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Evolution of the human feeding behavior

ZUCOLOTO, Fernando Sérgio
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de JaneiroUniversidade de BrasíliaUniversidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The main objective of this review is to discuss human feeding behavior based on evolution. With regard to feeding, the human species has undergone various changes during its evolutionary and social history, from the hunting and gathering phase, including the discovery of fire, to modern times, mainly after the implementation of agriculture. These changes exerted a direct influence on feeding habits and behavior and a considerable impact on some aspects of human health. The present review also discusses some of the foods consumed by the human species that are controversial among investigators from an evolutionary perspective.

Role of olfaction and vision cues in feeding behavior and alarm reaction in the catfish pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans

GIAQUINTO, Percilia Cardoso; HOFFMANN, Anette
Fonte: SPRINGER TOKYO Publicador: SPRINGER TOKYO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Experiments were performed to investigate senses that are essential for mediating fright reaction and food behavior in Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, pintado. The dilemma ""to feed or to flee"" was also analyzed in fishes with intact and sectioned olfactory tracts, stimulated by alarm substance extracts and food. Fishes were arranged into five groups: fish with intact lateral olfactory tracts (LOT), fish with intact medial olfactory tract (MOT), fish with tracts totally sectioned (TOTAL, both LOT and MOT), sham operated, and nonoperated fish. The five groups were submitted to either alarm substance extract and food stimulus or to distilled water (control) and food stimulus. Fish reacted to food independently of which tract (LOT, MOT or TOTAL) was sectioned; vision seems necessary and elemental to detect and deflagrate food response. Latency of the responses to each reaction was different between groups. None of the fish with sectioned tracts reacted to alarm substance extract, while sham- and nonoperated fish showed the typical alarm behavior response, leading to the conclusion that olfaction is essential for mediating alarm response. These results indicate that others sense systems (e.g., vision) are sufficient to trigger and elicit feeding behavior and that olfaction is not necessary to fully maintain food detection to qualitative and quantitative extent. However...

Patterns of fos activation in rat raphe nuclei during feeding behavior

TAKASE, Luiz Fernando; NOGUEIRA, Maria Ines
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
To analyze the differential recruitment of the raphe nuclei during different phases of feeding behavior, rats were subjected to a food restriction schedule (food for 2 h/day, during 15 days). The animals were submitted to different feeding conditions, constituting the experimental groups: search for food (MFS), food ingestion (MFI), satiety (MFSa) and food restriction control (MFC). A baseline condition (BC) group was included as further control. The MFI and MFC groups, which presented greater autonomic and somatic activation, had more FOS-immunoreactive (FOS-IR) neurons. The MFI group presented more labeled cells in the linear (LRN) and dorsal (DRN) nuclei; the MFC group showed more labeling in the median (MRN), pontine (PRN), magnus (NRM) and obscurus (NRO) nuclei; and the MFSa group had more labeled cells in the pallidus (NRP). The BC exhibited the lowest number of reactive cells. The PRN presented the highest percentage of activation in the raphe while the DRN the lowest. Additional experiments revealed few double-labeled (FOS-IR+ 5-HT-IR) cells within the raphe nuclei in the MFI group, suggesting little serotonergic activation in the raphe during food ingestion. These findings suggest a differential recruitment of raphe nuclei during various phases of feeding behavior. Such findings may reflect changes in behavioral state (e.g....

Caracterização do comportamento alimentar de Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) em citros e suas implicações na transmissão de Xylella fastidosa; Characterization of feeding behavior of Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in citrus and its implications for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa

Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Xylella fastidiosa é uma bactéria limitada ao xilema de plantas, sendo transmitida principalmente por cigarrinhas da subfamília Cicadellinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). No Brasil, é o agente causal da Clorose variegada dos citros (CVC), doença que afeta laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o comportamento alimentar da cicadelíneo vetor Bucephalogonia xanthophis (Berg) em citros e correlacionar suas atividades estiletares com a transmissão de X. fastidiosa. Inicialmente, testes de escolha e análises de excreção de honeydew foram realizadas para determinar os locais e períodos preferidos para alimentação em mudas de citros. B. xanthophis preferiu a haste dos ramos novos, na parte superior da muda. Esta cigarrinha ingeriu seiva do xilema e apresentou maior volume médio de excreção e maior percentual de indivíduos que excretaram durante a fotofase. Assim, estudou-se a penetração estiletar do vetor na haste de brotações cítricas, durante a fotofase, pela técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graph" (EPG, sistema DC). Os principais padrões de EPG foram correlacionados com análises histológicas e de "honeydew" para determinação da posição exata dos estiletes no tecido vegetal e atividades envolvidas. Seis padrões foram descritos: (S) secreção de bainha salivar e caminhamento dos estiletes através de células da epiderme ou parênquima; (R) estiletes inseridos na planta...

Caracterização do aparelho bucal e comportamento alimentar de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Caracterization of the mouth aparatus and feeding behavior of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

Bonani, Jean Patrick
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
O psilídeo Diaphorina citri é vetor das bactérias Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus e Ca. L. americanus, associadas ao Huanglongbing (HLB) dos citros. Apesar da grande importância desta doença no mundo, sabe-se pouco sobre a atividade alimentar deste vetor, o que seria fundamental para entender o processo de transmissão desses patógenos e aprimorar estratégias de manejo da doença. Assim, esta pesquisa teve por objetivos: a) examinar aspectos morfológicos do aparato bucal de D. citri; b) caracterizar o seu comportamento alimentar em mudas de laranja doce (Citrus sinensis) através da técnica de Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG)-sistema DC; e c) avaliar o efeito da idade de folhas cítricas na penetração estiletar deste inseto e na eficiência de aquisição de Ca. L. asiaticus. Adultos de D. citri apresentam um rostro que se projeta logo após o par de coxas protoráxicas. Verificou-se que na extremidade distal desta estrutura há quatro pares de sensilas em simetria bilateral. O rostro abriga um feixe de quatro estiletes (2 mandíbulas e 2 maxilas) com comprimento médio de 512 µm. Os estiletes maxilares se acoplam formando os canais alimentar e salivar com diâmetros de 0,90 µm e 0,47 µm, respectivamente; esses dois canais se fundem próximo à extremidade distal de uma das maxilas para formar um canal comum...

Comportamento alimentar de idosos residentes na área urbana do município de São Paulo e variáveis sociodemográficas e culturais - Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento; Feeding behavior of eldery people residing in the urban area of São Paulo city and sociodemographic and cultural variables - SABE Survey: Health, Wellbeing and Aging

Moura, Cláudia Sebba de Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Introdução: Segundo a literatura científica, o comportamento alimentar de idosos está relacionado a variáveis sociodemográficas e culturais. Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre comportamento alimentar de idosos, residentes no município de São Paulo, e variáveis sociodemográficas e culturais. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com idosos (≥ 60 anos), de ambos os sexos, do Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento, realizado em 2000, no município de São Paulo, selecionados por amostra probabilística. As variáveis de estudo foram referidas: comportamento alimentar (número de refeições < 3/dia, ausência de costume para preparar refeições quentes e comprar alimentos, e frequência de ingestão de alimentos (produtos lácteos <1x/dia; frutas ou verduras <2x/dia; líquidos ≤5 copos/dia; carnes <3x/sem; ovos e leguminosas <1x/sem; e bebidas alcoólicas-sim)); sociodemográficas (escolaridade, sexo, grupos etários, estado marital e companhia no domicílio); e culturais (vida no campo, durante infância ou adolescência, religião e nacionalidade). Utilizou-se teste de Rao & Scott, regressão logística múltipla (p<0,05) e programa Stata,Versão 10.1. Resultados: Foram estudados 2143 idosos (59% mulheres e 78% grupo etário 60-74). Constatou-se associação positiva entre: 1. escolaridade ≤ 4 anos e produtos lácteos...

Role of olfaction and vision cues in feeding behavior and alarm reaction in the catfish pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans

Giaquinto, Percilia Cardoso; Hoffmann, Anette
Fonte: Springer Tokyo Publicador: Springer Tokyo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 21-27
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Experiments were performed to investigate senses that are essential for mediating fright reaction and food behavior in Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, pintado. The dilemma "to feed or to flee" was also analyzed in fishes with intact and sectioned olfactory tracts, stimulated by alarm substance extracts and food. Fishes were arranged into five groups: fish with intact lateral olfactory tracts (LOT), fish with intact medial olfactory tract (MOT), fish with tracts totally sectioned (TOTAL, both LOT and MOT), sham operated, and nonoperated fish. The five groups were submitted to either alarm substance extract and food stimulus or to distilled water (control) and food stimulus. Fish reacted to food independently of which tract (LOT, MOT or TOTAL) was sectioned; vision seems necessary and elemental to detect and deflagrate food response. Latency of the responses to each reaction was different between groups. None of the fish with sectioned tracts reacted to alarm substance extract, while sham- and nonoperated fish showed the typical alarm behavior response, leading to the conclusion that olfaction is essential for mediating alarm response. These results indicate that others sense systems (e.g....

Feeding behavior of Triatoma vitticeps (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Souza,Rita de Cássia Moreira de; Soares,Adriana C; Alves,Ceres Luciana; Lorosa,Elias Seixas; Pereira,Marcos Horácio; Diotaiuti,Liléia
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of Triatoma vitticeps through the identification of its food sources and the characterization of the blood ingestion process. In addition, we aimed to verify if the saliva of this vector interferes with the perception of the host during the feedings by creating a nervous impulse. Here, we demonstrated that the T. vitticeps saliva reduces, gradually and irreversibly, the amplitude of the compound action potential of the nervous fibre, which helps decrease the perception of the insect by the host. The precipitin reaction demonstrated the feeding eclecticism of this vector, with the identification of eight food sources - most of them found simultaneously in the same insect. The analysis of the electrical signals produced by the cibarial pump during meals demonstrated that the best feeding performance of T. vitticeps nymphs that fed on pigeons is mainly due to the higher contraction frequency of the pump. The longer contact period with the host to obtain a complete meal compared with other triatominae species of the same instar could favor the occurrence of multiple blood sources in T. vitticeps under natural conditions, as it was evidenced by the precipitin test.

Behavioral satiety sequence: an experimental model for studying feeding behavior

Oliveira,Lisiane dos Santos; Souza,Sandra Lopes de; Manhães-De-Castro,Raul
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Feeding behavior is controlled by interactions between psychobiological and physiological systems. In rats, there is a sequence in the feeding behavior that is characterized by similar movements at the beginning and end of a meal, known as the behavioral satiety sequence. In the sequence, eating is followed by grooming and other activities, and ends with resting. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the use of the behavioral satiety sequence as an experimental model for the study of feeding behavior. A systematic search of the electronic databases MedLine, Lilacs, SciELO, Cochrane Library and PubMed was done from November 2007 to January 2008, using combinations of the keywords "behavioral," "satiety" and "sequence". Ninety articles were found and, of these, fifteen articles were selected for the review. The studies demonstrated the efficacy of using behavioral satiety sequence to evaluate the effects of some types of manipulations on feeding behavior. With this study method it was also possible to observe different factors that can interfere with feeding behavior, such as sedation, malaise or intake inhibition, by increasing satiety. Behavioral satiety sequence offers solid tools for gaining a better understanding of how treatment can influence feeding behavior.

Influence of protein on feeding behavior of Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae): comparison between immature males and females

Plácido-Silva,Maria do C.; Zucoloto,Fernando S.; Joachim-Bravo,Iara S.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The objective of this work was to compare the influence of dietary protein on performance and feeding behavior of immature males and females of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The protein source was beer yeast at 6.5 and 1.5 g.100 ml-1. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of emergence, total life cycle, adult size, diet consumption, feeding preference and discrimination threshold for yeast. Immature adults showed similar protein requirements regardless of sex. Both males and females showed similar feeding behavior, preferring to feed on the diet with higher protein content. The discrimination threshold for levedure in both sexes was 0.4 g.100 ml-1. We concluded that immature males of C. capitata show similar protein requirements as the immature females.

Influence of 5-HT1A agonist on the feeding behavior of Coturnix japonica (Galliformes: Aves)

Reis,L. C.; Marinho,V. R.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 5-HT1A stimulation on the feeding behavior of quails (Coturnix japonica). The administration of 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.05 to 5.0 mg/Kg) dose-dependently inhibited the food intake in normally fed quails. Greater inhibition was attained with 5.0 mg/kg (0.93 ± 0.21 g vs. 5.83 ± 0.25 g, P < 0.05, 2 h after food offer). A comparable response was obtained from previously fasted quails. At end of 2 h, a higher dose of 8-OH-DPAT induced more intense hypophagy (1.59 ± 0.41 g vs. 6.85 ± 1.04 g, P < 0.0001). Previous treatment with the antagonist 5-HT1A/beta-adrenergic, propranolol, failed to block the inhibitory action of 8-OH-DPAT, but instead, intensified it (controls, 5.22 ± 1.09 g; 8-OH-DPAT, 1.41 ± 0.19 g; propranolol + 8-OH-DPAT, 0.44 ± 0.25 g, P < 0.01, for all comparisons). The administration of an isolated higher dose of propranolol induced a hypophagic action (controls, 4.5 ± 0.8 g vs. propranolol, 2.0 ± 0.2 g, P < 0.01). Current outcomes suggest a possible role of 5-HT1A receptor on the feeding behavior of quails, as opposed to mammals. On the other hand, the intensified hypophagy induced by previous administration of propranolol raises the hypothesis of a beta-adrenergic excitatory mechanism that controls the feeding behavior of quails.

Evolution of the human feeding behavior

Zucoloto,Fernando Sérgio
Fonte: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro; Universidade de Brasília; Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The main objective of this review is to discuss human feeding behavior based on evolution. With regard to feeding, the human species has undergone various changes during its evolutionary and social history, from the hunting and gathering phase, including the discovery of fire, to modern times, mainly after the implementation of agriculture. These changes exerted a direct influence on feeding habits and behavior and a considerable impact on some aspects of human health. The present review also discusses some of the foods consumed by the human species that are controversial among investigators from an evolutionary perspective.

Coordinated feeding behavior of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae), in southeastern Brazil: a comparison between populations

Oliveira,Elaine C. da S.; Tardin,Rodrigo H.; Poletto,Fabiana R.; Simão,Sheila M.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
The coordinated feeding tactics used by delphinids are influenced by differences in the distribution of prey species, season, and opportunities for social learning. In the present study, we compared the coordinated feeding behavior of two populations of the Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, in southeastern Brazil, and how these feeding tactics vary seasonality and in the presence of calves. We observed eight types of coordinated feeding tactics, which differed in frequency and in the mean number of individuals engaged in them, and between both areas. Feeding tactics used to herd and capture prey were the most frequent and engaged a greater number of individuals, suggesting that these tactics are better for capturing fish that gather in larger schools. Furthermore, the seasons influenced the occurrence of different prey items, which in turn modified the feeding tactics of the dolphins. In the Ilha Grande Bay we observed that bouts lasted longer and larger groups engaged in the feeding tactics, which may be associated with the seasonal spawning of larger schooling fish such as Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) (Teleostei: Clupeidae). However, in the Sepetiba Bay, we observed longer feeding bouts and a smaller number of individuals engaged in the feeding tactics during autumn-winter. This may be associated with the fact that the most abundant prey species...

Consumo alimentar residual, digestibilidade aparente e comportamento ingestivo de touros da raça nelore; Residual feed intake, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior of nelore bulls

Menezes, Rayanne Galdino
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal (EVZ); Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia - EVZ (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Animal (EVZ); Escola de Veterinária e Zootecnia - EVZ (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
Feed efficiency of cattle and its correlation with feeding behavior and apparent digestibility of nutrients is the objective of this work. Feed efficiency is one of the most important traits in livestock .Processes responsible for more than 25% of feed efficiency variation have not been clarified. Explain variation sources and identifying efficient animals are the most importantobjectives for the beef cattle production nowadays. An alternative tool to evaluate the feed efficiency is the residual feed intake (RFI), was developed in 1963, but only in the 90’sit started to be used to identify and select efficient animals. Feeding behavior is directly related to feed ingested quantity, which differs in efficient or inefficient animals . The feeding behavior and apparent digestibility of 120 Nellore animalswere evaluated in completely randomized design with respect to feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the three classes of residual feed intake: low, medium and high RFI. The age and initial body weight were 20 months and 397 ± 35 kg. The animals were placed in individual pens fitted with feeding troughs and dri nkers. The diet offered to the animals consisted of 23% forage and 77% concentrate. The experimental period lasted 84 days...

Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

Baum,Mauricio; Ribeiro,Magda Clara Vieira da Costa; Lorosa,Elias Seixas; Damasio,Guilherme Augustto Costa; Castro,Edilene Alcantara de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8%) were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9%) reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%), bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei in the feeding behavior of rats

Takase,L.F.; Barone,J.R.; Nogueira,M.I.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Involvement of the caudal raphe nuclei (raphe pallidus, RPa; raphe magnus, RMg, and raphe obscurus, ROb) in feeding behavior of adult rats was studied by measuring c-Fos protein expression, in animals submitted to the "meal-feeding" model of food restriction in which the rats were fed ad libitum only from 7:00 to 9:00 h, for 15 days. The experimental groups submitted to chronic fasting, named 'search for food' (SF), 'ingestion of food' (IF) and 'satiety of food' (SaF) were scheduled after a previous study in which the body weight and the general and feeding behaviors were evaluated by daily monitoring. Acute, 48-h fasting (AF) was used as control. In the chronic group, the animals presented a 16% reduction in body weight in the first week, followed by a continuous, slow rise in weight over the subsequent days. Entrainment of the sleep-wake cycle to the schedule of food presentation was also observed. The RPa was the most Fos immunopositive nucleus in the chronic fasting group, followed by the RMg. The ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0.05) confirmed these results. The IF group was significantly different from the other three groups, as also was the number of labeled cells in the RPa in SF and IF groups. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed between RMg and RPa...

Correlation Between Whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) Feeding Behavior and Transmission of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

Jiang, Y-X.; Blas, C. de; Barrios, Laura; Fereres, Alberto
Fonte: Entomological Society of America Publicador: Entomological Society of America
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 4085 bytes; image/gif
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The feeding behavior of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) was monitored using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique during the transmission process of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV). The behavior of individual viruliferous whiteflies was recorded on two-leaf stage tomato test plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Riofuego’). A total of 213 whitefly individuals was recorded on single test plants during an inoculation access period that ranged from 3.5 to 14 h. Recordings were classified into 4 categories depending of the waveforms observed: group I, including only waveform C (pathway), was associated with a residual 2.4% TYLCV transmission efficiency; group II, showing stylet pathway and a single E(pd)1 waveform, was associated with a 7.4% transmission efficiency; group III, showing stylet pathway and a single E(pd)1 + E(pd)2 waveform, achieved a 23.4% transmission efficiency; and finally group IV, showing pathway followed by several E(pd)1 + E(pd)2 waveforms, was associated with the highest transmission efficiency (37.5%). A total of 16 different behavioral variables was introduced into a stepwise-backward logistic regression model to determine the variables most related to TYLCV inoculation. Among them...

Feeding behavior of Aphis gossypii on resistant accessions of different melon genotypes (Cucumis melo)

Garzo, E.; Soria, C.; Gómez-Guillamón, M. L.; Fereres, Alberto
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 4085 bytes; image/gif
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
The feeding behavior of the melon aphidAphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) was monitored using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique on different melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes showing resistance to the aphid. The aphid-resistant genotypes used were PI-161375 and PI-414723, sources of theVat andAgr genes, respectively. TGR-1551, a newC. melo accession from Zimbabwe, was also tested. Our goal was to localize the tissues where the resistance factors are expressed and to determine if the resistance mechanisms operating in the three aphid-resistant accessions were the same. Our results indicated that the three selected lines have resistant factors located at the epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissues. However, the behavior ofA. gossypii on TGR-1551 was different from the two other resistant accessions, as indicated by a longer phloem salivation phase (E1 phase). Many of the E1 phases observed for aphids feeding on TGR-1551 were not followed by phloem ingestion (E2 phase). These results suggest that TGR-1551 has a resistance mechanism that preventsA. gossypii from initiating ingestion from the phloem. Preference tests under free choice conditions also showed that aphids rejected accessions TGR-1551 or PI-414723 faster than PI-161375. Our results support the hypothesis thatAgr andVat are coding for different kinds of resistance strategies. Comparisons of aphid life history parameters also indicated that TGR-1551 is a very promising new source to breed for resistance againstA. gossypii.; Peer reviewed

Diet and Feeding Behavior in Adults of the Apteropanorpidae (Mecoptera)

Palmer, Christopher; Yeates, David
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
The Apteropanorpidae is a small family of scorpionflies endemic to Tasmania. The biology of the family is almost completely unknown. Here we present results of laboratory and field studies of the diet and feeding behavior of adult Apteropanorpidae. We describe the morphology of the alimentary canal and mouthparts and discuss the relationship between diet, feeding behavior and morphology. We compare these results to the feeding ecology of other extant Mecoptera, and speculate on the feeding strategies of fossil Mecoptera, placing all data in a phylogenetic context. Results show that adult Apteropanorpidae are most likely saprophagous in nature, predominantly on dead and decaying invertebrates.

Self-rules as facilitating variables on the emission of self-controled behaviors: the example of feeding behavior; Auto-regras como variáveis facilitadoras na emissão de comportamentos autocontrolados: o exemplo do comportamento alimentar

dos Reis, Adriana Alcântara; Teixeira, Eveny da Rocha; Paracampo, Carla Cristina Paiva
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/10/2005 Português
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O presente trabalho se propõe a discutir e analisar o papel facilitador das auto-regras na emissão de desempenhos autocontrolados. Auto-regras podem tornar o desempenho insensível às contingências às quais o indivíduo está exposto e facilitar o desempenho do indivíduo em situações semelhantes àquela na qual já havia sido formulada uma auto-regra anteriormente. A partir do conhecimento das variáveis das quais seu comportamento é função, o indivíduo pode manipular as contingências relacionadas ao próprio comportamento alterando a probabilidade de sua emissão futura. A noção de autocontrole pode enfatizar dois aspectos: 1) o conflito entre as conseqüências positivas e negativas de uma resposta; e 2) a lacuna temporal entre a resposta e sua conseqüência e a magnitude dos reforçadores/aversivos tanto a curto como a longo prazo. Uma vez que uma resposta autocontrolada foi emitida com sucesso, uma situação semelhante no futuro pode evocar a descrição da contingência passada, favorecendo a generalização do autocontrole. Foram utilizados exemplos relacionados ao comportamento alimentar para ilustrar possibilidades de intervenção clínica baseadas nas propostas de autocontrole formuladas por Skinner e por Rachlin. A terapia analítico-comportamental pode dar uma ênfase maior às auto-regras...