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Soil protection in sloping mediterranean agri-environments: lectures and exercises

Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.)
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Livro
Português
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The long history of the Mediterranean records striking examples of success and failure of land use models and management practices, which, in the latter case, are a heavy heritage for the soil resource in this basin. At present day, many forms of soil degradation threaten Mediterranean soils as, for instance, salinization, pollution, structural degradation and erosion. There is a geographical pattern of distribution of these forms of soil degradation and soil erosion is first in rank as far as sloping areas are concerned. Corresponding to a very large surface of Mediterranean land, these are especially sensitive areas, where soils are a qualitatively scarce resource. Sloping Mediterranean agri-environments heir a very significant part of cropping systems, crops and products traditional of the basin, vineyards and olive groves being the most relevant ones. Improvements in productivity and economic income of these areas are imperative to reduce population depletion and its impacts on territory sustainability. On the other hand, the long-term cultivated and highly eroded slopes ask for alternative land use models and management options that allow recovery of already much degraded environments. The importance of sloping areas...

Recombinant rabies virus glycoprotein synthesis in bioreactor by transfected Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells carrying a constitutive or an inducible promoter

VENTINI, Daniella Cristina; ASTRAY, Renato Mancini; LEMOS, Marcos Alexandre Nobre; JORGE, Soraia Attie Calil; RIQUELME, Camilo Calderon; SUAZO, Claudio Alberto Torres; TONSO, Aldo; PEREIRA, Carlos Augusto
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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S2 cell populations (S2AcRVGP2K and S2MtRVGP-Hy) were selected after transfection of gene expression vectors carrying the cDNA encoding the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) gene under the control of the constitutive (actin) or inductive (metallothionein) promoters. These cell populations were cultivated in a 1 L bioreactor mimicking a large scale bioprocess. Cell cultures were carried out at 90 rpm and monitored/controlled for temperature (28 degrees C) and dissolved oxygen (10 or 50% air saturation). Cell growth attained similar to 1.5-3 x 10(7) cells/mL after 3-4 clays of cultivation. The constitutive synthesis of RVGP in S2AcRVGP2K cells led to values of 0.76 mu g/10(7) cells at day 4 of culture. The RVGP synthesis in S2MtRVGP-Hy cell fraction increased upon CuSO(4) induction attaining specific productivities of 1.5-2 mu g/10(7) cells at clays 4-5. RVGP values in supernatant as a result of cell lysis were always very low (<0.2 mu g/mL) indicating good integrity of cells in culture. Overall the RVGP productivity was of 1.5-3 mg/L. Our data showed an important influence of dissolved oxygen on RVGP synthesis allowing a higher and sustained productivity by S2MtRVGP-Hy cells when cultivated with a DO of 10% air saturation. The RVGP productivity in bioreactors shown here mirrors those previously observed for T-flasks and shaker bottles and allow the preparation of the large RVGP quantities required for studies of structure and function. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; FAPESP[02/09482-3]; FAPESP[07/52264-0]; FAPESP[05/51746-6]; CNPq; Butantan Foundation

Monitoring and determination of fungi and mycotoxins in stored Brazil nuts

Baquião, Arianne Costa; Oliveira, Maitê M. M. de; Reis, Tatiana Alves dos; Zorzete, Patricia; Atayde, Danielle Diniz; Correa, Benedito
Fonte: International Association for Food Protection; Iowa Publicador: International Association for Food Protection; Iowa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is an important commodity from the Brazilian Amazon, and approximately 37,000 tons (3.36 × 10⁷ kg) of Brazil nuts are harvested each year. However, substantial nut contamination by Aspergillus section Flavi occurs, with subsequent production of mycotoxins. In this context, the objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in 110 stored samples of cultivated Brazil nut (55 samples of nuts and 55 samples of shells) collected monthly for 11 months in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. The samples were inoculated in duplicate onto Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus agar and potato dextrose agar for the detection of fungi, and the presence of mycotoxins was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The most prevalent fungi in nuts and shells were Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid were not detected in any of the samples analyzed. The low water activity of the substrate was a determinant factor for the presence of fungi and the absence of aflatoxin in Brazil nut samples. The high frequency of isolation of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains...

Efeito de estirpes fracas do PRSV-W e do ZYMV sobre a produção de quatro variedades de Cucurbita pepo; Effect of protective mild strains of PRSV-W and ZYMV on the yield of four varieties of Cucurbita pepo

Bonilha, Estela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2007 Português
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Entre as cucurbitáceas cultivadas no Brasil, a abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo L.) apresenta grande importância econômica, notadamente no Estado de São Paulo, a maior área de plantio. No Brasil, já foram encontrados nove vírus capazes de infectar esta espécie. Os mais freqüentes e responsáveis por prejuízos significativos à produção da abobrinha de moita são os do mosaico do mamoeiro – estirpe melancia (Papaya ringspot virus - type W – PRSV-W) e do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha (Zucchini yellow mosaic virus – ZYMV), devido principalmente à sua alta sensibilidade. A premunização das plantas com estirpes fracas vem sendo investigada há mais de 10 anos no Brasil e surge como uma alternativa interessante para controle destas viroses. A premunização de abobrinha de moita só foi estudada até o momento em plantas da variedade Caserta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de dar continuidade a estes estudos avaliando o efeito de estirpes premunizantes PRSV-W-1 e ZYMV-M na produção quantitativa e qualitativa de quatro variedades comerciais de C. pepo: Samira, Novita Plus, AF-2847 e Yasmin. Os resultados obtidos em experimentos conduzidos em estufa plástica mostraram que as plantas destas variedades infectadas com a estirpe fraca ZYMV-M...

Controle do tripes na bananeira, cv. Galil-7 (Musa sp. AAA); Thrips control on banana, cultivated variety Galil-7 (Musa sp. AAA)

Sakai, Ronaldo Kazuo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/01/2011 Português
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O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o controle do tripes (Thysanoptera) na cultura da bananeira (Musa sp), utilizando a proteção do cacho com sacos plásticos associados ou não com uso de inseticida, no momento da emissão da inflorescência e 15 dias após a emissão, fase em que o cacho apresenta as pencas formadas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com oito tratamentos e cinco repetições. Foram instalados dois experimentos, sendo o primeiro de julho a novembro de 2009, e o segundo de novembro de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010. As avaliações foram feitas quinze dias após a emissão da inflorescência e no estádio de ponto de colheita dos frutos, quantificando os sintomas de tripes na segunda, quinta e penúltima pencas do cacho. Para o tripes da erupção foram verificados os sintomas existentes numa área de circulo de 2,85cm2 de cada fruto, e para o tripes da ferrugem foram avaliados a porcentagem dos sintomas existente na área do fruto mais atacado da penca. No primeiro experimento, realizado em temperaturas mais amenas ocorreu menor incidência de pragas, sendo que para tripes da ferrugem foi insignificante e para tripes da erupção os melhores tratamentos foram os que iniciaram a proteção na emissão da inflorescência com sacos plásticos e produtos químicos O segundo experimento...

Sistemas de manejo e a matéria orgânica de solo de várzea com cultivo de arroz; Soil management effect on organic matter in a flooded soil under rice in Southern Brazil

Nascimento, Paulo Cesar do; Bayer, Cimelio; Silva Neto, Luis de França da; Vian, Ana Clara; Vieiro, Fernando; Macedo, Vera Regina Mussoi
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Solos de várzea representam um importante depósito de C atmosférico, cujo efeito de práticas agrícolas na dinâmica da matéria orgânica (MO) necessita ser mais bem entendido. Este estudo foi realizado em experimento de longa duração (11 anos), localizado na Estação Experimental do Arroz de Cachoeirinha (RS), e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do sistema plantio direto (SPD) nos estoques de C orgânico, na labilidade da MO e na proteção física da MO em agregados de um Gleissolo Háplico (200 g kg-1 de argila) cultivado com arroz (Oriza sativa L.) irrigado por inundação, em comparação ao sistema de preparo convencional (SPC). O estoque de C orgânico da camada de 0–20 cm não foi afetado pelos sistemas de manejo de solo (38,39 Mg ha-1 no solo em SPC e 37,36 Mg ha-1 em SPD), o que indica que as taxas de decomposição da MO nesse ambiente anaeróbio não foram influenciadas pelo revolvimento do solo. A labilidade da MO nesse solo de várzea, avaliada pela razão C orgânico particulado (COP)/C orgânico associado aos minerais, foi bem superior à labilidade normalmente verificada em solos aerados e, na média da camada de 0–20 cm, não foi alterada pelos sistemas de manejo de solo (0,24 em SPC e 0,28 em SPD). O aumento da fração leve-oclusa (FLO) foi apenas uma pequena proporção (9 %) do aumento do teor de C orgânico total no SPD...

Xanthone biosynthesis in Hypericum perforatum cells provides antioxidant and antimicrobial protection upon biotic stress

Franklin, Gregory; Conceição, Luís F. R.; Kombrink, E.; Dias, Alberto Carlos Pires
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Xanthone production in Hypericum perforatum (HP) suspension cultures in response to elicitation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens co-cultivation has been studied. RNA blot analyses of HP cells co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens have shown a rapid up-regulation of genes encoding important enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway (PAL, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase) and xanthone biosynthesis (BPS, benzophenone synthase). Analyses of HPLC chromatograms of methanolic extracts of control and elicited cells (HP cells that were co-cultivated for 24 h with A. tumefaciens) have revealed a 12-fold increase in total xanthone concentration and also the emergence of many xanthones after elicitation. Methanolic extract of elicited cells exhibited significantly higher antioxidant and antimicrobial competence than the equivalent extract of control HP cells indicating that these properties have been significantly increased in HP cells after elicitation. Four major de novo synthesized xanthones have been identified as 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-8-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-prenyl xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-8-prenyl xanthone and paxanthone. Antioxidant and antimicrobial characterization of these de novo xanthones have revealed that xanthones play dual function in plant cells during biotic stress: (1) as antioxidants to protect the cells from oxidative damage and (2) as phytoalexins to impair the pathogen growth.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) - POCTI/AGR/40283/2001...

Comparison of Protection in Rabbits against Host-Adapted and Cultivated Borrelia burgdorferi following Infection-Derived Immunity or Immunization with Outer Membrane Vesicles or Outer Surface Protein A

Shang, Ellen S.; Champion, Cheryl I.; Wu, Xiao-Yang; Skare, Jonathan T.; Blanco, David R.; Miller, James N.; Lovett, Michael A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2000 Português
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In this study, infection-derived immunity in the rabbit model of Lyme disease was compared to immunity following immunization with purified outer membrane vesicles (OMV) isolated from Borrelia burgdorferi and recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA). Immunization of rabbits with OMV isolated from virulent strain B31 and its avirulent derivative B313 (lacking OspA and DbpA) conferred highly significant protection against intradermal injection with 6 × 104 in vitro-cultivated virulent B. burgdorferi. This is the first demonstration of protective immunogenicity induced by OMV. While immunization with OspA and avirulent B31 OMV provided far less protection against this challenge, rabbits with infection-derived immunity were completely protected. Protection against host-adapted B. burgdorferi was assessed by implantation of skin biopsies taken from rabbit erythema migrans (a uniquely rich source of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate tissue) containing up to 108 spirochetes. While all of the OMV- and OspA-immunized rabbits were fully susceptible to skin and disseminated infection, rabbits with infection-derived immunity were completely protected. Analysis of the antibody responses to outer membrane proteins, including DbpA, OspA, and OspC, suggests that the remarkable protection exhibited by the infection-immune rabbits is due to antibodies directed at antigens unique to or markedly up-regulated in host-adapted B. burgdorferi.

Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi

Pardo, José E.; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Álvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C.; Peñaranda, Jesús A.; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures

Pyles, Richard B.; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Baum, Marc M.; Elsom, Barry; Miller, Aaron L.; Maxwell, Carrie; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Li, Guangyu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Ferguson, Monique R.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2014 Português
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There is a pressing need for modeling of the symbiotic and at times dysbiotic relationship established between bacterial microbiomes and human mucosal surfaces. In particular clinical studies have indicated that the complex vaginal microbiome (VMB) contributes to the protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens including the life-threatening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The human microbiome project has substantially increased our understanding of the complex bacterial communities in the vagina however, as is the case for most microbiomes, very few of the community member species have been successfully cultivated in the laboratory limiting the types of studies that can be completed. A genetically controlled ex vivo model system is critically needed to study the complex interactions and associated molecular dialog. We present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic VMB from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. The immortalized vaginal epithelial cells used in the model and VMB cryopreservation methods provide the opportunity to reproducibly create replicates for lab-based evaluations of this important mucosal/bacterial community interface. The culture system also contains HIV-1 susceptible cells allowing us to study the impact of representative microbiomes on replication. Our results show that our culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of HIV-1. Further...

Neuroprotective Effects of the Cultivated Chondrus crispus in a C. elegans Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Liu, Jinghua; Banskota, Arjun H.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2015 Português
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Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly people, currently with no cure. Its mechanisms are not well understood, thus studies targeting cause-directed therapy or prevention are needed. This study uses the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans PD model. We demonstrated that dietary supplementation of the worms with an extract from the cultivated red seaweed Chondrus crispus decreased the accumulation of α-synulein and protected the worms from the neuronal toxin-, 6-OHDA, induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. These effects were associated with a corrected slowness of movement. We also showed that the enhancement of oxidative stress tolerance and an up-regulation of the stress response genes, sod-3 and skn-1, may have served as the molecular mechanism for the C. crispus-extract-mediated protection against PD pathology. Altogether, apart from its potential as a functional food, the tested red seaweed, C. crispus, might find promising pharmaceutical applications for the development of potential novel anti-neurodegenerative drugs for humans.

Impactos do estresse salino e da cobertura morta nas características químicas do solo e no desenvolvimento do amaranto; Impacts on the soil chemical characteristics and development of amaranth under saline stress and mulch

Costa, Djeson Mateus Alves da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Availability of good quality water has been reduced vertiginously, over the last decade, in the world. In some regions, the water resources have high concentration of the dissolved salts, these characteristics of the water make it s use impossible. Water quality can be a limitation for irrigated agriculture, principally in regions of arid or semiarid climate where the water resources are generally saline and are exposed at high evaporation ratio. For that reason, precipitation of the salts occurs near the soil surface and those salts themselves cumulate in the vegetal tissue, reducing the soil fertility and crop production. The adoption of tolerant crop to the water salinity and soil salinity, adaptable to the climatic conditions is other emergent necessity. This work had the goal of studying the effects of four salinity levels of the irrigation water salinity and use of mulch, dried leaves of Forest mangrove (Acacia mangiumWilld), in cultivated soil with amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus, BRS Alegria variety), in greenhouse. It was utilized the transplant of plants to PVC columns, containing 30 kg of silty loam soil, 10 days after emerging, with space of 50 x 50 cm between lines. Treatments were composed by combination of four levels of salinity (0.147; 1.500; 3.000 e 4.500 dS m-1)...

Agenda for Water Sector Strategy for North China : Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The acute water shortage, and pollution problems in North China have been exacerbated by the continued population growth, and the accelerated industrial expansion over the past half-century, conducive to increasingly severe freshwater shortages, and catastrophic consequences for the future. Significant commitments need to be made to rapidly implement strategies to bring water resource utilization back into a sustainable balance. The report reviews past and present situations, focusing on the future impacts of various social, and economic growth scenarios within the context of water management, where preconditions for its success are the combined requirements of complementary pricing, management, and regulatory reforms in water resources (including groundwater, water pollution, and wastewater reuse). Findings suggest a water demand management as proposed in the action plan - with further water price increases, and improving irrigation efficiency. Agricultural productivity depends on irrigation efficiency, thus water management calls for water-savings measures...

Agenda for Water Sector Strategy for North China : Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The acute water shortage, and pollution problems in North China have been exacerbated by the continued population growth, and the accelerated industrial expansion over the past half-century, conducive to increasingly severe freshwater shortages, and catastrophic consequences for the future. Significant commitments need to be made to rapidly implement strategies to bring water resource utilization back into a sustainable balance. The report reviews past and present situations, focusing on the future impacts of various social, and economic growth scenarios within the context of water management, where preconditions for its success are the combined requirements of complementary pricing, management, and regulatory reforms in water resources (including groundwater, water pollution, and wastewater reuse). Findings suggest a water demand management as proposed in the action plan - with further water price increases, and improving irrigation efficiency. Agricultural productivity depends on irrigation efficiency, thus water management calls for water-savings measures...

Opening Up the Markets for Seed Trade in Africa

Keyser, John C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Despite its vast agriculture potential, Africa is increasingly dependent on food imports from the rest of the world to satisfy its consumption needs. Food output has not kept pace with population growth, and more than 80 percent of production gains since 1980 have come from the expansion of cropped areas rather than from greater productivity of areas already cultivated. This paper looks at the current requirements for seed trade in Africa, the obstacles, status of ongoing plans for regional harmonization, challenges of harmonization, and opportunities for near-term improvement. With Africa increasingly dependent on food imports, regional economic communities have been discussing harmonized seed policies for many years. While agreement on key regulations pertaining to variety release, seed certification, and phytosanitary control is now falling into place, improved farmer access to quality seeds are many years away due to capacity limitations and legal obstacles. Without relying on complex rules, experience elsewhere shows there are many simple options for improved seed trade that African governments can implement directly while continuing to work towards full harmonization.

Promoting Nature-Based Tourism for Management of Protected Areas and Elephant Conservation in Sri Lanka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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Sri Lanka's ten-year development framework aims at accelerating economic growth while ensuring a path of sustainable development and prioritizing conservation of the country's natural heritage. It is in this context that this policy note seeks to examine the scope for enhancing protection of Sri Lanka's natural assets through nature based tourism as an instrument for conservation with a specific focus on elephant conservation. This study identifies development opportunities that increase tourism revenues and offers an assessment of the human/elephant conflict, which is the primary impediment to long term elephant conservation.

China Forest Policy : Deepening the Transition, Broadening the Relationship

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
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A pattern of forest area loss followed by a period of reforestation is representative of the forest transition process. Forest transition has been observed in many countries and is a feature of the development process. China reached its inflection point earlier and faster than most other countries that have gone through the transition. The report describes the success of reforms to forest resource tenure in collective forest areas. These reforms, which collectively amount to the largest transfer of forest assets in history, have effectively extended forest ownership to a million, mostly poor, rural households. These reforms have increased forest-based incomes, have increased timber harvests, and have done so sustainably by virtue of increasing planting and forest management and resource protection effort. The World Bank work in China's forestry sector has been successful. However, the developments discussed in this report raise new opportunities and challenges. It is no longer clear, for example, that World Bank loans are especially important in relation to the financing of commercial plantations. While the Bank has begun to move its plantation financing to public goods...

Shocks and Social Protection : Lessons from the Central American Coffee Crisis, Volume 2, Detailed Country Cases

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
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A major objective of this report is to provide a deeper, more policy relevant understanding of the welfare impacts of the coffee crisis - including the effects of the crisis on household income, consumption, poverty, as well as on basic human development outcomes, such as education and child nutrition. To do this, the study has generated a body of new empirical evidence, drawing from an unusually rich collection of household survey data from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. This includes "panels" of data from Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras that enable one to track changes in welfare of the same households over the period of the crisis. This has helped to provide a more detailed, clearer understanding of the crisis than has been available to date. Given the prevalence of both natural and economic shocks in Central America, another key objective of the study is to draw out the broader policy lessons of the coffee crisis - to enhance the abilities of the region's governments to respond to a range of shocks in a timely and effective manner. To do this, the report draws not only on evidence specific to the coffee crisis, but to other recent analysis on the role and efficacy of different safety net programs in the face of different types of shocks. By learning the lessons of recent experience...

Structural quality of soils cultivated with coffee and pasture in an environmental protection area

Lima,Vico Mendes Pereira; Magalhães,Ciro Augusto de Souza; Oliveira,Geraldo César de; Lima,José Maria de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2010 Português
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Studies of soils in Environmental Protection Areas (EPAs) are of great importance, because they are an essential component of ecosystems, directly interfering in environmental sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structural quality of soil cultivated with coffee and used as pasture in the Capituva's River microbasin, which is located in the Environmental Protection Area in Coqueiral, south of the state of Minas Gerais. Uniaxial compression test (preconsolidation test) and soil resistance to penetration were used. Undisturbed samples were taken from the surface layer (0-5 cm) of the soils in the area: a typic dystrophic Red Latosol (LVd - Oxisol), a typic eutrophic Red Argisol (PVe - Ultisol), and a typic dystrophic Haplic Cambisol (CXbd - Inceptisol). A significant linear positive correlation was observed between the results of the preconsolidation test and soil resistance to penetration. Load bearing capacity of soil could be estimated accordingly by means of penetration resistance for LVd, PVe, and CXbd. Cambisol - CXbd showed lower loading support capacity and resistance to penetration than LVd and PVe, due to the better crop management in this soil that resulted in higher physical quality which accounts for higher production and environmental sustainability.

Cultivated land conversion in China and the potential for food security and sustainability

Cui, Shunji; Kattumuri, Ruth
Fonte: Asia Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Asia Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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With over a billion people in China, the issue of cultivated land conversion is extremely important both in terms of food security and environmental sustainability. This paper investigates the relationship between cultivated land, environment, and food security in China; and seeks to identity the main challenges facing China in terms of arable land protection. It further discusses the concept and practical implications of land governance in relation to food and environmental security, and suggests that comprehensive, human-centred and sustainable land governance is required to enhance China’s food security and environmental sustainability.