymakers. These
policymakers may find reassuring the main message that
Poland's transition to a low carbon economy, while not
free or simple is affordable. However, capturing the full
package of technologically feasible and economically
sensible abatement measures requires coordinated and early
action by the government.
China expects its gross domestic product
in 2020 to be four times that of 2000. Limits on energy
resources and China's environmental needs require that
electricity use grow at a much lower rate than the economy.
Demand-side management (DSM) is a critical component of
China's sustainable development. It is a set of tools
and practices taken by utilities to influence the amount
and/or timing of customers' energy demand in order to
utilize scarce electric supply resources most efficiently.
DSM is a proven method of meeting economic goals in an
environmentally sustainable way, and it is also a fast and
effective way to address power shortages. This report
reviews China's experience with DSM, explores the
barriers to and the potential for new demand-side
investment, and examines successful DSM strategies in other
countries. It suggests the near-and long-term regulatory and
government policies needed to support substantial new
investment in comprehensive, cost-effective programs for
end-use efficiency and load management.
This paper covers three policy-relevant
aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well
established among integrated assessment models but
under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate
stabilization at any level from 2 to 3°C requires
electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the
century. As such, the question for policy makers is not
whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it.
Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and
required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies -- such
as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage -- turn out
to be unavailable. Third, progressive decarbonization of
electricity is part of every country's cost-effective
means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition,
this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon
content of electricity -- computed from the results of
AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison
study. These pathways may be used to benchmark existing
Ghana's oil will start to flow in
2011, maybe even before, and most of its known reserves will
be extracted in the immediate years after. The promise of
oil generates expectations of all sorts, the more so as
Ghana currently grapples with a macroeconomic crisis of
significant proportions. This overview discusses the
Ghana-specific nature of these challenges and explores
possible options to address them. In doing so, it builds on
seven thematic chapters which look at different aspects of
the question: (1) oil facts, (2) political economy, (3)
public financial management, (4) infrastructure, (5) private
sector development, (6) agriculture, and (7) poverty. While
the overview tries to bring together the findings of these
different chapters, further details and discussions on each
of these topics can be found in o f the chapters themselves.
It concludes that while oil revenue will not be large enough
to radically transform Ghana, it could, if improperly
managed, impose enough stress on non-oil sectors to severely
undermine Ghana's medium term development prospects.
Hence the huge premium and responsibilities put on
Ghana's successive authorities to wisely manage the oil
wealth to promote the development of the non-oil sectors.
The Ontario Tories' 42-year hegemony in government (1943-1985) was wrought through clever policies which often utilized Crown institutions to promote prosperity or to oblige or mollify vying interests. Ousted in 1985, though, they used their time in opposition to revise the Tory doctrine. In the 1995 election, the Tories emerged a tougher, more truculent group quite unlike their predecessors. Campaigning on their Common Sense Revolution (CSR) platform, they promised to eliminate red tape and vowed to obliterate all ostensible economic barriers which were impeding commerce in the province. In the CSR, the Tories identified Ontario Hydro (OH), the province's lauded publicly-owned power monopoly, as a troublesome and inefficient Crown entity which required fundamental reform. Portions of OH, they hinted, would likely be sold. Once elected, the Tories worked hurriedly to demolish OH and destroy public power in Ontario.
For nearly 100 years, OH proved a pivotal component within the province's political economy for its provision of affordable, reliable power and its function as a policy tool to incite and direct development. A Tory government fought to instigate public power in the early 1900s and, in the late 1900s, a Tory government was fighting vigorously to rescind it. Why would they now renounce Crown power?
It is the intent of this thesis to elucidate the Tory government's involvement in the transformation of Ontario's electricity industry from 1995 to 2003. Distinguishing electricity as a special...
In China, many ongoing problems in the electricity sector can be traced back to the old ?centrally planned? economy. Since the start of liberalization in the 1980s, the clash between a liberalized economy (excluding a few so-called strategic industries) and a centrally controlled electricity industry has gradually become more and more apparent. The Chinese electricity industry is in need of constructive restructuring. In the absence of a universal agreement on optimal industry design, the Chinese government should have a firm and clear understanding of the implications of electricity restructuring for long-term social welfare. Otherwise the electricity industry might, again, be locked into an inferior industry design which would be very costly to change.
More than half of the countries in the world have introduced a reform process in their power sectors and billions of dollars have been spent on liberalizing electricity markets around the world. Ideological considerations, political composition of governments and educational/professional background of leaders have played and will play a crucial role throughout the reform process. Adapting a political economy perspective, this paper attempts to discover the impact of political economy variables on the liberalization process in electricity markets. Empirical models are developed and analysed using panel data from 55 developed and developing countries covering the period 1975?2010. The research findings suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between electricity market liberalization and the size of industry sector, meaning that countries with larger industry sectors tend to liberalize less. Also, we detect a negative correlation between polity score and power sector liberalization, that is; it cannot be argued that liberalization policies are stronger in more democratic countries. On the other hand, our results imply that countries that receive foreign financial aid or assistance are more likely to liberalize their electricity markets. In OECD countries...