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Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations; Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho

MITTELMANN, Andréa; MIRANDA FILHO, José Branco de; NASS, Luciano Lourenço; LIMA, Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de; HARA-KLEIN, Claudete; SILVA, Ricardo Machado da
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize populations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.; O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos...

Qualidade de grãos de duas cultivares de soja em função da disponibilidade de água no solo e arranjo de plantas; Grain quality in two soybean cultivars in relation to the water availability and plant arrangement

Maehler, Andre Roberto; Costa, Jose Antonio; Pires, Joao Leonardo Fernandes; Rambo, Lisandro
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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46.21%
A soja apresenta elevada demanda por nitrogênio devido ao alto teor protéico dos grãos, de cerca de 40%, o que a torna de grande importância econômica. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o efeito da disponibilidade hídrica e arranjo de plantas sobre a qualidade dos grãos de duas cultivares de soja, no ano agrícola 1998/99, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS), em Eldorado do Sul, RS. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas sub-subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Foram testados dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e não irrigado), duas cultivares (BRS 137 e BRS 138) e três espaçamentos entre linhas (20cm, 40cm e 20-40cm em linhas pareadas). Avaliou-se o teor de N nas folhas durante a ontogenia, os teores de proteína e óleo, bem como o tamanho e peso dos grãos. O rendimento médio de grãos foi de 3360kg ha-1. A irrigação proporcionou aumento de 1101kg ha-1 (39%), decorrente do aumento no teor de N nas folhas, tamanho e peso dos grãos. A cultivar BRS 137 rendeu 535kg ha-1 (17%) a mais do que a BRS 138; os grãos eram de maior tamanho, peso e teor de proteína. No final do período reprodutivo, o teor de N nas folhas foi mais elevado em 20cm e 40cm...

Variabilidade genetica para teor de proteina bruta em graos de aveia; Genetic variability for total grain protein in oat

Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Sereno, Maria Jane Cruz de Melo; Barbosa Neto, Jose Fernandes; Carvalho, Fernando Iraja Felix de; Taderka, Ivone; Pegoraro, Diego Girardi
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.06%
O aumento da utilização dos grãos de aveia na alimentação humana tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alta qualidade de grãos. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a variabilidade genética para o caráter teor de proteína bruta de grãos em genótipos cultivados de aveia, introduções silvestres de A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. e em populações híbridas de A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. Os resultados revelaram uma ampla variabilidade genética para o caráter dentro dos grupos estudados. As diferenças observadas entre os genótipos cultivados parecem ocorrer devido a constituição genotípica diferenciada. O grupo silvestre de A. sterilis L. foi, em média, superior aos demais, sendo que a introdução I-325 se destacou pelo alto teor de proteína. O comportamento similar entre as introduções de A. fatua L. pode ser atribuído a coleta de introduções de apenas uma região, o que reduziu a variabilidade genética. Foram encontrados híbridos artificiais entre A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. com alto teor de proteína e características desejáveis do grupo cultivado.; The increased use of oat grains as human food has stimulated plant breeders to select genotypes with high grain quality. This work aimed to identify and characterize genetic variability for total grain protein in cultivated oat and introductions of A. fatua L....

Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations

Mittelmann,Andréa; Miranda Filho,José Branco de; Nass,Luciano Lourenço; Lima,Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de; Hara-Klein,Claudete; Silva,Ricardo Machado da
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize populations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.

Epistasis and genotype-by-environment interaction of grain protein content in durum wheat

Bnejdi,Fethi; Gazzah,Mohamed El
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Parental, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 generations of four crosses involving four cultivars of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) were evaluated at two sites in Tunisia. A three-parameter model was found inadequate for all cases except crosses Chili x Cocorit 71 at site Sidi Thabet and Inrat 69 x Karim at both sites. In most cases a digenic epistatic model was sufficient to explain variation in generation means. Dominance effects (h) and additive x additive epistasis (i) (when significant) were more important than additive (d) effects and other epistatic components. Considering the genotype-by-environment interaction, the non-interactive model (m, d, h, e) was found adequate. Additive variance was higher than environmental variance in three crosses at both sites. The estimated values of narrow-sense heritability were dependent upon the cross and the sites and were 0%-85%. The results indicate that appropriate choice of environment and selection in later generations would increase grain protein content in durum wheat.

Soil drying and rewatering applied at three grain developmental stages affect differentially growth and grain protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Beltrano,José; Ronco,Marta Guillermina; Arango,María Cecilia
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 Português
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46.24%
Water deficits cause large yield losses in wheat. Although anthesis is generally considered the most vulnerable period, water deficit during grain filling can also cause yield losses. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of water stress and rewatering, at three different grain developmental stages, on physiological and grain filling parameters and on yield components. Wheat plants were subjected to water deficit and rewatering at the watery ripe, milk and soft dough stages. In the flag leaf, water stress decreased the relative water content, the chlorophyll and protein content and increased the leakage of solutes, at all three studied grain filling stages. Water stress at the watery ripe and milk stages reduced the final grain dry mass by 47 % and 20 %, respectively. This reduction was due to a decrease in the grain filling period and to a significant reduction in the maximum rate of grain-fill. Water stress imposed at the watery ripe stage reduced not only the linear growth phase but also its slope; grain number per spike and the 1000-kernel weight were also significantly reduced. SDS-PAGE patterns of grain proteins at the watery ripe stage did not differ between the controls, stressed or rewatered treatments. Protein patterns at the milk stage changed substantially with water stress...

Nucleotide Polymorphism in the Wheat Transcriptional Activator Spa Influences Its Pattern of Expression and Has Pleiotropic Effects on Grain Protein Composition, Dough Viscoelasticity, and Grain Hardness[W][OA]

Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre; Romeuf, Isabelle; Dardevet, Mireille; El-Malki, Redouane; Bordes, Jacques; Duchateau, Nathalie; Brunel, Dominique; Balfourier, François; Charmet, Gilles
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Storage protein activator (SPA) is a key regulator of the transcription of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain storage protein genes and belongs to the Opaque2 transcription factor subfamily. We analyzed the sequence polymorphism of the three homoeologous Spa genes in hexaploid wheat. The level of polymorphism in these genes was high particularly in the promoter. The deduced protein sequences of each homoeolog and haplotype show greater than 93% identity. Two major haplotypes were studied for each Spa gene. The three Spa homoeologs have similar patterns of expression during grain development, with a peak in expression around 300 degree days after anthesis. On average, Spa-B is 10 and seven times more strongly expressed than Spa-A and Spa-D, respectively. The haplotypes are associated with significant quantitative differences in Spa expression, especially for Spa-A and Spa-D. Significant differences were found in the quantity of total grain nitrogen allocated to the gliadin protein fractions for the Spa-A haplotypes, whereas the synthesis of glutenins is not modified. Genetic association analysis between Spa and dough viscoelasticity revealed that Spa polymorphisms are associated with dough tenacity, extensibility, and strength. Except for Spa-A...

Control of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development and senescence by the interaction between a chromosome six grain protein content locus, day length, and vernalization

Parrott, David L.; Downs, Eric P.; Fischer, Andreas M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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45.94%
Regulatory processes controlling traits such as anthesis timing and whole-plant senescence are of primary importance for reproductive success and for crop quality and yield. It has previously been demonstrated that the presence of alleles associated with high grain protein content (GPC) at a locus on barley chromosome six leads to accelerated leaf senescence, and to strong (>10-fold) up-regulation of several genes which may be involved in senescence control. One of these genes (coding for a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein termed HvGR-RBP1) exhibits a high degree of similarity to Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7 (AtGRP7), which has been demonstrated to accelerate flowering under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, but not after vernalization. Development of near-isogenic barley lines, differing in the allelic state of the GPC locus, was compared from the seedling stage to maturity under both SD and LD and after vernalization under LD. Intriguingly, pre-anthesis plant development [measured by leaf emergence timing and pre-anthesis (sequential) leaf senescence] was enhanced in high-GPC germplasm. Differences were more pronounced under SD than under LD, but were eliminated by vernalization, associating observed effects with floral induction pathways. By contrast...

Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/03/2013 Português
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46.12%
Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition...

Effect of Subsoiling in Fallow Period on Soil Water Storage and Grain Protein Accumulation of Dryland Wheat and Its Regulatory Effect by Nitrogen Application

Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0–300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60–160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40–160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin...

Heterose entre linhagens de soja quanto aos teores de proteína e de óleo no grão; Heterosis among inbred lines of soybean based on the grain protein and oil contents

RIBEIRO, Keyla de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.28%
The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important grain cultivated in the world, mainly because its high levels of grain protein and oil, and also due to its high yield. Soybean protein has become an important product in the food and feed industries, due to its nutritional value and technological properties. Agricultural business increasingly demands specific quality traits, creating the need for developing types of productive soybean, with high levels of protein and oil in the grain. Information about the genetic divergence among genitors allows the breeder to select that ones potentially able to generate greater variability, increasing the probability of getting superior genotypes in segregating generations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate inbred lines of soybean and its hybrids based on grain protein and oil content. The heterosis and its components were used as indicators for the genitors potential to generate by crossing segregating genotypes for these traits. Eighteen genitors and its hybrid combinations were evaluated to grain protein and oil content, in a partial diallel arrangement. The genitors were classified in two groups based on their flower color (white and purple) allowing us to detect the effective crosses. Physicochemical analyses were made in grains of F1 plants obtained in a green house. The Kjeldahl and Soxhlet methods were used to determine protein and oil content...

Nitrogen supply to the grain modifies the effects of temperature on starch and protein accumulation during grain filling in wheat

Zahedi, M.; McDonald, G.; Jenner, C.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Effects of nutritional status on the responses to high temperature of 2 wheat cultivars that differed in their sensitivity to high temperature were investigated in plants grown in pots in environmentally controlled growth rooms. The availability of nitrogen to the grains was altered by changing the amount and timing of the nitrogen supplied to the plants, and also by trimming the ears. Single grain weight was significantly decreased in the plants grown at 30/25°C compared with those grown at 20/15°C. The effects of nitrogen level or trimming on the response of grain filling to temperature did not seem to be mediated through alterations in the availability of carbohydrates within the grains. Neither N level nor trimming had substantial effects on the deposition of starch, but both treatments altered the accumulation of protein, and the responses of protein accumulation to the effects of temperature. At the lower temperature, increasing the nitrogen supply resulted in greater single grain weight, more protein per grain, and higher grain protein percentage. At the higher temperature, raising the supply of N increased none of these attributes; the rate of protein accumulation was not accelerated by raising the temperature as much at high as at low N...

Effect of nitrogen fertiliser placement on grain protein concentration of wheat under different water regimes

Lotfollahi, M.; Alston, A.; McDonald, G.
Fonte: CSIRO Publicador: CSIRO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Two experiments were conducted in pots 105 cm deep and 11 cm in diameter to determine the effects of subsoil nitrogen (N) on grain yield and grain protein concentration (GPC) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Molineux). In both experiments, KNO₃ was applied in solution at different times and depths in the profile. In the first experiment, in which a sandy soil low in available N was used, application of 150 mg N at 60 cm, 2 weeks after anthesis, significantly increased grain yield and GPC. The N was taken up gradually by the plant after N was applied. Adding N to the subsoil increased root growth and this resulted in increased water use and water use efficiency. Although there was an increase in the rate of N uptake by the roots, the main factor that influenced the utilisation of subsoil N was the root length density. In the second experiment, the effects of depth and time of N application, and of a reduction in post-anthesis water supply, were determined. A more fertile soil was used than the one in the first experiment. There were 5 KNO₃ treatments: nil N; 150 mg N applied to the topsoil at sowing; 75 mg N to the topsoil and 75 mg N to the subsoil (60 cm depth) at sowing; 150 mg N to the subsoil at sowing; 75 mg N to the topsoil at sowing and 75 mg N to the subsoil 1 week after anthesis. The effect of post-anthesis water stress was assessed by allowing the topsoil to dry and then supplying half the amount of water used by the well-watered control treatment at 60 cm in half of the pots. Adding N increased yield and GPC but there was no significant difference in yield and GPC between the different N treatments. When N was applied to the topsoil only...

Evaluation of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in wheat.

Abdullah Faraj, Bahaddin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Nitrogen fertilizers are a major input required for cereal crop production worldwide. The management of this resource is a significant challenge to most agricultural systems as it can have significant impacts on yield and the environment. The use of applied nitrogen fertilisers in cereals is poor, where only 30-40% is actually used by cereals and the remainder lost to the environment by surface runoff, soil denitrification and volatilization (Ehdaie et al., 2010; Butterbach-Bahl and Dannenmann 2011). Improving cereal nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is imperative to achieve yield and quality with less direct N inputs. In this study, experiments were conducted in 2010 to evaluate the effect of N fertilizer application (0, 50, 100, 150 kg urea/ha) on the growth and yield of wheat varieties at specific locations across South Australia while a small pilot glasshouse study was conducted at the Waite Campus, Adelaide University. The field experiments were designed as a randomised split-plot with three replications for each wheat cultivar and N treatment. Plant response to N treatment was measured through estimates of plant height, leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD meter), plant spike number, grain yield, 1000 grain weight, shoot biomass weight...

Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in barley grain protein composition and its relation to improved nutritional quality; Estratégia de pesquisa multimétodo para compreender a composição de proteínas de grãos de cevada e sua relação com a melhoria da qualidade nutricional

Schmidt, Daiana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the fourth largest produced cereal worldwide. About two thirds of barley production is used to animal feed. When used to feed monogastric animals, the main shortcoming of barley grains is the deficiency of essential amino acids, especially lysine, threonine and methionine. The unbalanced amino acid composition is due to the main storage protein, the hordeins, which account for about 50% of total grain protein content. The nitrogen fertilization promotes C-hordein expression and accumulation, the hordein subgroup with the lowest content of essential amino acids, and the highest content of non-essential amino acids. Due to the importance of grain protein content and composition in the end use grain quality the key objective of the present study was to obtain a detailed insight into synthesis and accumulation of barley grain proteins and their relation to improved nutritional quality. An integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis have been undertaken in a set of transgenic antisense barley lines with the grain protein profile altered in comparison to the non-transgenic line cv. Golden Promise. The results were presented in three manuscripts in the thesis (chapters 2, 3 and 4). The first manuscript (chapter 2) reported a new grain protein extraction method combined with multi-method protein evaluation...

Identification of QTLs associated with variations in grain protein concentration in two-row barley

Emebiri, L.; Moody, D.; Panozzo, J.; Chalmers, K.; Kretschmer, J.; Ablett, G.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Grain protein concentration (GPC) is arguably the most important factor when marketing malting barleys. Excessively high and excessively low GPC are both undesirable for malting and brewing. GPC variation is influenced to a high degree by the environment and exhibits relatively large genotype × environment interaction. Identification of molecular markers linked to genes influencing GPC would allow barley breeders to select for GPC independent of environmental effects. A genetic linkage map with 270 markers was constructed to identify the genetic basis for variation in GPC, using 180 doubled haploid lines from a cross of VB9524 and ND1 1231*12. The parental genotypes were chosen on the basis of their known low GPC phenotype and their lack of common ancestry. A combination of composite interval and multiple-trait quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach allowed the identification bfQTLs with specific impact on GPC, and those likely to depend on or be influenced by variations in grain yield and heading date. The study identified a major QTL with a 'stable' and specific effect on GPC and located near the centromeric region of chromosome 5H. The QTL accounted for ~21% of the phenotypic variation in this trait. The allele for reduced GPC at this region was inherited from the ND11231*12 parent...

High-yielding lines of wheat carrying Gpc-B1 adapted to Mediterranean-type environments of the south and west of Australia

Eagles, H.A.; McLean, R.; Eastwood, R.F.; Appelbee, M.J.; Cane, K.; Martin, P.J.; Wallwork, H.
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The Gpc-B1 gene from wild emmer has been proposed as a potential mechanism for improving grain protein in bread wheat without reducing grain yield. Near-isolines with and without the Gpc-B1 gene in three Australian-adapted genetic backgrounds, Gladius, Wyalkatchem and VR1128, were compared in 14 experiments across the south and west of Australia for grain yield, grain protein content and grain weight. The donor parents of Gpc-B1 were the Canadian cultivars Burnside and Somerset. One of the 14 experiments was discarded because of inadequate rust control and confounding effects of Yr36, a gene closely linked to Gpc-B1. Heading date and test weight were measured in five experiments. Across all comparisons, Gpc-B1 increased grain protein content and reduced grain weight, with a negligible effect on grain yield. Selected lines containing Gpc-B1 in a Wyalkatchem background had comparable grain yields to the elite cultivar Mace, but with significantly higher grain protein contents, slightly higher grain weights, similar heading dates and acceptable test weights. The development of agronomically acceptable lines containing Gpc-B1 was partially attributed to the removal of undesirable genes from wild emmer during the breeding of the Canadian donor parents and the use of Australian recurrent parents with high test weights.; H. A. Eagles...

Estudos sobre a nutrição mineral do arroz: XXI - efeito das deficiências e excessos minerais na atividade da redútase de nitrato foliar e no teor de proteina dos grãos (nota prévia); Studies on the mineral nutrition of the rice plant: XXI. Effects of mineral deficiencies and excesses on the activity of leaf nitrate reductase and grain protein (preliminary note)

Malavolta, E.; Parada, A.; Martins, G.; Gonçalves, J.C.; Centurion, J.F.; Vasconcellos, L.A.B.C.; Almeida, M.; Marchetti, M.E.; Pereira, O.A.; Buzetti, P.; Cabral, C.P.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1982 Português
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45.94%
Plantas de arroz das variedades IAC-164 e IAC-165 foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva (nº 2 de Hoagland), completa com deficiência de macronutrientes e de B, Cu e Zn e com excesso de Al e Cl. No fim do ciclo, foi determinada a atividade da redútase de nitrato (RNO3) nas folhas, e após a maturação, foi determinado o teor de proteína bruta dos grãos. Nas duas variedades verificou-se que a atividade enzimática foi diminuída pelas deficiências de N, P, K e pela toxidez de Al e Cl; na IAC-164 a carência de S teve o mesmo efeito depressivo; na IAC-I65, além do efeito mencionado, houve o da falta de Mg. O teor de proteína bruta nos grãos diminuiu com as deficiências de N, P, Se Cu e com a toxidez de Al; aumentou aparentemente nos tratamentos com deficiência de K e Mg. Foi encontrada correlação entre atividade de RNO3 e teor proteico dos grãos quando os dados relativos aos tratamentos -K e -Mg não foram considerados.; Rice plants, varieties IAC-164 and IAC-165 weree grown in number 2 Hoagland's solution, full strength, and with excess of Al and Cl. Nitrate reductase (RNO3) activity was assayed in the leaves one month before harvesting. When the grains were already dry, plants were harvested, the mineral contents of the organs was determined...

Agronomic evaluation of a tiller inhibition gene (tin) in wheat. I. Effect on yield, yield components, and grain protein

Duggan, B; Richards, Robert I; van Herwaarden, A F; Fettell, N A
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.15%
Reduced tillering cereals have been proposed as being advantageous under terminal drought conditions through their reported reduction in non-productive tiller number and reduced soil water use prior to anthesis. This study was conducted to determine whether wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines containing the tiller inhibition (tin) gene have a yield penalty over their commercial near-isogenic counterparts. A terminal drought was experienced in all experiments. The effects of the tin gene were investigated in 4 different near-isogenic pairs of lines grown at 2 sowing densities at 4 locations in the eastern Australian wheatbelt over a 3-year period. Averaged over all experiments and lines, grain yield was unaffected by the presence of the tin gene. However, the highest yielding line contained the tin gene and its yield was 5% higher than all other lines. Averaged across the different genetic backgrounds, the tin gene decreased fertile spike number by 11%, increased the number of kernels/spike by 9%, and there was a 2% increase in kernel weight. The tin gene increased the harvest index by an average of 0.02, whereas above-ground biomass was reduced by 7%. Increasing sowing density from 50 to 100 kg/ha had little influence on yield or yield-related characteristics in both the restricted tillering and freely tillering lines. There was an interaction between sowing rate and the presence of the tin gene on yield...

Variação quantitativa para qualidade de grãos em populações brasileiras de milho; Quantitative variation for grain quality in Brazilian maize populations

Mittelmann, Andréa; Miranda Filho, José Branco de; Nass, Luciano Lourenço; Lima, Gustavo Júlio Melo Monteiro de; Hara-Klein, Claudete; Silva, Ricardo Machado da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Development of maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars with high grain protein and oil concentrations and an appropriate amino acid composition, without losses in grain yield, represents a challenge in breeding programs. The objective of this work was to study the nutritional quality of ten Brazilian maize populations evaluated in three environments. A randomized block design with six replications was used. Ear yield and the concentrations of protein, oil, serine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine were evaluated. Individual and combined analyses of variance were performed. Populations diverged for most of the traits. Environmental effects influenced variation for most of the traits, unlike genotype-environment interaction, allowing the selection on the average of environments. Positive association exists among protein and most of the amino acids, when considered on a dry matter basis and there is no association between nutritional quality and yield; therefore, the development of cultivars that are superior for both traits is expected to be feasible.; O desenvolvimento de variedades de milho (Zea mays L.) com maiores teores de proteína e óleo nos grãos e um balanço adequado de aminoácidos, sem prejuízo do rendimento de grãos...