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Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

SOUZA, Simone Pereira de; PACCA, Sergio; AVILA, Marcio Turra de; BORGES, Jose Luiz B.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S. Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S. Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee la. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96]...

Thermodynamic characterization of the palm tree Roystonea regia peroxidase stability

ZAMORANO, Laura S.; PINA, David G.; ARELLANO, Juan B.; BURSAKOV, Sergey A.; ZHADAN, Andrey P.; CALVETE, Juan J.; SANZ, Libia; NIELSEN, Peter R.; VILLAR, Enrique; GAVEL, Olga; ROIG, Manuel G.; WATANABE, Leandra; POLIKARPOV, Igor; SHNYROV, Valery L.
Fonte: ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The structural stability of a peroxidase, a dimeric protein from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) leaves, has been characterized by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, steady-state tryptophan fluorescence and analytical ultracentifugation under different solvent conditions. It is shown that the thermal and chemical (using guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl)) folding/unfolding of royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) at pH 7 is a reversible process involving a highly cooperative transition between the folded dimer and unfolded monomers, with a free stabilization energy of about 23 kcal per mol of monomer at 25 degrees C. The structural stability of RPTP is pH-dependent. At pH 3, where ion pairs have disappeared due to protonation, the thermally induced denaturation of RPTP is irreversible and strongly dependent upon the scan rate, suggesting that this process is under kinetic control. Moreover, thermally induced transitions at this pH value are dependent on the protein concentration, allowing it to be concluded that in solution RPTP behaves as dimer, which undergoes thermal denaturation coupled with dissociation. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of RPTP denaturation at pH 3 was accomplished on the basis of the simple kinetic scheme N ->(k) D...

Crystal structure and statistical coupling analysis of highly glycosylated peroxidase from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia)

WATANABE, Leandra; MOURA, Patricia Ribeiro de; BLEICHER, Lucas; NASCIMENTO, Alessandro S.; ZAMORANO, Laura S.; CALVETE, Juan J.; SANZ, Libia; PEREZ, Alicia; BURSAKOV, Sergey; ROIG, Manuel G.; SHNYROV, Valery L.; POLIKARPOV, Igor
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) is a very stable enzyme in regards to acidity, temperature, H(2)O(2), and organic solvents. Thus, RPTP is a promising candidate for developing H(2)O(2)-sensitive biosensors for diverse applications in industry and analytical chemistry. RPTP belongs to the family of class III secretory plant peroxidases, which include horseradish peroxidase isozyme C, soybean and peanut peroxidases. Here we report the X-ray structure of native RPTP isolated from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) refined to a resolution of 1.85 angstrom. RPTP has the same overall folding pattern of the plant peroxidase superfamily, and it contains one heme group and two calcium-binding sites in similar locations. The three-dimensional structure of RPTP was solved for a hydroperoxide complex state, and it revealed a bound 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid molecule (MES) positioned at a putative substrate-binding secondary site. Nine N-glycosylation sites are clearly defined in the RPTP electron-density maps, revealing for the first time conformations of the glycan chains of this highly glycosylated enzyme. Furthermore, statistical coupling analysis (SCA) of the plant peroxidase superfamily was performed. This sequence-based method identified a set of evolutionarily conserved sites that mapped to regions surrounding the heme prosthetic group. The SCA matrix also predicted a set of energetically coupled residues that are involved in the maintenance of the structural folding of plant peroxidases. The combination of crystallographic data and SCA analysis provides information about the key structural elements that could contribute to explaining the unique stability of RPTP. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.; Universidad de Salamanca[SA-06-00-0 ITA-CYL]; Universidad de Salamanca; Junta de Castilla y Leon[SA 129A07]; Junta de Castilla y Leon...

Comparing the establishment of an invasive and an endemic palm species in the Atlantic rainforest

Mengardo, Ana L. T.; Figueiredo, Cristiano L.; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vania Regina
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD; ABINGDON Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD; ABINGDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Biological invasions are one of the major causes of biodiversity loss, yet remain rather understudied in tropical environments. The Australian palm tree Archontophoenix cunninghamiana was introduced into Brazil for ornamental purposes, but has become an invasive species in urban and suburban forest patches. The substitution of A. cunninghamiana by the native palm Euterpe edulis has been proposed as a management action. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the regeneration potential of these two palm species in an Atlantic forest remnant in south-eastern Brazil where both species occur. Methods: We compared seedling establishment and seed longevity of both species through seed sowing, and also measured the contribution of A. cunninghamiana to the local seed rain and seed bank. Results: Nearly half of the non-anemochoric diaspores collected from the seed rain belonged to A. cunninghamiana, which represented a high propagule pressure in the community. The distribution of the alien palm seeds in the seed rain correlated with the distribution of nearby young and adult individuals inside the forest. Neither A. cunninghamiana nor E. edulis appeared to have a persistent seed bank in a burial experiment; seedling survival experiments suggested a much better performance for A. cunninghamiana...

Educação ambiental e extração clandestina de palmito juçara (Euterpe edulis): o caso do Parque Estadual "Carlos Botelho"-São Paulo.; Environmental education and clandestine extraction of the heart of palm euterpe edulis: the case "Carlos Botelho" state park.

Nogueira, Maria Cláudia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/09/2003 Português
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Neste trabalho investigou-se planos e ações de educação ambiental do Parque Estadual “Carlos Botelho” (PECB) buscando possíveis relações com os distúrbios antrópicos em seu interior causados pela extração clandestina de palmito (Euterpe edulis). Esta área é considerada uma Unidade de Conservação de Proteção Integral e abrange 37.644,36 ha localizados na região sul do Estado de São Paulo. Sua porção que pertence ao Vale do Ribeira, em conjunto com outras unidades de conservação (Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira e Parque Estadual Intervales), compõem um importante continuum ecológico do estado de São Paulo. Entre 1988 a 1994, apesar do poder público não destinar recursos institucionais para a formalização de atividades educacionais no PECB, iniciam-se as atividades de educação ambiental nessa área com o apoio financeiro do World Wildlife Fund (WWF) e da Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza. A partir da coleta e analise dos processos técnico-administrativos, dos relatórios de projetos e das atas de reunião do Parque, referentes ao período de 1988 a 2000, obteve-se os elementos necessários para compreender o histórico do Programa e sua fundamentação pedagógica. A metodologia adotada foi a de estudo de caso. Foram compilados também dados secundários sobre a extração de palmito na polícia ambiental e delegacia da região e realizadas entrevistas com indivíduos que...

Utilização do palmito basal de pupunha em alternativa ao palmito foliar, visando aumentar o aproveitamento da palmeira Bactris gasipaes; Use of the basal palm of peach palm in alternative to the foliaceous palm, to increase the use of the palm tree Bactris gasipaes

Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2008 Português
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O palmito pode ser obtido a partir de várias espécies de palmeiras. Devido à alta taxa de exploração das palmeiras do gênero Euterpe e ao seu baixo poder de regeneração, no mercado consumidor há falta de produto de boa qualidade. Palmeiras mais precoces e que produzam bom palmito têm sido pesquisadas, uma delas é a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes), nativa da Amazônia que apresenta características de precocidade, rusticidade e perfilhamento, com palmito de ótima qualidade, diferindo dos demais pelo sabor adocicado e a coloração amarelada. O seu cultivo pode ser feito em grande parte do território brasileiro. A porção comestível do palmito de pupunha é dividida em três partes: a basal ou caulinar (coração), a apical, e a central ou foliar (creme ou tolete). O comércio de palmito privilegia a parte central da palmeira, vendendo o palmito basal como subproduto. O presente estudo tem como objetivo demonstrar a equivalência da qualidade do palmito basal e do foliar de pupunha, priorizando-se o tratamento adicional com ácido acético, que mascara o seu sabor adocicado, comparado com o ácido cítrico, largamente utilizado nas indústrias. As amostras de palmito de pupunha foram cultivadas em área experimental pertencente a ESALQ/USP; para o processamento foram cortadas 120 palmeiras em março de 2007. Foram analisadas características físicas...

Subsídios para o manejo da invasão biológica de uma palmeira em áreas de Mata Atlântica; Subsidies to ecological management of the biological invasion by a palm tree in Atlantic forest areas

Mengardo, Ana Luisa Tondin
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2011 Português
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A introdução de espécies exóticas, resultando em processos de invasão biológica em ambientes naturais, é um dos efeitos humanos indiretos que atualmente mais ameaçam a biodiversidade global. Apesar das invasões biológicas causarem muitos impactos negativos, elas ainda são pouco estudadas nos ambientes tropicais megadiversos. A palmeira australiana Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, inicialmente introduzida para fins ornamentais, tornou-se invasora de fragmentos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no estado de São Paulo. Foi sugerida como ação de manejo a substituição da A. cunninghamiana pela palmeira nativa Euterpe edulis. Assim, o objetivo geral deste estudo foi comparar os estágios demográficos inicias dessas duas espécies de palmeiras, visando subsidiar a substituição de A. cunninghamiana em fragmentos florestais invadidos. Realizamos experimentos no interior de um fragmento florestal urbano (Reserva Florestal do Instituto de Biociências, São Paulo/SP) impactado pela espécie invasora. No interior do fragmento, analisamos a chuva de sementes local (por meio de coletores distribuídos acima do solo), a longevidade das sementes (realizando um experimento de soterramento) e o estabelecimento de plântulas resultantes de semeadura direta de ambas as espécies. Em laboratório...

Implicações ecológicas da dormência de sementes em Butia odorata (ARECACEAE)

Schlindwein, Gilson
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Butia odorata (butiazeiro) é uma palmeira que ocorre em regiões subtropicais da América do Sul, onde constitui formações savânicas em áreas associadas com o manejo pecuário. Após a dispersão, suas sementes apresentam dormência, que pode ser superada por tratamentos de calor úmido. Esta tese visou avaliar como esta dormência responde a variáveis térmicas e de umidade do ambiente e de que forma ela influencia o sucesso de recrutamento de suas plântulas. Para isto foram feitos três estudos: no primeiro, os efeitos de diferentes tratamentos de temperatura, secagem e armazenamento dos diásporos sobre o sucesso germinativo da espécie foram avaliados em laboratório; no segundo, foram investigados os efeitos sazonais e de micro-hábitat (área aberta e mancha florestal) sobre a emergência de plântulas a partir de diásporos semeados no campo, relacionando as respostas às variáveis ambientais, à dormência e à viabilidade das sementes; no terceiro, foram igualmente avaliados os efeitos sazonal e de micro-hábitat, porém sobre o sobre o recrutamento de plântulas, através da semeadura em duas épocas distintas do ano (antes e após o verão), de diásporos previamente tratados para superação da dormência. Os resultados destes estudos mostraram que períodos de préaquecimento úmido (40ºC) após secagem dos diásporos atuam no alívio da dormência das sementes de B. odorata. Estes fatores também foram relacionados com a liberação da dormência das sementes em condições de campo...

The palm tree Copernicia cerifera (carnaúba) as an ecotope of Rhodnius nasutus in rural areas of the State of Piauí Northeastern Brazil

Pinto,Artur da S.; Bento,Dalva N. da C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1986 Português
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The C. cerifera palm tree (carnaúba) is widely distributed in the Northeastem Brazil, including the State of Piauí. This investigation revealed that R. nasutus is the ortly triatomine species captured on that palm tree, in five different localities. 78% of palm trees were infested with triatomines, and 4.0% were infected with flagellates morphologically and biologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi. Birds, rodents and marsupials were found as major blood meai sources for R. nasutus.

Germination and allometry of the native palm tree Euterpe edulis compared to the introduced E. oleracea and their hybrids in Atlantic rainforest

Tiberio,FCS.; Sampaio-e-Silva,TA.; Dodonov,P.; Garcia,VA.; Silva Matos,DM.
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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Palms are distinctive plants of tropics and have peculiar allometric relations. Understanding such relations is useful in the case of introduced species because their ability to establish and invade must be clarified in terms of their responses in the new site. Our purpose was to assess the survival and invasive capacity of an introduced palm species in the Atlantic rainforest, Euterpe oleracea Mart., compared to the native Euterpe edulis Mart. and to the hybrids produced between the two species. Considering this, we compared the allometry in different ontogenetic stages, the germination rates, and aspects of the initial development. The ontogenetic stages proposed for both Euterpe illustrated the growth patterns described for palm trees. E. oleracea and hybrids adjusted to the geometric similarity allometric model, while E. edulis presented a slope greater than would be expected considering this model, indicating a greater height for a given diameter. E. oleracea showed the same amount of pulp per fruit as E. edulis and a similar initial development of seedlings. The main differences observed were a lower germination rate and a faster height gain of E. oleracea seedlings. We conclude that E. oleracea, which is similar to E. edulis in aspects of allometry...

Anatomical and histochemical aspects of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) seed

Nazário,Patrícia; Ferreira,Sidney Alberto do Nascimento; Borges,Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e; Genovese-Marcomini,Poliana Roverse; Mendonça,Maria Sílvia de
Fonte: ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes Publicador: ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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Bactris gasipaes Kunth (peach palm) is a palm tree (Arecaceae) widely used by Amazon people, whose seeds have dormancy of unknown cause, which result in difficulties on producing uniform seedlings. This study aimed at identifying anatomical and histochemical aspects of peach palm seeds that may have influence on germination. Histological sections were performed with seed material embedded into hystoresin, which were then stained with toluidine blue and assessed under optical microscope to verify structural characteristics. Histological sections were manually performed to identify primary and secondary metabolites; and histochemical test were performed for fatty acids, alkaloids, starch, phenolic compounds, lignin, neutral and acidic lipids, pectins, polysaccharides, proteins, tannins, and terpenoids. Tegument is thin and contains two layers. The external layer is thicker and has vascular bundles; and the internal layer is thinner containing irregular cells replete of phenolic compounds. Endosperm is whitish in color, with cells with shapes that vary from oblong or ellipsoidal until oval; containing lipids, proteins, pectins, and polysaccharides. Embryo is relatively small as related to seed size, conical and vascularized at distal portion. On longitudinal sections...

Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

BARCELOS, E.; RIOS, S. de A.; CUNHA, R. N. V.; LOPES, R.; MOTOIKE, S. Y.; BABIYCHUK, E.; SKIRYCZ, S.
Fonte: Frontiers in Plant Science, v. 6, art. 190, Mar. 2015. Publicador: Frontiers in Plant Science, v. 6, art. 190, Mar. 2015.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
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Oil Palm Biogeography, Biology and Cultivation. African Oil Palm. American Oil Palm. Interspecies Oil Palm Hybrids. Natural Variation for Oil Palm Improvement. Genomics for Oil Palm Improvement. Increasing Oil Palm Productivity. Yield Gap Caused by the Diseases. Palm Oil Composition and Content. Oil Palm Tree Architecture. Preventing (Post)Harvest Losses. Breeding for Expanded Cultivation Range. Concluding Remarks.; 2015

Fenologia, Produção e Pós-colheita de frutos de buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.f) em três veredas do cerrado no estado de Goiás.; Phenologu, Production and post-harvest e fruit buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.f) into three palm swamp of the savanna in Goias state.

MARTINS, Maria Lúcia
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Agronomia; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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This study aimed to characterize the phenology, production and post-harvest fruit of the buriti palm tree in the Savannah as well as factors impacting on production. The study was conducted in three palm swamp with three distinct forms of occupation of the borders. The buriti palm tree were characterized as height, diameter at breast height, number of inflorescences and leaves. The number of leaves was correlated with climatic data from July 2006 to September 2009. To characterize the production were collected from three clusters per area, and determined the average weight of fruit bunches and these extrapolated data for each area. In three clusters of each palm swamp included: length of the bunch, bunch weight, fruit weight, number of rachilles, and fruit number, length rachilles, total number of loci, number of loci with fruit, no fruit locule number , and the reason the number of loci with fruits / total number of loci. Characterization were carried out fifty fruits of each of the three clusters collected in each area. The characterization of fruits were evaluated: fruit weight, diameter longitudinal, transverse diameter, transverse diameter ratio / longitudinal diameter, the pulp mass, mass of bark, seed mass, and mass of endocarp. The pulp included: pH...

Influence of the palm tree species on the variability of Rhodnius nasutus Sta? l, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Paula, Alexandre Silva de; Belis?rio, Carlota Josefovicz; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo; Bezerra, Cl?udia Mendon?a; Harry, Myriam; Diotaiuti, Lil?ia Gon?alves
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto Publicador: Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto
Tipo: Artigo publicado em periodico
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This work evaluated the occurrence and genetic structure of Rhodnius nasutus sampled in two sites using morphometry and microsatellites. These sites, presented distinct abiotic features and palm trees: (i) nine Attalea speciosa palm trees, so called babacu, were sampled from the Meruoca Mountain Ridge, a sloping region of reminiscent forest in the state of Ceara? , Brazil, and (ii) 17 Copernicia pruniferapalm trees, so called carnauba, were sampled in the scrub savanna region (Sobral district) that surrounds the mountain ridge. Of the twenty-six palm trees dissected, 70.6% of carnauba and 88.9% of babac ? u were infested by R. nasutus. The micro-climatic data where R. nasutus were sheltered demonstrated that the babacu and carnau? ba palm trees presented significant differences ( p < 0.05) in relation to the external environment, except for temperature and relative humidity regulation, suggesting that the architecture of the babac? u crown keeps a more stable micro-environment. The morphometric studies of the F1 generation demonstrated that insects from the babacu(A. speciosa ) were significantly larger ( p = 0.000) than those collected in carnauba ( C. prunifera) palm trees. Also, microsatellite analysis demonstrated a high genetic differentiation between the two groups of R. nasutus (R st = 0.77). Our results suggest that the difference in size between the populations is probably related to an incipient process of genetic drift in populations associated to each palm tree...

Efeito de substratos e do sombreamento no desenvolvimento de plantas de palmeira-ju??ara Euterpe edulis (Mart.) e palmeira-real Roystonea regia (Kunth); Effect of substrates and shading on development of palm-ju??ara Euterpe edulis (Mart.) e palm-royal Roystonea regia (Kunth) plants

BRAHM, Rafael ??cker
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agricultura familiar; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Sistemas de Produ????o Agr??cola Familiar; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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The growth of the species of ju??ara palm Tree Euterpe edulis (Mart.) and royal palm Roystonea regia (Kunth) has no record of studies focusing on south region of Rio Grande do Sul State. It is necessary to identify a system that ensures the proper growth of plants of these species. In this context, these works provide alternatives for producing seedlings with adaptability for family farms of southern half of Rio Grande do Sul. The effect of different substrates on initial growth of the seedlings and the appropriate level of shading for their initial development were determined. The seedlings were grown on Esta????o Experimental Cascata, Embrapa Clima Temperado. The experiments reported in Chapters I determine the effect of different substrates. The seedlings grew from seeds originated in a family farm located in the municipalities of Tabai and Pelotas, RS. A combination of different substrates was used, represented by the treatments T1 - Plantmax??, T2 - forest soil, T3 - clayey soil, T4 - forest soil:clayey soil 1:1 (v:v), T5 - forest soil:carbonized rice husk 3:1 (v:v), T6 - forest soil:carbonized rice husk 1:1 (v:v), T7 - forest soil:rice husk in natura 1:1 (v:v), T8 - clayey soil:carbonized rice husk 3:1 (v:v), T9 - clayey soil:carbonized rice husk 1:1 (v:v)...

La palmera en el paisaje de huerta del bajo segura. Un elemento identitario necesitado de protecci??n

Canales Mart??nez, Gregorio; L??pez Pomares, Alejandro
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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La palmera, como aprovechamiento agr??cola, ha estado estrechamente vinculada al espacio de la Huerta generado a lo largo de los siglos en la llanura aluvial del Segura. Los m??ltiples usos derivados de ??sta han fortalecido su permanencia, a la vez que la imagen identitaria con que se asocia al territorio. Su presencia ha quedado plasmada en escritos de todo tipo desde la Ilustraci??n hasta nuestros d??as, lo que permite contrastar la visi??n de entonces con la situaci??n que atraviesa en la actualidad. Para ello se analizan tres ??mbitos diferentes, San Isidro, una poblaci??n entre palmeras tras la colonizaci??n de suelos salinos; el Palmeral de Orihuela, como pervivencia de un enclave hist??rico ligado a los rendimientos mixtos de la tierra; y finalmente, la dispersi??n generalizada de la palmera por el medio agrario.; The palm tree, regarded as an agrarian resource, has been closely linked to the orchards, or spaces of "Huerta", developed over centuries in the Segura River fertile plains. The multiple uses of the palm tree have guaranteed its continuity and strengthened its association with the identity image related to this territory. Its presence has been captured in all types of written documents, from the Enlightenment to recent times...

Thermodynamic characterization of the palm tree Roystonea regia peroxidase stability

Zamorano, Laura S.; Pina, David G.; Arellano, Juan B.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Zhadan, Andrey P.; Calvete, Juan J.; Sanz, Libia; Nielsen, Peter R.; Villar, Enrique; Gavel, Olga; Roig, Manuel G.; Watanabe, Leandra; Polikarpov, Igor; Shnyrov, Valery L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 620365 bytes; application/pdf
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The structural stability of a peroxidase, a dimeric protein from royal palm tree (Roystonea regia) leaves, has been characterized by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, steady-state tryptophan fluorescence and analytical ultracentifugation under different solvent conditions. It is shown that the thermal and chemical (using guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn-HCl)) folding/unfolding of royal palm tree peroxidase (RPTP) at pH 7 is a reversible process involving a highly cooperative transition between the folded dimer and unfolded monomers, with a free stabilization energy of about 23 kcal per mol of monomer at 25 degrees C. The structural stability of RPTP is pH-dependent. At pH 3, where ion pairs have disappeared due to protonation, the thermally induced denaturation of RPTP is irreversible and strongly dependent upon the scan rate, suggesting that this process is under kinetic control. Moreover, thermally induced transitions at this pH value are dependent on the protein concentration, allowing it to be concluded that in solution RPTP behaves as dimer, which undergoes thermal denaturation coupled with dissociation. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of RPTP denaturation at pH 3 was accomplished on the basis of the simple kinetic scheme N-->kD...

Thermal stability of peroxidase from Chamaerops excelsa palm tree at pH 3

Zamorano, Laura S.; Barrera Vilarmau, Susana; Arellano, Juan B.; Zhadan, Galina G.; Hidalgo-Cuadrado, Nazaret; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Roig, Manuel G.; Shnyrov, Valery L.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 2164318 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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7 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables.-- PMID: 19428462 [PubMed].-- Printed version published May 1, 2009.; The structural stability of a peroxidase, a dimeric protein from palm tree Chamaerops excelsa leaves (CEP), has been characterized by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism and steady-state tryptophan fluorescence at pH 3. The thermally induced denaturation of CEP at this pH value is irreversible and strongly dependent upon the scan rate, suggesting that this process is under kinetic control. Moreover, thermally induced transitions at this pH value are dependent on the protein concentration, leading to the conclusion that in solution CEP behaves as dimer, which undergoes thermal denaturation coupled with dissociation. Analysis of the kinetic parameters of CEP denaturation at pH 3 was accomplished on the basis of the simple kinetic scheme N -(k)-> D [View source], where k is a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, as given by the Arrhenius equation; N is the native state, and D is the denatured state, and thermodynamic information was obtained by extrapolation of the kinetic transition parameters to an infinite heating rate.; This work was partially supported by projects SA-06-00-0 ITACYL-Universidad de Salamanca and SA 129A07 (Junta de Castilla y León) and BFU2004-01432 and BFU2007-68107-C02-02/BMC (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia) Spain. L.S.Z was fellowship holders from the Junta de Castilla y León...

Usina de Extração de Gordura de Dendê para Produção de Biodiesel é Inaugurada no Pará; Extraction Factory for Palm-Tree Fat to Produce Biodiesel is Inaugurated in Pará

Guilherme B. C. Martins; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Revista Virtual de Química Publicador: Revista Virtual de Química
Tipo: ; Formato: binary/octet-stream
Publicado em 23/02/2013 Português
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A empresa Vale inaugurou no Pará, no dia 26/06/2012, a Biopalma, usina destinada à extração de gordura de dendê. O objetivo da Vale é por meio da Biopalma produzir biodiesel a partir da gordura de dendê com o intuito de abastecer a sua frota de veículos e máquinas utilizando a blenda B20. Com essa iniciativa a empresa pretende adaptar-se a matrizes energéticas mais limpas. A empresa também inova no mercado de biocombustíveis adotando o dendê como matéria-prima, e a utilização do B20. Além disso, a empresa reafirma a importância da oleoquímica no mercado interno, principalmente para gerar processos sustentáveis. DOI: 10.5935/1984-6835.20130012; The company Vale has inaugurated in Pará, on 26/06/2012 Biopalma, a factory dedicated to the extraction of palm-tree fat. The objective of Vale is to produce biodiesel from palm-tree fat to supply its own fleet of vehicles and machines using B20 blend. With this initiative the company aims to go further into more clean energetic arrays. The company innovates the market of biofuels adopting palm-tree as a raw material, as well as using B20, creating a new tendency in the biodiesel market. The company also highlights the importance of the oil-chemistry in the internal market...

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant

Luis,G.; Rubio,C.; Gutiérrez,A. J.; Hernández,C.; González-Weller,D.; Revert,C.; Castilla,A.; Abreu,P.; Hardisson,A.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2012 Português
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Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition...