O artigo analisa o debate entre metalismo e papelismo, ocorrido no Brasil, na segunda metade do século XIX, e defende que esta última foi uma das correntes que contribuíram para a gênese do desenvolvimentismo. Para tanto, retoma as controvérsias monetárias da Inglaterra, desde o início daquele século, e nelas identifica as origens teóricas do debate brasileiro, com destaque especial à questão referente à neutralidade ou não da moeda. A seguir, mostra como esse foi adaptado às peculiaridades da economia brasileira, com ênfase à opção dos papelistas pelo crescimento, rompendo com a ortodoxia da época. A influência no desenvolvimentismo nascente é trabalhada empiricamente por meio de manifestações assumidas por Getúlio Vargas, já que esse foi o personagem central do Estado desenvolvimentista, que marcou a experiência histórica brasileira após 1930.; The paper analyzes the debate between metallism and “paper moneyism” which took place in Brazil in the second half of the 19th century and advocates that the latter was one of the currents that contributed to the genesis of developmentalism. In order to do so, it reviews the monetary controversies in England since the beginning of that century. Based on them...
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Direito, Pós-graduação em Direito, Estado e Constituição, 2012.; O trabalho parte da constatação de que a dogmática jurídica atualmente predominante no Brasil assume uma concepção formalista que se afasta da realidade social, obscurecendo o operador do direito na compreensão do sofrimento humano em situações dramáticas de injustiça, como é o caso do problema da falta de moradia para pessoas carentes. É traçado o panorama geral pelo qual o direito à moradia é tratado pelo direito formalista no Brasil, percorrendo as principais características dogmáticas, o histórico de sua positivação no direito interno e externo e as controvérsias mais importantes sobre as quais os autores e a jurisprudência vêm se debruçando. Diante das limitações inerentes às abordagens de natureza formalista, o estudo apresenta os pressupostos básicos e os procedimentos da Análise Jurídica da Política Econômica (AJPE), que será utilizada como alternativa crítica para caracterizar os aspectos empíricos da política habitacional brasileira, valendo-se, como instrumental complementar, de elaborações da área de estudos denominada Direito e Desenvolvimento. O presente estudo descreve a evolução da política habitacional brasileira...
Much of the experience of the U.S. Federal Reserve System, during the institution’s first hundred years, has revolved around controversies that fit squarely within the classical debate over rules versus discretion in economic policymaking. This paper looks back at the major episodes in this history since World War II, including the initial freeing of monetary policy from war-related interest-pegging, the Federal Reserve’s delayed but ultimately successful response to the inflation of the 1970s and early 1980s, the brief experiment with monetary aggregate targets, the extraordinary actions prompted by the 2007-9 financial crisis, and the current tentative exploration of inflation targeting. The paper concludes that the tension between the desire for rule-based policymaking and the practicalities that lead central bankers to preserve discretion in actual policy decisions does not admit of any easy, straightforward solution, and therefore that this tension is likely to persist into the Federal Reserve’s next century too.; Economics
Mining communities are the subject of a rich tradition of ethnographic study. As the major industry and employer in any region where they are located, mining operations provide a physical, social and economic focal point for the anthropologist. Approaches to the subject have varied greatly. From June Nash’s (1993) study of a Bolivian mining community, We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us, to Michael Taussig’s polemical and literary reflections on capitalism, greed and exploitation in The Devil and Commodity Fetishism (1980) and My Cocaine Museum (2004), there has been close scrutiny of the complex inter-relationships between mines, their owners (whether individuals or corporations), and the people who live around them or work in them.
The search for mineral wealth has long been associated with colonisation, economic exploitation and economic transformation. In contemporary Papua New Guinea, large-scale mining has become the most significant export industry, generating income for government and for the people whose lands are affected. Extractive industry is now viewed as the main means of economic development. Controversies over the environmental degradation and social disruptions generated by mining operations have hardly dampened the enthusiasm for mining. International companies continue to explore and take out leases...
The Nigeria economic report represents a
new World Bank product intended to be produced on a biannual
basis. Each report will provide an assessment of the current
economic situation in the country and give special attention
to selected topics of high policy relevance for Nigeria.
This first Nigeria economic report will give some attention
to longer term trends in the country, including the puzzle
of why a decade of rapid Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth
by official statistics, concentrated in the pro-poor areas
of agriculture and trade, did not bring stronger welfare and
employment benefits to the population. The second chapter of
this Report turns to the question of Government oil revenues
and related future budgetary challenges to the country. Due
to relatively slow expected growth in oil production and the
real appreciation of the naira, the share of Government oil
revenues in GDP fell significantly in 2012, and will likely
continue to fall in the medium term. The third chapter
addresses a question that has been at the center of many
recent controversies and initiatives in Nigeria: fiscal
federalist relations. The chapter argues that the current
basic model of fiscal federalism may actually suit Nigeria
The ecosystem services (ES) concept is one of the main avenues for conveying society's dependence on natural ecosystems. On-ground applications of the concept are now widespread and diverse and include its use as a communication tool, for policy guidance and priority setting, and for designing economic instruments for conservation. Each application raises ethical considerations beyond traditional controversies related to the monetary valuation of nature. We review ethical considerations across major on-ground applications and group them into the following categories: anthropocentric framing, economic metaphor, monetary valuation, commodification, sociocultural impact, changes in motivations, and equity implications. Different applications of the ES concept raise different suites of ethical issues, and we propose methods to address the issues most relevant to each application. We conclude that the ES concept should be considered as only one among various alternative approaches to valuing nature and that reliance on economic metaphors can exclude other motivations for protecting ecosystems.