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Simulation of multi-agent manufacturing systems using agent-based modelling platforms

Barbosa, José; Leitão, Paulo
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.417725%
Multi-agent systems (MAS) are driving the way to design and engineer control solutions that exhibit flexibility, adaptation and reconfigurability, which are important advantages over traditional centralized systems. The understanding, design and testing of such distributed agentbased approaches, and particularly those exhibiting self-* properties, are usually a hard task. Simulation assumes a crucial role to analyse the behaviour of MAS solutions during the design phase and before its deployment into the real operation. Particularly, Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) tools are well suited to simulate MAS systems that exhibit complex phenomena, like emergent behaviour and self-organization. This paper discusses the simulation of agent-based manufacturing systems and introduces the advantages of using ABM tools. The NetLogo platform is used to illustrate the benefits of such tools in the manufacturing world on the specification of a MAS system for a washing machine production line.

Holonic and multi-agent systems for manufacturing: proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Industrial Applications of Holonic and Multi-Agent Systems

Marik, Vladimir (Ed.); Vrba, Pavel (Ed.); Leitão, Paulo (Ed.)
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.24618%
Another two years have passed from the last HoloMAS conference held in Linz in 2009. It is a pleasure to say that the R&D activities around holonic and multi-agent systems for industrial applications have not faded during this period. On the contrary, the number of scientific events aimed at the subject field is growing steadily. Besides HoloMAS, which has been the pioneering event in this field, there are multiple conferences such as the IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), the IEEE Conference on Emergent Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA) or the IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing (INCOM) that aim their attention at advanced industrial automation systems based on intelligent agents. This year’s conference was the eighth in the sequence of HoloMAS events. The first three (HoloMAS 2000 in Greenwich, HoloMAS 2001 in Munich and Holo- MAS 2002 in Aix-en-Provence) were organized as workshops under the umbrella of DEXA association. Starting with 2003, HoloMAS became an independent conference organized biyearly on the odd years, still under the DEXA patronage (HoloMAS 2003 in Prague, HoloMAS 2005 in Copenhagen, HoloMAS 2007 in Regensburg and HoloMAS 2009 in Linz). On the even years the attention is focused on specific events: the IEEE Workshop on Distributed Intelligent Systems (DIS 2006) with a special track covering the “obvious”HoloMAS topics was organized in Prague in June 2006. Similarly...

Verification of behaviourist multi-agent systems by means of formally guided simulations; Verificação de sistemas multi-agentes comportamentalistas através de simulações formalmente guiadas

Silva, Paulo Salem da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.78085%
Multi-agent systems (MASs) can be used to model phenomena that can be decomposed into several interacting agents which exist within an environment. In particular, they can be used to model human and animal societies, for the purpose of analysing their properties by computational means. This thesis is concerned with the automated analysis of a particular kind of such social models, namely, those based on behaviourist principles, which contrasts with the more dominant cognitive approaches found in the MAS literature. The hallmark of behaviourist theories is the emphasis on the definition of behaviour in terms of the interaction between agents and their environment. In this manner, not merely re exive actions, but also learning, drives, and emotions can be defined. More specifically, in this thesis we introduce a formal agent architecture (specified with the Z Notation) based on the Behaviour Analysis theory of B. F. Skinner, and provide a suitable formal notion of environment (based on the pi-calculus process algebra) to bring such agents together as an MAS. Simulation is often used to analyse MASs. The techniques involved typically consist in implementing and then simulating a MAS several times to either collect statistics or see what happens through animation. However...

Simulação multi-agente em gestão de projetos de software em ambientes de programação extrema

Alves, Flávio de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Nesta dissertação, o autor aborda a dificuldade de prever-se o desempenho dos recursos humanos em um processo de desenvolvimento de software em um ambiente de Programação Extrema (XP) (BECK, 2000) e propõe uma solução com potencial para minimizar esse problema. Especificamente, o problema, a ser tratado neste trabalho, consiste em melhorar as previsões dos gerentes de projeto – no âmbito do ambiente mencionado - com relação ao desempenho dos recursos humanos na geração de valor para o negócio. Tal valor para o negócio é alcançado através da implementação, por parte dos programadores, das diversas funcionalidades de um sistema de software. Para a construção da solução proposta neste trabalho, o autor analisou um sistema XP de desenvolvimento de software (composto por ambiente, pessoas e processo), conforme o processo de modelagem proposto por Streit (2006) e apoiado na revisão da literatura relevante. Em seguida, o autor estruturou esse sistema em um modelo conceitual para, finalmente, desenvolver um modelo computacional do sistema analisado, baseado em múltiplos agentes inteligentes modelados conforme a arquitetura Beliefs-Desires-Intentions (BDI), ou Crenças-Desejos-Intenções. O modelo computacional da simulação multi-agente foi desenvolvido com o apoio da ferramenta SeSAm (KLÜGL...

Multi-Agent Simulation of Urban Social Dynamics for Spatial Load Forecasting

Melo, Joel D.; Carreno, Edgar Manuel; Padilha-Feltrin, Antonio
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1870-1878
Português
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78.16536%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); A multi-agent system for spatial electric load forecasting, especially suited to simulating the different social dynamics involved in distribution systems, is presented. This approach improves the spatial forecasting techniques that usually consider the service zone as a static entity to model or simulate the spatial electric load forecasting in a city. This paper aims to determine how the electric load will be distributed among the sub-zones in the city. For this, the service zone is divided into several subzones, each subzone considered as an independent agent identified with a corresponding load level, and their relationships with the neighbor zones are represented through development probabilities. These probabilities are considered as input data for the simulation. Given this setting, different kinds of agents can be developed to simulate the growth pattern of the loads in distribution systems in parallel. The approach is tested with data from a real distribution system in a mid-size city; the results show a low spatial error when compared to real data. Less than 6% of the load growth was identified 0.71 km outside of its correct location on the test system.

Extensão da biblioteca Repast para desenho em tempo real de redes de Petri em representação de simulações multi-agente

Sousa, Manuel Leal e
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.641465%
Mestrado em Engenharia Informática e de Telecomunicações; A utilização de plataformas de modelação e de simulação baseada em agentes tem aumentado ultimamente em comunidades de investigação de diversos domínios científicos. A ferramenta Repast (Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit) é uma das plataformas mais utilizadas. A biblioteca é de utilização livre e o seu código fonte é fornecido gratuitamente, o que facilita a sua extensão a novas funcionalidades. Algumas das características ausentes nesta ferramenta, que poderiam auxiliar o estudo de simulações, são as noções de concorrência e de paralelismo. As representações e modelações gráficas destas características, na simulação multiagente, podem ser de grande utilidade. Este trabalho tem como objectivo colmatar esta questão através de uma extensão ao Repast de forma a permitir o desenho em tempo real de Redes de Petri em representação de simulações multi-agente.; The use of agent-based modelling and simulation toolkits has been increasing lately in the research communities of various scientific fields. The tool Repast (Recursive Porous Agent Simulation Toolkit) is one of the most widely used platforms. The library is a free open source toolkit...

Detecção de comunidades no sistema de correio electrónico universitário

Rodrigues, David Manuel de Sousa
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 12/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.10236%
Mestrado em Ciências da Complexidade; O estudo de sistemas estruturados em redes sociais conheceu inúmeros desenvolvimentos na aplicação da teoria de grafos às ciências sociais. Um dos aspectos recentes tem sido o da detecção de módulos, ou comunidades, em redes sociais. Diversos algoritmos e estratégias tem sido desenvolvidos para identificar a estrutura existente por detrás das interacções sociais. Atrav´es de um estudo de caso, mostrámos a existência de comunidades de comunicação informal que utiliza a rede de correio electrónico do ISCTE, através da aplicação de algoritmos hierárquicos de detecção de comunidades. Analisámos a estrutura hierárquica da rede através de k-cores e verificámos que a as comunidades de comunicação informal formadas ultrapassam as fronteiras dos departamentos institucionais através do método de percolação de cliques. `As comunidades detectadas aplicámos uma medida de variação de informação para determinar a distancia entre os diversos departamentos. Construímos um modelo de simulação multi-agente, para mimar o sistema de comunicação informal através de correio electrónico, CIUCEU, que nos permitiu verificar a influencia da vizinhança “social” dos agentes na criação e manutenção da estrutura da rede de professores do ISCTE. Analisámos ainda a utilização de simulações alimentadas por dados reais...

The Promise and Perils of Pre-Publication Review: A Multi-Agent Simulation of Biomedical Discovery Under Varying Levels of Review Stringency

Shrager, Jeff
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/05/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.02425%
The Internet has enabled profound changes in the way science is performed, especially in scientific communications. Among the most important of these changes is the possibility of new models for pre-publication review, ranging from the current, relatively strict peer-review model, to entirely unreviewed, instant self-publication. Different models may affect scientific progress by altering both the quality and quantity of papers available to the research community. To test how models affect the community, I used a multi-agent simulation of treatment selection and outcome in a patient population to examine how various levels of pre-publication review might affect the rate of scientific progress. I identified a “sweet spot” between the points of very limited and very strict requirements for pre-publication review. The model also produced a u-shaped curve where very limited review requirement was slightly superior to a moderate level of requirement, but not as large as the aforementioned sweet spot. This unexpected phenomenon appears to result from the community taking longer to discover the correct treatment with more strict pre-publication review. In the parameter regimens I explored, both completely unreviewed and very strictly reviewed scientific communication seems likely to hinder scientific progress. Much more investigation is warranted. Multi-agent simulations can help to shed light on complex questions of scientific communication and exhibit interesting...

Quake II as a Robotic and Multi-Agent Platform

Brown, Christopher M. (1945 - ); Barnum, Peter ; Costello, D. ; Ferguson, George M. ; Hu, Bo ; Van Wie, Michael (1969 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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We have modified the public-domain Quake II game to support research and teaching. Our research is in multi-agent control and supporting human-computer interfaces. Teaching applications have so far been in an undergraduate Artificial Intelligence class and include natural language understanding, machine learning, computer vision, and production system control. The motivation for this report is mainly to document our system development and interface. Only early results are in, but they appear promising. Our source code and user-level documentation is available on the web. The information document is a somewhat motion-blurred snapshot of the situation in September 2004.

Multi-agent simulation to support water distribution network partitioning

Hajebi, Saeed; Barrett, Stephen; Clarke, Aidan; Clarke, Siobhán
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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77.774644%
peer-reviewed; In managing water supply, engineers often need to divide a water distribution network (WDN) into smaller clusters. Commonly, they work with District Meter Areas (DMA), a discrete part of the system in which the quantities of water entering and leaving the area are metered. The division of a WDN into a collection of DMAs can be considered a graph partitioning problem which is NP-Hard. Additionally, this problem is constrained by the physical nature of the WDN including the geographic location of the elements in the network, the hydraulic features of the network, the topography of the area, the demand patterns of the consumers, and other factors. This research shows how to solve this factoring problem by using a two-step algorithm. It uses a k-means graph clustering algorithm to partition the network geographically into a predefined number of clusters. It then applies a multi-agent system negotiation mechanism to adjust graph nodes on the boundary of all clusters to account for the hydrological constraints. Despite the fact that we do not consider all the necessary hydraulic factors, the application of our method on a case study shows promising results.

Emergency first response to a crisis event a multi-agent simulation approach

Roginski, Jonathan W.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.065693%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 led to the establishment of the National Exercise Program and the Top Officials exercise series to test and evaluate first response agency integration and effectiveness. The last TOPOFF exercise cost $16M and involved over 10,000 people, but did not effectively leverage simulation techniques to make efficient use of resources. This research adapts an existing organizational learning process, integrating low- and high resolution simulation to provide decision support. This process led to the development of a multi-agent simulation methodology for emergency first response, specifically applied to analyze a notional vehicle bomb attack during a festival in the Baltimore Inner Harbor. This simulation demonstrates the potential benefits of low resolution simulation, using efficient experimental design and high-performance computing. Combined, these two ideas result in examining a 48-dimensional response surface and using over 156 CPU centuries of computer time. All experiments were completed in less than three weeks. The analysis of this data set provided insight into several areas, including the importance of standing operating procedures in the early moments of a crisis. Analysis showed that effective procedures may even be more important than the effectiveness of communications devices early in a first response operation.

A computational model and multi-agent simulation for information assurance

VanPutte, Michael A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School.
Português
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68.23912%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.; This dissertation introduces a computational model of IA called the Social-Technical Information Assurance Model (STIAM). STIAM models organizations, information infrastructures, and human actors as a complex adaptive system. STIAM provides a structured approach to express organizational IA issues and a graphical notation for depicting the elements and interactions. The model can be implemented in a computational system to discover possible adaptive behavior in an IA environment. A multi-agent simulation is presented that introduces several innovations in multi-agent systems including iconnectors, a biologically inspired visual language and mechanism for inter-agent communications. The computational model and simulation demonstrate how complex societies of autonomous entities interact. STIAM can be implemented as a hypothesis generator for scenario development in computer network defensive mechanisms.

Multi-agent simulations for emergency situations in an airport scenario

Bicharra, Ana Cristina; Sánchez-Pi, Nayat; Correia, Luis; Molina, José M.
Fonte: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca Publicador: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.108374%
This paper presents a multi-agent framework using Net- Logo to simulate humanand collective behaviors during emergency evacuations. Emergency situationappears when an unexpected event occurs. In indoor emergency situation, evacuation plans defined by facility manager explain procedure and safety ways tofollow in an emergency situation. A critical and public scenario is an airportwhere there is an everyday transit of thousands of people. In this scenario theimportance is related with incidents statistics regarding overcrowding andcrushing in public buildings. Simulation has the objective of evaluating buildinglayouts considering several possible configurations. Agents could be based onreactive behavior like avoid danger or follow other agent, or in deliberative behaviorbased on BDI model. This tool provides decision support in a real emergencyscenario like an airport, analyzing alternative solutions to the evacuationprocess.

A multi-agent simulation platform applied to the study of urban traffic lights

Cajías Hostos, Raúl; González-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David
Fonte: Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) Publicador: Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.32932%
Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Software and Data Technologies, ICSOFT 2011; The Multi-Agent system paradigm allows the development of complex software platforms to be used in a wide range of real-world scenarios. One of the most successful areas these technologies have been applied are in the simulation and optimization of complex systems. Traffic simulation/optimization problems are a specially suitable target for such a platform. This paper proposes a new Multi-Agent simulation platform, where agents are based on a Swarm model (lightweight agents with very low autonomy or proactivity). Using this framework, simulation designers are free to configure road networks of arbitrary complexity, by customizing road width, geometry and intersection with other roads. To simulate different traffic flow scenarios, vehicle trajectories can be defined by choosing start and end locations and providing traffic generation functions for each one trajectory defined. Finally, how many vehicles are generated at each time step can be determined by a time series function. The domain of traffic simulation has been selected to investigate the effect of traffic light configuration on the flow of vehicles in a road network. The experimental results from this platform show a strong correlation between traffic light behavior and the flow of traffic through the network that affects the congestion of the road.

Modeling tactical level combat using a Multi-agent System Design Paradigm (GI Agent).

Pawloski, Joel S.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 84 p. ; 28 cm.
Português
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In the past 60 years the Army has undergone a major reorganization eight times at the divisional level and numerous more times at unit levels below the division. Each time the Army reorganized it's divisions a major testing program was involved. But when a change in organization is done at unit levels below division often very little attention is paid to how the change will affect the unit. When this happens, unit leaders are forced to undertake one of the most difficult jobs in today's military incorporating new equipment into a unit or reorganizing a unit without an understanding of how the changes will affect the unit. The Military modeling and simulation community has attempted to fill this need but the current set of single entity simulations are limited in their ability to replicate dynamic complex behavior. This thesis is attempting to create a Multi-Agent Simulation that will allow analysts and leaders to gain an understanding of the tactical employment affects of changing the organization of a company level infantry unit. GIAgent is a simulation tool allowing the analyst and leader to experiment with the complex relationship between maneuver and unit organization without putting the unit in the field. Combining agent based artificial intelligence techniques with artificial intelligence research from the computer gaming industry...

Exploration of force transitions in stability operations using multi-agent simulation

Vaughan, David P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xxvi, 145 p. : ill. (some col.). ;
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67.97182%
Stability Operations have become the most prevalent mission for U.S. forces in the current global security environment. This research explores new methods to assist in determining when it is acceptable to downsize a force in a stability operation. The methodology developed provides insight into this problem by quantifying force protection risk, mission failure risk, and time in the context of the operational threat environment. The Pythagoras Multi-Agent Simulation and Data Farming techniques are used to investigate force-level comparison in a theoretical threat continuum based on a peacekeeping scenario similar to the Bosnian operation. The data from the simulation is to construct simple tools for decision makers. These tools are used collectively to find the balance, according to a commander's priorities, between the conflicting issues of force protection, mission success, and time. Two areas are identified as significant in achieving success in stability operations. They are troop posturing and troop employment. The problem is that they are often overlooked or under emphasized. The result of this research demonstrates that posturing and employment should be considered as factors equal to force size in contributing to the goal of maximizing force presence. In addition...

An agent-based architecture for generating interactive stories

Osborn, Brian A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xviii, 166 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm.
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68.785645%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.; The Department of Defense relies on modeling and simulation for a variety of purposes, including joint exercise training, developing and evaluating doctrine and tactics, and studying weapon system effectiveness. Advances in technology have made the achievement of technically and visually accurate simulations possible, but little has been done to present realistic scenarios while supporting user interaction. This dissertation describes a multi-agent interactive simulation engine for generating interactive scenarios or stories. A general-purpose multi-agent system simulation architecture, called a Connector-based Multi-Agent System (CMAS) is developed and presented, along with a software agent communication and coordination mechanism. In this architecture, stories are generated through discovery as a by-product of agent interactions, rather than being fixed in advance. The ensuing story adapts to the user's interventions and is closely aligned to the goals of the agents. The multi-agent system design of the story engine has resulted in a data-driven simulation engine, which is domain independent and highly scalable. The story engine is fielded as the underlying simulation engine behind the U.S. Army's America's Army: Soldiers project. The instantiation of the story engine as it applies to Soldiers is presented. As a component of Soldiers...

Análise do modelo de Kiyotaki-Wright em simulações multiagentes que utilizam a plataforma Swarm; Analysis of the Kiyotaki-Wright Model in Multi-Agent Simulations that Use the Swarm Platform

RODOVALHO, Wildener Monteiro
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação; Engenharia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Engenharia Elétrica e de Computação; Engenharia
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.905664%
The goal of this dissertation is to make a methodological repetition of Duffy and Ochs's and Rouchier's works. Nonetheless, it tries to have a different focus. Among many theoreticaleconomical models which explain the emergence of money, there is one that distinguishes itself due to its simplicity, efficiency, and robustness: Kiyotaki-Wright's model. Therefore, some economists devoted themselves to apply this model in experiments with human beings and in computer simulations. Among those economists, Duffy and Ochs applied it later, correcting some flaws of the application process used by their predecessors. Duffy and Ochs's studies showed that Kiyotaki-Wright's model is actually valid for its purpose. However, besides all the efforts made, their agents were not able to achieve the foreseen equilibrium. In the same way, the French researcher Rouchier repeated methodologically the works of Duffy and Ochs while criticizing their implementation details. From this research, Rouchier creates other four sub-models in order to take her agents to the proposed equilibrium, obtaining partial success. In this dissertation, the computer system development platform is Swarm, especially created to multi-agent simulations and used, most of the time...

Modeling multi-agent systems activities through colored petri nets : an industrial production system case study

Fernandes, João M.; Belo, Orlando
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.02425%
This paper presents and discusses an industrial production system model based on Colored Petri Nets. The model was developed in order to analyse the agent's behavior of a distributed multi-agent system oriented to the simulation of the management and control of a specific hardmetal production system plant. This effort help us to create the basis to get a more robust system with means to resist better against eventual conflict, contention or deadlock situations among system's agents. Colored Petri Nets was chosen essentially due to their ability to describe explicitly system's states and actions and for having a semantic which builds upon true concurrency.

Network resources management in a multi-agent system: a simulative approach

Olajubu,Emmanuel A.; Aderounmu,Ganiyu A.; Adagunodo,Emmanuel R.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.67133%
Multi-agent systems (i.e. systems comprising many agents) have been proposed for many Internet and distributed applications. The proposed systems have little or no consideration of the effects of this multi-agent approach on network resources. In this paper, we presented a simulation assessment of the effect of multi-agent systems on network resources. The routing scheme of the agents was formulated based on the travelling salesman problem. Lightweight agent (LWA) controller was modelled using a fuzzy logic toolbox in the MATLAB environment. The performance metrics of bandwidth usage, response time and throughput were used to compare the network resources usage by different groups of LWAs (10 LWAs, 40 LWAs, 100 LWAs, 150 LWAs) during their computational task on the network. Java programs were written for the implementation of lightweight agents in the simulation. The inputs to the system were realised by multiplicative pseudorandom number generation during the simulation. The simulation result analysis was carried out based on the performance metrics stated above for the four groups of agents. Increasing the number of LWAs in a simulated multi-agent system decreased the response time but increased the throughput and the bandwidth usage. All these performance measures should be considered for developing countries with bandwidth shortages...