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Educação para o empreendedorismo em Portugal : o nascimento do Programa Empreender na Escola; Educación para el emprendimiento en Portugal, el nacimiento del Programa Emprendedor en la Escuela; Entrepreneurship education in Portugal, the development of the Entrepreneurship in the School Program

Imaginário, Susana; Cristo, Eurídice; Jesus, Saul Neves de; Morais, Maria de Fátima
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
As competências empreendedoras foram consideradas como essenciais para o desenvolvimento da nossa sociedade, pelo que a educação para o empreendedorismo tem sido estimulada nas últimas décadas. Embora Portugal não seja exceção, ainda são poucas as iniciativas implementadas. Analisar as boas práticas existentes, assim como as limitações destes projetos permitem-nos encontrar pistas que contribuam para o desenho de programas que contribuam para o desenvolvimento das competências empreendedoras e criativas dos participantes. Através do estudo de atividades implementadas em Portugal e noutros países, verificou-se que estas devem focar-se numa abordagem por competências que conte com a participação ativa de escolas e professores. Por outro lado, concluiu-se ainda que é fundamental que estas iniciativas contemplem um período de avaliação que permita analisar a sua eficácia.; Las capacidades empresariales se consideran esenciales para el desarrollo de nuestra sociedad, por lo que la educación empresarial ha sido estimulada en las últimas décadas. Si bien que Portugal no es una excepción, hay pocas iniciativas implementadas. Analizar las buenas prácticas existentes, así como las limitaciones de estos proyectos nos permiten encontrar pistas que contribuyan al diseño de programas que favorezcan al desarrollo de las habilidades empresariales y creativas de los participantes. A través del estudio de las actividades realizadas en Portugal y otros países...

Organizational characteristics of HIV/syphilis testing services for men who have sex with men in South China: a social entrepreneurship analysis and implications for creating sustainable service models

Tucker, Joseph D; Muessig, Kathryn E; Cui, Rosa; Bien, Cedric H; Lo, Elaine J; Lee, Ramon; Wang, Kaidi; Han, Larry; Liu, Feng-Ying; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Larson, Heidi; Peeling, Rosanna W
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Background: UNAIDS has called for greater HIV/syphilis testing worldwide just as local HIV/syphilis testing programs are cut or altered. New models are needed to make HIV/syphilis testing services sustainable while retaining their essential public health function. Social entrepreneurship, using business principles to promote a social cause, provides a framework to pilot programs that sustainably expand testing. Drawing on fieldwork in two South Chinese cities, we examined organizational and financial characteristics of current HIV/syphilis testing systems for men who have sex with men (MSM) in addition to new pilot programs focused on revenue-generation for sustainability. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study to explore organizational and financial characteristics of HIV/syphilis testing for MSM. Data were collected from men who have sex with men and policy stakeholders in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and then code the data. Results: Our qualitative research study included MSM and policy stakeholders (n = 84). HIV/syphilis testing services were implemented at a wide range of organizations which we grouped broadly as independent community-based organizations (CBOs), independent clinics...

Educação do empreendedorismo: um estudo em instituição de ensino superior; Entrepreneurship education: a study on higher education institution

Machado, Márcio Roberto Loiola
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
This Thesis deals with entrepreneurship on higher education undergraduate programs. The main objective is investigating the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in terms of entrepreneurial attitudes and behavior. The study is done on a University that has an entrepreneurship education program on a Business Management undergraduate program. It is conducted a survey using a questionnaire on the Business Management undergraduate students resulting in a random stratified sample of 264 students. The entrepreneurial attitudes variables used are those found on the entrepreneurship literature. The entrepreneurial behavior variables are typical entrepreneurial situations like a decision on how to apply money and if the student would leave a good job to open his or her own company. It is applied multiple regression, cluster, bivariate and chi-square analysis. The main findings are first that it was not found a strong relationship between the entrepreneurial attitudes variables found on the entrepreneurship literature and the behavior situation proposed, with a multiple regression adjusted r2 = 0,30. Second, there is no statistically significant difference among the students comparing different years of the undergraduate program. Finally...

The Cash Dividend : The Rise of Cash Transfer Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa

Garcia, Marito; Moore, Charity M. T.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The results of the review do not disappoint. The authors identified more than 120 cash transfer programs that were implemented between 2000 and mid-2009 in Sub-Saharan Africa. These programs have varying objectives, targeting, scale, conditions, technologies, and more. A sizable number of these programs conducted robust impact evaluations that provide important information, presented here, on the merits of cash transfer programs and their specific design features in the African context. The authors present summary information on programs, often in useful graphs, and provide detailed reference material in the appendixes. They highlight how many of the cash transfer programs in Africa that had not yet begun implementation at the time of writing will continue to provide important evaluation results that will guide the design of cash transfer programs in the region. In addition to presenting data and analysis on the mechanics of the programs, the authors discuss issues related to political economy. They highlight the importance of addressing key tradeoffs in cash transfers...

Decomposing the Effects of CCTs on Entrepreneurship

Lichand, Guilherme
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
Conditional cash transfers boosted a major reduction in poverty and a significant decrease in inequality in developing countries over the past decade. However, their success in promoting economic development is challenged by the claim that they deal with short-term poverty relief without providing the poor with the tools for breaking away from poverty by their own means. This claim, however, could be dismissed if conditional cash transfers had an effect on entrepreneurship. This paper assesses whether Bolsa-Familia increases the probability of starting a new venture in Brazil, decomposing its potential effects into three channels: alleviation of the wealth constraint, insurance against negative outcomes of risky activities, and reduction of the labor supply of children (through the effect of the conditionality). The effect of each of these channels is separately estimated using data from National Household Surveys in 2004 and 2006, for which the households of transfer beneficiaries can be identified. The results indicate that entrepreneurship is indeed stimulated by the program in urban areas throughout the insurance and wealth constraint alleviation effects...

What Are We Learning from Business Training and Entrepreneurship Evaluations around the Developing World?

McKenzie, David; Woodruff, Christopher
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Business training programs are a popular policy option to try to improve the performance of enterprises around the world. The last few years have seen rapid growth in the number of evaluations of these programs in developing countries. This paper undertakes a critical review of these studies with the goal of synthesizing the emerging lessons and understanding the limitations of the existing research and the areas in which more work is needed. It finds that there is substantial heterogeneity in the length, content, and types of firms participating in the training programs evaluated. Many evaluations suffer from low statistical power, measure impacts only within a year of training, and experience problems with survey attrition and measurement of firm profits and revenues. Over these short time horizons, there are relatively modest impacts of training on survivorship of existing firms, but stronger evidence that training programs help prospective owners launch new businesses more quickly. Most studies find that existing firm owners implement some of the practices taught in training...

Entrepreneurship Training and Self-Employment among University Graduates : Evidence from a Randomized Trial In Tunisia

Premand, Patrick; Brodmann, Stefanie; Almeida, Rita; Grun, Rebekka; Barouni, Mahdi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
In economies characterized by low labor demand and high rates of youth unemployment, entrepreneurship training has the potential to enable youth to gain skills and create their own jobs. This paper presents experimental evidence on a new entrepreneurship track that provides business training and personalized coaching to university students in Tunisia. Undergraduates in the final year of licence appliquee were given the opportunity to graduate with a business plan instead of following the standard curriculum. This paper relies on randomized assignment of the entrepreneurship track to identify impacts on labor market outcomes one year after graduation. The analysis finds that the entrepreneurship track was effective in increasing self-employment among applicants, but that the effects are small in absolute terms. In addition, the employment rate among participants remains unchanged, pointing to a partial substitution from wage employment to self-employment. The evidence shows that the program fostered business skills...

Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries : A Meta Regression Analysis

Cho, Yoonyoung; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.68%
This paper provides a synthetic and systematic review on the effectiveness of various entrepreneurship programs in developing countries. It adopts a meta-regression analysis using 37 impact evaluation studies that were in the public domain by March 2012, and draws out several lessons on the design of the programs. The paper observes wide variation in program effectiveness across different interventions depending on outcomes, types of beneficiaries, and country context. Overall, entrepreneurship programs have a positive and large impact for youth and on business knowledge and practice, but no immediate translation into business set-up and expansion or increased income. At a disaggregate level by outcome groups, providing a package of training and financing is more effective for labor activities. In addition, financing support appears more effective for women and business training for existing entrepreneurs than other interventions to improve business performance.

Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries : A Meta Regression Analysis

Cho, Yoonyoung; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Fostering entrepreneurship is widely perceived to be a critical policy agenda to expand employment and earning opportunities and to reduce poverty. Sound macroeconomic conditions and business environment including infrastructure, regulation, and legal environment have typically been emphasized to increase entrepreneurial activities and create jobs. While these remain relevant, in developing countries, increasing attention is being paid to the role of labor policies that aim to reduce constraints and enhance productivity among the self-employed and small-scale entrepreneurs. The next section describes the procedure for constructing data and discusses main features of the entrepreneurship programs in our sample studies. Section three presents a standardization and estimation strategy using Meta regressions and discusses methodology. Section four then discusses the main findings of the Meta analysis. Finally, Section five concludes the study.

Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs around the World : Dimensions for Success

Valerio, Alexandria; Parton, Brent; Robb, Alicia
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.87%
Entrepreneurship has attracted global interest for its potential to catalyze economic and social development. Research suggesting that certain entrepreneurial mindsets and skills can be learned has given rise to the field of entrepreneurship education and training (EET). Despite the growth of EET, global knowledge about these programs and their impact remains thin. In response, this study surveys the available literature and program evaluations to propose a Conceptual Framework for understanding the EET program landscape. The study finds that EET today consists of a heterogeneous mix of programs that can be broken into two groups: entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship training. These programs target a range of participants: secondary and post-secondary education students, as well as potential and practicing entrepreneurs. The outcomes measured by program evaluations are equally diverse but generally fall under the domains of entrepreneurial mindsets and capabilities, entrepreneurial status, and entrepreneurial performance. The dimensions of EET programs vary according the particular target group. Programs targeting secondary education students focus on the development of foundational skills linked to entrepreneurship...

Entrepreneurship Education and Training : Insights from Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique

Robb, Alicia; Valerio, Alexandria; Parton, Brent
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
This report summarizes the key themes and findings from three in-depth case studies of EET programs in Ghana, Kenya, and Mozambique. Each case study produced rich information on the programs context, the landscape of programs in each country, and the qualitative insights from local EET stakeholders. This report synthesizes information from across the case studies to analyze the extent to which these countries programs are meeting the needs of local entrepreneurs. It also introduces findings from global EET research to show how programs in the case-study countries relate to what is known about global practice in EET. From this synthesis, the report presents a set of key findings intended to illuminate how EET programs can be better aligned with local needs and promising EET practices globally.

Supporting Self-Employment and Small-Scale Entrepreneurship : Potential Programs to Improve Livelihoods for Vulnerable Workers

Cho, Yoonyoung; Robalino, David; Watson, Samantha
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Worldwide, around 55 percent of workers are self-employed, and about three-quarters of these are likely to be subsistence entrepreneurs. These self-employed workers include farmers and own-account workers, many of whom work in small household enterprises without pay. A large proportion of these workers live in poor or vulnerable households. In Sub-Saharan Africa, for instance, close to 80 percent of the self-employed are poor. While numerous countries have adopted programs that aim to promote self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship (SSE), the design of such programs seems ill suited to respond to the needs of those who engage in entrepreneurial activities not by choice, but by necessity. This note discusses the potential public policy role of programs aimed at improving the livelihoods of subsistence entrepreneurs . It begins by looking at the characteristics of self-employed workers, the different types of entrepreneurs, and the constraints they face. It then analyzes the potential role of public policy in improving the earning opportunities of subsistence entrepreneurs...

Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries : A Meta Regression Analysis

Cho, Yoonyoung; Honorati, Maddalena
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
This paper provides a review on the effectiveness of various entrepreneurship programs in developing countries. We adopt a meta regression analysis using 37 impact evaluation studies that were in the public domain by March 2012, and draw out several lessons on the design of the programs. We observe a wide variation in program effectiveness across different interventions depending on outcomes, types of beneficiaries, and country context. Overall, entrepreneurship programs have a positive and large impact for youth and on business knowledge and practice, but no immediate translation into business setup and expansion or increased income. At a disaggregate level by outcome groups, providing a package of training and financing is more effective for labor activities. Additionally, financing support appears more effective for women and business training for existing entrepreneurs than other interventions to improve business performance.

Exploring the Goals, Content, and Methods of Entrepreneurship Professors: A Multiple Case Study

Albornoz, Carlos A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Along with the accumulation of evidence supporting the role of entrepreneurship in economic development (Acs & Armington, 2006; Kuratko, 2005, Reynolds, 2007), governments have persisted in encouraging people to become entrepreneurs (Acs & Stough, 2008; Brannback & Carsrud, 2008). These efforts have tried to reproduce the conditions under which entrepreneurship emerges. One of these conditions is to develop entrepreneurial skills among students and scientists (Fan & Foo, 2004). Entrepreneurship education within higher education has experienced a remarkable expansion in the last 20 years (Green, 2008). To develop entrepreneurial skills among students, scholars have proposed different teaching approaches. However, no clear relationship has been demonstrated between entrepreneurship education, learning outcomes, and business creation (Hostager & Decker, 1999). Despite policy makers demands for more accountability from educational institutions (Klimoski, 2007) and entrepreneurship instructors demands for consistency about what should be taught and how (Maidment, 2009), the appropriate content for entrepreneurship programs remains under constant discussion (Solomon, 2007). Entrepreneurship education is still in its infancy, professors propose diverse teaching goals and radically different teaching methods. This represents an obstacle to development of foundational and consistent curricula across the board (Cone...

Exploring the goals, content, and methods of entrepreneurship professors: A multiple case study

Albornoz, Carlos A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Along with the accumulation of evidence supporting the role of entrepreneurship in economic development (Acs & Armington, 2006; Kuratko, 2005, Reynolds, 2007), governments have persisted in encouraging people to become entrepreneurs (Acs & Stough, 2008; Brannback & Carsrud, 2008). These efforts have tried to reproduce the conditions under which entrepreneurship emerges. One of these conditions is to develop entrepreneurial skills among students and scientists (Fan & Foo, 2004). ^ Entrepreneurship education within higher education has experienced a remarkable expansion in the last 20 years (Green, 2008). To develop entrepreneurial skills among students, scholars have proposed different teaching approaches. However, no clear relationship has been demonstrated between entrepreneurship education, learning outcomes, and business creation (Hostager & Decker, 1999). ^ Despite policy makers demands for more accountability from educational institutions (Klimoski, 2007) and entrepreneurship instructors demands for consistency about what should be taught and how (Maidment, 2009), the appropriate content for entrepreneurship programs remains under constant discussion (Solomon, 2007). Entrepreneurship education is still in its infancy, professors propose diverse teaching goals and radically different teaching methods. This represents an obstacle to development of foundational and consistent curricula across the board (Cone...

Entrepreneurship as a source of economic, political, and social improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa

Rabarijaona, Eric G.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; A three-country case study was used to analyze the economic, political, and social impacts of entrepreneurship, and the development of entrepreneurship in Sub-Saharan Africa was studied through the lens of five entrepreneurial factors (freedom, labor, infrastructure, governance, and business environment). An increase of foreign direct investments, growing economic freedom for citizens, and a higher gross domestic product per capita were among the economic benefits of entrepreneurship. Politically, stronger democracy, political rights, and civil liberties can be obtained from a growing level of entrepreneurship. Reduced unemployment, better education, higher health expenditures per capita, and development of the communications infrastructure were some of the social benefits. Lower cost for starting a new business and easier access to capital were the chief reasons behind Botswana’s greater level of entrepreneurship. Better governance, regulatory quality, infrastructure, and trade freedom have also helped to attract entrepreneurs for Botswana. For Zambia and Malawi, the coordination of entrepreneurial programs, business freedom...

Can Entrepreneurship Training Improve Work Opportunities for College Graduates?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Improving educational achievement for youth doesn't always result in better employment opportunities, and this can be especially acute in developing countries. As the World Bank's 2013 world development report highlights, the mismatch between the skills and aspirations of college graduates and the realities of labor markets not only limits a country's economic development, but also affects social cohesion. Joblessness and underemployment are viewed as some of the triggers of the Arab Spring, which started with Tunisia's jasmine revolution in early 2011. In Tunisia, the World Bank worked with the government to evaluate a program designed to give university students entrepreneurship training and assistance developing a business plan. The evaluation found that the program increased self-employment and helped students develop some skills associated with successful entrepreneurship. The lessons learned from the evaluation will help policymakers and development experts hone programs that deliver an impact.

Framing the Global Landscape of Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
Entrepreneurship is of fundamental importance as a catalyst for innovation, job creation, and economic well-being. Policymakers have a strong interest in promoting entrepreneurship given that its development is necessary for fighting poverty and unemployment. This paper is an initial contribution to help fill gap, performing a systematic review of Entrepreneurship Education and Training (EET) programs worldwide and developing a conceptual framework that is applied to systematically analyze EET programs. The objective of this framework paper is to identify the dimensions of EET programs that matter for realizing the spectrum of EET-related outcomes. To meet that objective, the paper presents a conceptual framework and applies it to systematically analyze effective EET programs. The aim is to find common practices and trends across effective programs and draw from them practical insights of value to future EET program design and implementation. This framework paper is organized into four parts: part one summarizes major findings and trends from a review of EET research and provides definitions to distinguish between Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and Entrepreneurship Training (ET). Part two outlines the conceptual framework that emerged from the review of EET research. Part three analyzes the global landscape of EET programs by target group and provides findings from that analysis. Part four summarizes the study's findings...

Las dimensiones del emprendimiento empresarial: la experiencia de los programas cultura e y fondo emprender en Medellín.

Carona A., Marleny; Vera A., Luz Dinora; Tabares Quiroz, Juliana
Fonte: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas Publicador: Universidad EAFIT; Escuela de Economía y Finanzas
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.65%
El empresario es un individuo que tiene una orientación gerencial, de crear una empresa, de innovar, tiene una ventaja comparativa en la toma de decisiones porque tendrá un mayor conocimiento sobre los acontecimientos y las oportunidades, es quien asume riesgos y obtiene beneficios (Pickle y Abrahamson, 1990). Ser emprendedor significa ser capaz de crear algo nuevo o de dar uso diferente a algo ya existente y de esa manera generar un impacto en su propia vida y en la comunidad en la que habita (Formichella, 2004), es suficientemente flexible como para adaptar ideas, posee la creatividad necesaria para transformar cada acontecimiento en una oportunidad. Se puede decir que un empresario puede y debe ser emprendedor pero no necesariamente un emprendedor es empresario (Gartner, 1989). En la ciudad de Medellín los programas de emprendimiento se han desarrollado en los últimos 5 años con el objetivo de generar empleo y crear una cultura emprendedora. Para desarrollar dichos programas en el territorio se requiere de la comprensión de las dimensiones del emprendimiento (individuo, proceso y entorno) y cómo estas interactúan entre sí. Este cuaderno de investigación planteó el análisis de las dimensiones a partir de los siguientes apartados: 1) Método creado para la realización de la investigación 2) Caracterización de los programas de emprendimiento Cultura E y Fondo Emprender 3) Marco referencial del emprendimiento empresarial 4) Análisis de los programas de emprendimiento; 5) Discusión de los resultados y; 6) conclusiones.; A manager is a person who has a managerial guidance of creating a company...

Enterprising Youth: Sub-Saharan Africa’s Uncashed Dividend

Garg, Sukanya
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
Nearly one-third of Sub-Saharan Africa’s population is between the age group of 10 and 24 years (Devlin, 2013). This is only expected to grow further. However, the region has the fewest number of wage-earners (Monga, 2013). Youth employment is even worse as only about a third of the jobs created in Africa between 2000 and 2008 employed people between the ages of 15 and 24 years (African Economic Outlook, 2013c). The shrinking role of the public sector and the inadequate size of the private sector are the major reasons for the high unemployment rate in Africa. Low level of skills, lack of information about the job market and cultural and social stigmas further contribute to youth unemployment in Africa. The demand-management policies to promote youth employment have been ineffective. Thus, in the absence of jobs and due to the inefficacy of active labor market policies, entrepreneurship is critical to the future of Africa. However, lack of entrepreneurial training, inaccessibility of finance and markets, inadequate infrastructure, and cultural and political constraints are some of the main barriers to youth entrepreneurship. In light of the growing relevance of self-employment and an increasing inclination of African youth towards pursuing it...