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Parliaments and parliamentarians as international actors

Malamud, Andrés, 1967-; Stavridis, Stelios
Fonte: Ashgate Publicador: Ashgate
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Parliaments and parliamentarians traditionally have been a feature of domestic politics, as a distinctive branch of government or as representatives of the people respectively. However, lately they have come to develop a different role linked to international rather than domestic politics, especially regarding regional organizations. Parliamentary institutions engage in international affairs in three major ways: 1) by influencing foreign policy through national parliaments; 2) by conducting parallel diplomatic relations, known as parliamentary diplomacy; and 3) by establishing and empowering parliaments as representative bodies of international, often regional, organizations. These roles differ in form and substance. The first is a classical function of parliaments and implies no policymaking innovation, although the degree to which parliaments do so varies from one democracy to another. The second function is more recent and has focused mainly on peace-building and conflict-prevention activities. The third is the most atypical function, and is ideally oriented towards supranational institution building.

O Tratado de Lisboa e a adaptação dos parlamentos nacionais aos desafios da integração europeia: o caso dos representantes permanentes dos Parlamentos junto das instituições da União Europeia

Pinheiro, Bruno Alexandre Dias
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas Publicador: Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 11/12/2012 Português
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Relatório profissional de atividade para obtenção de grau de Mestre em Relações Internacionais (Estudos Europeus); O Tratado de Lisboa estatui que "Os Parlamentos nacionais (PN) contribuem ativamente para o bom funcionamento da União (UE)". Para que os PN possam desempenhar esse papel, carecem de informação atempada, pertinente, contextualizada e objetiva do trabalho das instituições da UE, motivo pelo qual 26 de 27 estados membros tomaram a opção política de criar a sua própria fonte de informação em Bruxelas, através do destacamento de um funcionário para estar em permanência junto das instituições europeias, obtendo elementos relevantes para a atividade parlamentar no domínio europeu, sem mediação dos Governos ou das instituições. O presente relatório faz uma descrição detalhada das funções desempenhadas pelo candidato enquanto Representante Permanente da Assembleia da República junto da UE, promovendo, sempre que seja pertinente, uma dimensão crítica orientada para o trabalho desta instituição. Deste modo, procuraremos utilizar a literatura relevante sobre esta temática e estabelecer um contexto histórico-institucional de referência, para, de um ponto de vista prático, discutir de que modo é que os vários Parlamentos nacionais...

Parliaments as Peacebuilders

Draman, Rasheed
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The potential role of parliaments in fragile states is often not realized due to limited resources and capacity. Yet, strengthening parliaments is critical to both avoid and recover from conflict.

Helping Parliaments to Help the Poor

Stapenhurst, Frederick C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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One of the key features of the PRSP process is that, while government led, there should be broad consultations within countries and wide participation by civil society, to ensure "country ownership." The involvement of Parliaments could be even more pervasive, however, given that, in many countries, parliaments have become key pressures for government reform, aiming to see that governments work more effectively, efficiently, and openly. How this was done depended on circumstances and opportunities to achieve positive change. The strengthening of parliamentary committee capacity seems to offer the most promise, but significant improvements in performance which committees work to achieve are often necessary to have such an impact.

Tools for Legislative Oversight: An Empirical Investigation

Pelizzo, Riuccardo; Stapenhurst, Frederick C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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Parliaments are the institutions through which governments are held accountable to the electorate. They have a wide range of tools with which to carry out this oversight function, but until recently little analysis had been undertaken on the characteristics or use of such tools. This paper uses data for 83 countries that was collected in 2001 to investigate whether the oversight potential relates to three variables, namely the form of government (presidential, semi-presidential, or parliamentary), per capita income levels, and the level of democracy. The paper finds that oversight potential is greatly affected by the form of government, per capita income levels, and levels of democracy. Countries with parliamentary forms of government, higher income levels, and which are more democratic have a greater number of oversight tools and greater oversight potential. While the oversight potential follows this general trend, the use of committees of enquiry, interpellations and ombudsman offices follows a different pattern. The use of interpellations as an oversight tool is most common in high income countries...

Subnational parliaments in EU policy control : explaining the variations across Europe

BORONSKA-HRYNIEWIECKA, Karolina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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The inclusion of subnational parliaments into the Early Warning System for subsidiarity control has generated transforming dynamics in the parliamentary modus operandi in EU decentralized systems. The empirical findings reveal considerable variations in the pace and scope of subnational parliamentary activity in ex-ante EU policy control challenging the existing theories of subnational mobilization. This article sheds light on these variations drawing from a comparative institutional analysis. It offers a theoretical framework which permits to account for the differences in the patterns of subnational parliamentary mobilization in the framework of the EWS, and beyond. This paper claims that the two most important variables behind the scope and effectiveness of regional parliamentary activity are the meso-level factors of the relationship between executive and legislature at subnational level and the position of regional executives in domestic governance arrangements.

National parliaments and the policing of the subsidiarity principle

GRANAT, Katarzyna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This PhD thesis studies the role of national parliaments in the policing of the EU subsidiarity principle. The Treaty of Lisbon enshrines the Early Warning System (EWS) in Protocol No. 2, according to which national parliaments may review Commission proposals for compatibility with the subsidiarity principle expressed in Article 5(3) TEU. On the basis of the number of reasoned opinions submitted, which count as votes, national parliaments may trigger either a ‘yellow’ or an ‘orange’ card, each of which entails different consequences for the Commission draft act in question. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the functioning of the EWS and to explore why national parliaments participate in this mechanism. To achieve this task, this thesis analyses the reasoned opinions issued under the EWS. Hence, this thesis firstly conducts a case study of the Commission proposal on the establishment of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office which triggered a ‘yellow card’. This example shows that national parliaments tend to conduct a broad scrutiny of Commission proposals, which includes aspects other than the subsidiarity of the proposal: its legal basis, the competence of the EU to act, its proportionality and its substance. This practice of national parliaments is evaluated according to a textual...

National parliaments and governmental accountability in the crisis : theory and practice

FROMAGE, Diane
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This contribution studies the question of governmental accountability in the crisis. It looks at how three Member State’s parliaments – French, German and Spanish – have exchanged on European Council meetings and Euro summits organized between 2010 and 2014. It first analyzes the formal obligations these Governments have in this domain before focusing on the practice; how National parliaments have used their prerogatives and how the established customary rules have compensated for the lack of formal rights in favour of National parliaments. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the role of the established practice and its consequences and some potential prospects.; Published on Saturday, 24 January 2015.

Taking budgetary powers away from national parliaments? : on parliamentary prerogatives in the Eurozone crisis

FASONE, Cristina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper analyses if and how the position of national parliaments has changed after the adoption of Euro-crisis measures and their first enforcement and tries to draw some conclusions on whether these changes are just temporary or, rather, are likely to endure in the long term and hence to represent a permanent transformation of national constitutional systems. The paper challenges the mainstream assumption that the powers of national parliaments in budgetary procedures have been annulled. It is argued that once the ratification/application and implementation of the most contested Euro-crisis provisions – Fiscal Compact, European Stability Mechanism Treaty and rescue packages – have taken place, in reaction to the most acute phase of the crisis, the combination of national and EU rules, for example on the European Semester are likely to preserve the budgetary powers of national parliaments compared to the pre-crisis period. Parliamentary passivity does not derive, or at least not primarily, from the Euro-crisis legal measures; rather from the political context that the Euro-crisis has triggered. Thus any analysis of the role of parliaments in the Eurozone crisis has to take into account parliamentary institutions ‘in context’...

Why budget accountability fails? The elusive links between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of the budget

SANTISO,CARLOS
Fonte: Editora 34 Publicador: Editora 34
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 Português
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ABSTRACTParliaments and audit agencies have critical and complementary roles in the oversight of the budget and the enforcement of government accountability. Yet, the nexus between parliaments and audit agencies is one of the weakest links in the accountability chain, generating an accountability gap in the budget process. This articles analyses the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies in the oversight of government finances during the latter stages of the budget process. Using proxies to evaluate the quality of those linkages, such as the follow-up to audit findings and the discharge of government, it shows important dysfunctions in the interactions between parliaments and audit agencies due to a combination of technical capacity constraints and political economy disincentives. It suggests that the effective functioning of the system of checks and balances in public budgeting critically hinges on the agility of the linkages between accountability institutions. As such, the failure of budget accountability is due to systemic dysfunctions in the systems of accountability, rather than the failure of an individual accountability institution acting in isolation. In addition, the effectiveness of the horizontal accountability architecture depends on the political economy incentives shaping the budget process...

Parliaments, public opinion and parliamentary : elections in Europe

FASONE, Cristina; FROMAGE, Diane; LEFKOFRIDI, Zoe
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
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The contributions collected in this Max Weber Working Papers Special Issue were first delivered at a conference held at the European University Institute and jointly organised by the Max Weber Programme for Postdoctoral Studies and the Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies in March 2015 on ‘Parliaments and parliamentary elections in Europe’. Following the transformations undertaken by the European and national parliaments after the Treaty of Lisbon, the 2014 European elections, the unprecedented politicization and the challenges posed to representative democracy by the Eurozone crisis, the Special Issue aims to investigate three intertwined themes. (I) Parliamentary representation: European and national at the same time?; (II) national parliaments in EU policymaking; and (III) dynamics of Euroscepticism and its effects on law-making. In particular the papers deal with the ability of parliaments to democratically represent people in the European Union today and to affect the European integration process, with the asymmetric involvement of national parliaments in the EU, their dynamics of cooperation as well as between them and the European Parliament, and finally, with the implications on EU democratic legitimacy of recent developments regarding parliamentary input provided at a very early stage of the European policymaking. Other issues...

An opportunity for cooperation or a disaster in the making: do hung parliaments work in the Australian House of Representatives

Dooley, Rebecca
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Australia currently has the first hung parliament since 1940 and anyone who reads or watches the news should be aware that it is not going well. Up to 22 September 2011, Labor had lost twenty-five divisions. Labor will most likely not be able to pass its proposed amendments to the Migration Act 1958 (Cth). The last times a government lost a division and failed to pass a piece of its legislation were in 1962 and 1929 respectively, and both prompted an election. The Greens and Wilkie are dictating the government's policies on climate change and pokies reform respectively. Finally, even though Julia Gillard is polling lower than Kevin Rudd was being he was deposed, Labor cannot remove her as leader because both Wilkie and Oakeshott have declared that their deals are with Gillard, not Labor. However, the current hung parliament is not just an embarrassment for Labor, it also jeopardises four components of the Australian political systems: stability, effectiveness, responsible government and prerogative of parties to choose their own leaders. Furthermore, these issues are clearly symptomatic of hung parliaments, as the 1940-1943 hung parliament had similar problems. Political stability exists to the extent that members of society restrict themselves to the behaviour patterns that fall within the limits imposed by political role expectations. Australians have grown in expect certain behavioural patterns in the House of Representatives- one of the major parties forms government...

Oversight of Parliamentary Libraries and Research Services in Adjusting to the Emergence of New Technology and the Changing Works and Needs of Parliamentarians in Westminster System Parliaments Namely the United Kingdom, Ireland and Scotland during Contemporary Era

Adhipuri, Parameita
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Parliamentary libraries and research services are paramount to the proper functioning of Westminster system parliaments as they provide impartial, timely and reliable information to their clients. They serve parliamentarians, their staff and committee. Unlike conventional libraries, parliamentary libraries provide research services to cater to the works and needs their clients. Furthermore, new technology has altered and supported the services provided by parliamentary libraries for the past few decades. It has improved the efficiency and quality of library services for instance online database, internet and mobile devices. Also, it adjusts to the changing needs and works of parliamentarians. This report provides an overview as to how parliamentary libraries and research services adjust to the emergence of new information and communications technology and the changing works and needs of parliamentarians in Westminster system parliaments namely the United Kingdom, Ireland and Scotland from 1980s onwards. In addition, it elucidates the oversight mechanism of those parliamentary libraries and the conclusion includes a comparative analysis on occurring trends, including the Australian Parliamentary Library (APL). It provides background information for Senator Bilyk's study tour to parliamentary libraries in Europe. The House of Commons Library (HoCL) has used technology intensively to deliver its services. As parliamentarians come from younger generations and are more technologically sophisticated...

Parliaments as Peacebuilders in Conflict-Affected Countries

O'Brien, Mitchell; Stapenhurst, Rick; Johnston, Niall
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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The role of parliament in conflict-affected countries becomes even more evident when the correlation between poverty and conflict is considered. This book is pioneering in that it considers what parliaments in conflict-affected countries can do, while performing their normal everyday functions, to not only contribute directly to conflict prevention but also aid peace building by combating poverty. By addressing issues of poverty, equitable distribution of resources, and economic development, parliamentarians can attempt to guard against the creation of an enabling environment that is prone to the escalation of conflict. In line with their respective missions, the World Bank Institute and the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association have examined issues facing parliamentary development in the hope of strengthening parliaments' capacity to tackle the diverse challenges they face. Among those challenges is meeting growing community expectations of the contribution parliaments make to resolving important issues and addressing community demands. In recognition of the rising number of parliaments that are operating in conflict-affected societies...

The Role of Parliaments in Curbing Corruption

Stapenhurst, Rick; Johnston, Niall; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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In most countries, Parliament has the constitutional mandate to both oversee government and to hold government to account; often, audit institutions, ombuds and anti-corruption agencies report to parliament, as a means of ensuring both their independence from government and reinforcing parliament's position at the apex of accountability institutions. At the same time, parliaments can also play a key role in promoting accountability, through constituency outreach, public hearings, and parliamentary commissions.

Scrutinizing Public Expenditures : Assessing the Performance of Public Accounts Committees

Stapenhurst, Rick; Sahgal, Vinod; Woodley, William; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In 2002, David McGee wrote a comprehensive report on two important elements in the system of public financial accountability, namely the office of the Auditor General and the parliamentary oversight committee commonly referred to as the Public Accounts Committee (PAC). The purpose of the present paper is to deepen McGee's analysis of PACs. In particular, the authors define PAC success and identify those factors that affect PAC peformance. They use data that were collected by the World Bank Institute in 2002, when a survey questionnaire was sent to 51 national and state/provincial parliaments in Commonwealth countries in Asia and Australasia, and Canada and the United Kingdom. The authors find that the institutional factors which most account for the success of the PACs are the focus on government's financial activity rather than its policies, the power to investigate all past and present government expenses, the power to follow up on government action in response to its recommendations, and its relationship with the Auditors General.

Parliament's Role in Poverty Reduction Strategies

Kroon, Cindy; Stapenhurst, Rick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Parliaments play a crucial role in improving governance and public service delivery. Those countries with strong parliamentary oversight have been able to shape policy directions and priorities. This article explores the growing role of parliaments in crafting poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) since the process was first launched in 1999. Although the parliaments of many developing countries still have a long way to go before they will maximize their ability to strengthen the outcomes from country-level poverty reduction strategies (PRSs), the first decade of the poverty reduction strategy process has produced some important examples of the ways that parliaments can get involved, shape the debate, and learn from the experiences of legislatures in other countries. The cases of Tanzania and Malawi illustrate how parliamentary committees and parliaments can develop in terms of policy leverage and leadership.

Parliamentary functions portrayed on European parliaments' websites

Leston-Bandeira,Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2009 Português
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This article uses data from a pilot study on the websites of 15 parliaments in Europe to identify which parliamentary functions are portrayed on these websites. The pilot study undertook a contents analysis focused on four parliamentary functions: legislation, legitimation, representation and scrutiny, to ascertain the extent to which each of these functions is present on the websites analysed. As parliaments face difficulties of public perception, their websites become an important tool for dissemination of parliamentary work. And yet we know little about what these websites portray, when it comes to parliamentary activity. Are these websites a reflection of parliamentary work? To what extent do these websites express political debate? To what extent are these websites comprehensive to all of the roles performed by parliaments? This article shows that legislation is the main focus of parliamentary websites in Europe and representation the one that has less devoted space. This may go some way to explain why some parliamentary websites are considered as too dense and not user friendly. We also show that parliamentary websites tend to focus on parliamentary outputs to the detriment of parliamentary actors. Because of their institutional collective representation...

PARLIAMENTARY FUNCTIONS PORTRAYED ON EUROPEAN PARLIAMENTS' WEBSITES

Leston-Bandeira, Cristina; Universidade de Hull
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 Português
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This article uses data from a pilot study on the websites of 15 parliaments in Europe to identify whichparliamentary functions are portrayed on these websites. The pilot study undertook a contents analysisfocused on four parliamentary functions: legislation, legitimation, representation and scrutiny, to ascertainthe extent to which each of these functions is present on the websites analysed. As parliaments face difficultiesof public perception, their websites become an important tool for dissemination of parliamentary work. Andyet we know little about what these websites portray, when it comes to parliamentary activity. Are thesewebsites a reflection of parliamentary work? To what extent do these websites express political debate? Towhat extent are these websites comprehensive to all of the roles performed by parliaments? This articleshows that legislation is the main focus of parliamentary websites in Europe and representation the one thathas less devoted space. This may go some way to explain why some parliamentary websites are consideredas too dense and not user friendly. We also show that parliamentary websites tend to focus on parliamentaryoutputs to the detriment of parliamentary actors. Because of their institutional collective representation...

Representative democracy across levels? National parliaments and EU constitutionalism

Jancic, Davor
Fonte: Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb Publicador: Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This contribution analyses the meaning and practical application of the concepts of representative democracy and constitutionalism in relation to national parliaments within the European Union. A specific focus of investigation is the post-Lisbon function of national parliaments as conceptualised in a variety of models of EU constitutionalism. These models underline the importance of the independent roles of national parliaments by observing them not in the classic constellation of hierarchy but rather in that of heterarchy. However, there is as yet no sophisticated methodological approach for assessing the interactions between national parliaments and EU institutions and there is very little evidence of national parliamentarians performing as European actors. In order to test the theoretical premises, the article delves into the political praxis and examines the manner in which MPs and senators apply scrutiny instruments regarding a number of EU dossiers that were the object of cross-level discussions within the frameworks of COSAC, the Barroso Initiative and the early warning mechanism. The objective of the inquiry is to test the hypothesis that national parliamentary scrutiny of EU decision making does not occur as an isolated domestic process but as a process that is interdependent with those unravelling at the EU level...