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Evolução e determinantes da população rural e do emprego rural não-agropecuário no estado de Santa Catarina: período de 1991 a 2000; Evolution and determinants of the rural population and non-agricultural rural employment in the state of Santa Catarina - 1991 a 2000

Santos Filho, Jonas Irineu dos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2006 Português
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O comportamento do emprego no meio rural vêm se modificando ao longo do tempo. Pode-se perceber que o rural não é mais unicamente agropecuário. Existem atividades nãoagrícolas realizadas no meio rural vinculadas ou não à agropecuária, gerando o fenômeno conhecido como pluriatividade. O diagnóstico deste fenômeno para o Brasil já foi executado pelo projeto RURBANO. Entretanto, ainda existe uma lacuna na literatura nacional referente à utilização de modelos econométricos visando identificar os seus fatores determinantes. Além disto, estudos que tenham tentado entender como a vizinhança e os atributos do contexto em torno do município afetam o emprego não-agropecuário por pessoas residentes no meio rural ainda não foram efetuados. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisa as questões relacionadas ao emprego rural, com ênfase nas atividades que não pertencem diretamente à produção agropecuária para o estado de Santa Catarina. São enfocados os aspectos econômicos, sociais e locacionais que possam explicar a evolução do emprego rural no estado. A escolha de Santa Catarina, para o estudo de caso, deve-se a algumas características peculiares deste estado, as quais são: apresentar uma economia altamente diversificada...

A relação das práticas dos moradores de propriedades rurais com a conservação dos fragmentos florestais, na perspectiva da sustentabilidade; The relationship of the rural properties residents practices with conservation of forest fragments in the perspective of sustainability

Antunes, Juliana Hernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/05/2014 Português
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A partir do desencantamento do mundo natural, no século XVI, ocorrem alterações na relação ambiente e sociedade, possibilitando a poluição e depredação do meio para o acumulo de capital. E desde então, o modelo de desenvolvimento, amplamente difundido nas áreas rurais, vem promovendo a degradação ambiental e fragmentação florestal. Esta, por sua vez, está diretamente relacionada com a tomada de decisão dos moradores das áreas rurais, em suas práticas, sendo esta condicionada ao sistema cultural vigente. A hipótese testada foi de que quanto maior é a relação dos moradores das propriedades rurais com o mercado e a vida urbana, menor é a conservação dos fragmentos florestais e o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a relação existente entre as práticas dos moradores rurais do município de Jacareí e a presença dos fragmentos. Pretendeu-se também identificar quais práticas seriam compatíveis com os pressupostos de sustentabilidade, em suas diferentes dimensões, numa realidade concreta, de tal modo que tal análise pudesse contribuir como subsídios para propostas de políticas públicas voltadas para esse enfoque. Realizou-se um estudo de caso da área rural de Jacareí onde foram selecionadas 6 propriedades rurais localizadas em 10 estradas principais do município...

População rural: atitudes e opiniões. Análise do inquérito realizado em oito freguesias rurais

Geadas, Maria de Deus Bettencourt
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Mestrado em Economia Agrária e Sociologia Rural - Instituto Superior de Agronomia; The great changes in the agricultures and in the rural societies have deeply influenced the rural residents. In this study, we investigate the attitudes and opinions of rural residents, within the socioeconomic dynamics of rural spaces project. The study was based on the survey of 459 persons resident in eight rural parishes of the Portuguese Continent. The main work is the statistic treatment of the questions related with the main characters of rural society, attitude towards economic activities, sources of misunderstandings and conflicts, views of local development, social participation and relationships with local institutions. There were used statistics techniques applied to qualitative variables: frequency distributions, statistics crosstabs, Chi-square tests, residual adjusted standardized and correspondence analysis. The resident’s attitudes and opinions were characterized by the statistic study of attributes variables and survey’s variables. The relations between variables and the correspondence analysis showed the main factors of local resident’s sociologic differentiation--------------------------------As profundas alterações registadas nas agriculturas e nas sociedades rurais influenciaram marcadamente a população residente nos territórios rurais. No âmbito do estudo das dinâmicas socioeconómicas dos espaços rurais...

Relations between rural development projects and urban migration: the Köykent Project in Turkey

Erdönmez,Cihan; Özden,Sezgin
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 Português
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In Turkey, migration from rural areas to the cities began in the 1950s. Although various rural development approaches were discussed in the 1960s and 1970s, none of them was successfully put into practice. In 2000, Köykent, one of these rural development approaches was started in the borough of Mesudiye. This study examines the effect of the Köykent Project on the migration from rural areas to cities. The results show that the project affected the migration in two ways. First, the tendency of rural residents to migrate to the cities decreased. Second, the tendency of urban residents, who had previously migrated from villages to cities, to return to their home villages increased.

HIV/AIDS-related sexual risk behaviors among rural residents in China: potential role of rural-to-urban migration

Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2007 Português
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The relationship between rural-to-urban migration and the spread of HIV is well described, although most studies focus on sexual risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants at the urban destination areas. Few studies have examined the sexual risk behaviors of migrants who have returned from urban areas to their rural homes (“return migrants”) in comparison with those of local rural residents who have never migrated to cities (“non-migrants”). This study examines the potential association between rural-to-urban migration and sexual risk behaviors by comparing sexual risk behaviors between 553 return migrants and 441 non-migrants from same rural communities in China. Findings reveal that, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, return migrants in rural areas had higher levels of sexual risk, including unprotected sex, than non-migrants. Among return migrants, sexual risk behaviors were associated with age, gender, marital status, and number of different jobs they had previously held in the cities. These findings underscore the importance for HIV/AIDS education and prevention efforts targeting the migrant population in urban destinations as well as the return migrant population in rural areas.

High prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from healthy rural residents of Taian, China

Zhang, Hongna; Zhou, Yufa; Guo, Shuyuan; Chang, Weishan
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/03/2015 Português
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The study was carried out to understand the prevalence of CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-harboring Enterobacteriaceae and to analyze risk factors related with fecal carriage in healthy rural residents in Taian, China. A total of 620 stool samples were collected from rural residents. The ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae was screened using ChromID ESBL agar, and then further confirmed by double-disk diffusion. The CTX-M genes were determined using polymerase chain reaction. The risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M-positive isolates were analyzed using the standard statistic methods. 458 isolates carrying CTX-M gene (458/620, 73.9%) were obtained from different individuals, and the most dominant genotype was CTX-M-9 group (303/458, 66.2%). The dominant species were Escherichia coli (E. coli; 403/458, 88.0%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae; 26/458, 5.7%) among the isolates carrying CTX-M genes. All the CTX-M producers were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, but were all susceptible to biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem. The results of multivariate logistic regression model identified the enrollment in formal education (OR 2.321; 95% CI 1.302–3.768; P= 0.039), the hospitalization history within the last 6 months (OR 1.753; 95% CI 1.127–2.584; P= 0.031) and the antibiotics use within the last 6 months (OR 1.892; 95% CI 1.242–2.903; P= 0.034). The three variables were significantly associated with carriage of CTX-M ESBL producers (x2 = 21.21; df = 3; P< 0.001). The prevalence of fecal carriage of CTX-M ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among healthy rural humans in Taian was high...

The Invisible Poor : A Portrait of Rural Poverty in Argentina

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Many of the poorest Argentines are invisible in official statistics. Four million rural residents and another 12 million in small urban areas lie outside the reach of the Permanent Household Survey (EPH), which is the basis for poverty figures and most data on social conditions in the country. According to the best estimate, roughly a third of rural residents, more than a million people, live in poverty. The urban bias common too many countries have been accentuated by the lack of data on the rural poor. With little information on their condition, it is exceedingly difficult for policy makers to design policies and programs to help move people out of poverty. The report is organized as follows: chapter one profiles rural poverty base on the limited existing data, including the first in-depth analysis of rural poverty ever conducted with the 2001 population census. Chapter two presents findings from the new qualitative study of the rural poor conducted in the first half of 2007. Finally, chapter three concludes with a discussion of methodology for rural poverty analysis...

Migrant Opportunity and the Educational Attainment of Youth in Rural China

de Brauw, Alan; Giles, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper investigates how reductions of barriers to migration affect the decision of middle school graduates to attend high school in rural China. Change in the cost of migration is identified using exogenous variation across counties in the timing of national identity card distribution, which made it easier for rural migrants to register as temporary residents in urban destinations. The analysis first shows that timing of identification card distribution is unrelated to local rainfall shocks affecting migration decisions, and that timing is not related to proxies reflecting time-varying changes in village policy or administrative capacity. The findings show a robust negative relationship between migrant opportunity and high school enrollment. The mechanisms behind the negative relationship are suggested by observed increases in subsequent local and migrant non-agricultural employment of high school age young adults as the size of the current village migrant network increases.

Local Elections and Consumption Insurance : Evidence from Chinese Villages

Gan, Li; Xu, Lixin Colin; Yao, Yang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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While the literature on consumption insurance is growing fast, little research has been conducted on how rural consumption insurance is affected by democracy. In this paper the authors examine how consumption insurance of Chinese rural residents is affected if the local leader is democratically elected. Exploring a unique panel data set of 1,400 households from 1987 to 2002, they find that consumption insurance is more complete when the households are in villages with elected village leaders. Furthermore, democracy improves consumption insurance only for the poor and middle-income farmers, but not for the rich. These findings underline the importance of democratic governance for ensuring better rural consumption insurance and poverty reduction.

Albania - Urban Growth, Migration and Poverty Reduction : A Poverty Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This sector report claims that in the three years between 2002 and 2005 alone, almost 235,000 people have moved out of poverty in Albania. Strong economic growth and large inflow of remittances are at the center of this impressive achievement. However, low productivity of predominantly small family farms has put a drag on rural growth prospects. Moreover, Ndihma Ekonomike (NE) program, the means-tested income support program is small in scale, and has a low coverage so that it has had only a modest impact on poverty reduction. As a result of these developments, the poor are mostly rural residents, low skilled (measured as years of schooling completed) and large families. The main conclusion of this report is that as Albania looks ahead it faces the challenges of consolidating and sustaining these improvements in living conditions and narrow the widening rural and urban differences. To tackle these challenges, Albania needs to maintain the high growth path, raise rural productivity and improve the targeting performance of its NE program

Does Longer Compulsory Education Equalize Schooling by Gender and Rural/Urban Residence?

Kırdar, Murat G.; Dayıoğlu, Meltem; Koç, İsmet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This study examines the effects of the extension of compulsory schooling from 5 to 8 years in Turkey in 1997—which involved substantial investment in school infrastructure—on schooling outcomes and, in particular, on the equality of these outcomes between men and women, and urban and rural residents using the Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys. This policy is peculiar because it also changes the sheepskin effects (signaling effects) of schooling, through its redefinition of the schooling tiers. The policy is also interesting due to its large spillover effects on post-compulsory schooling as well as its remarkable overall effect; for instance, we find that the completed years of schooling by age 17 increases by 1.5 years for rural women. The policy equalizes the educational attainment of urban and rural children substantially. The urban-rural gap in the completed years of schooling at age 17 falls by 0.5 years for men and by 0.7 to 0.8 years for women. However, there is no evidence of a narrowing gender gap with the policy. On the contrary...

Self-reported patterns of health services utilisation: an urban-rural comparison in South Australia

Dempsey, P.; Wilson, D.; Taylor, A.; Wilkinson, D.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Pty Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia Pty Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.875825%
OBJECTIVE: To compare self-reported patterns of health service utilisation among residents of urban and rural South Australia. DESIGN, SETTING AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Secondary analysis of data generated by computer-assisted telephone interviews of 7377 adults done in 1995-6. Respondents were asked if they had used each of 18 different health services during the previous 12 months. Residence was classified in three ways: (1) capital city versus rest of the state, (2) by the Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Areas classification (RRMA) and (3) by the Accessibility and Remoteness Index for Australia classification (ARIA). RESULTS: General practitioner services were most frequently used, by approximately 89% of respondents. Only 4% reported not using any service. Comparing capital city with rest of the state, modest but statistically significant differences in utilisation (P < 0.01) were measured for nine services. In eight of these nine, utilisation was higher among rural residents. Analysing by RRMA, eight services were reportedly used differently and seven of these were the same as those identified from the capital city versus rest of state comparison. Across the five ARIA categories, six previously identified services were reported as being used differentially. Overall...

People with cancer from rural areas undergoing treatment in metropolitan hospitals: rural-urban differentials and the impact of cancer treatment.

Cameron, Kate
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Discrepancies in health outcomes between rural and urban populations are well documented in broad health categories but less clear in relation to cancer care and outcomes. Those living in a rural or remote area are faced not only with the trauma of the diagnosis but may also need to have treatment at a specialist metropolitan centre, entailing relocation for at least some of the treatment time. This study was conducted in three phases to examine and clarify the issues of concern to patients from rural and remote areas undergoing cancer treatment in a metropolitan setting. Secondary data analysis of cancer registry and government reports showed that the incidence of cancer was 4% lower for rural residents compared with metropolitan residents. A significant survival advantage was demonstrated for urban residents in 10 types of cancer. There were differences in the prevalence of some risk factors that appeared to favour the rural population, with rural residents indicating a higher participation in Pap smear screening and greater use of precautions against sun damage. A focused literature review was conducted to investigate research on rural and remote patients receiving cancer treatment in the metropolitan setting. This identified potential issues related to rural residents with cancer including: the need for travel; psychosocial concerns; information and communication; financial costs; and accommodation while away from home. Overall the research in the Australian setting was limited in number and mostly conducted with disease specific groups. In the third phase...

Examining the Effects of Wind Turbine Industrial Development on Rural Areas

Sinkaus, Bradley
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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There has been an international shift to 'green energy' in the past few decades, and a focus of this shift has been to develop wind turbines to generate wind energy. Because the implementation of wind energy targets are a large part of many countries' renewable energy plans, including Australia, it is essential to understand what kind of effects wind turbines have on the rural areas in which they are constructed. Many rural communities across Australia, as well as communities in other parts of the world, have seen property values fall as a result of the erection of wind turbines. In places like the United States and Denmark, legislation has been instituted to protect landowners from having their home value decrease as a result of nearby wind turbine construction. Rural communities have also been subject to a noise increase due to the turbines, and numerous studies have deduced that the noise from wind turbines can negatively affect the daily lives of rural residents, leading to sleep deprivation. While wind turbine companies deny this fact, they have also been held responsible for leaving communities out of the process of constructing wind turbines, and writing complicated contracts that the average resident cannot understand. Rural residents have experienced negative health effects as a result of living in proximity to the turbines. Researchers have surveyed rural residents and found that detrimental health effects can occur...

Village Political Economy, Land Tenure Insecurity, and the Rural to Urban Migration Decision : Evidence from China

Giles, John; Mu, Ren
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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This paper investigates the impact of land tenure insecurity on the migration decisions of China's rural residents. A simple model first frames the relationship among these variables and the probability that a reallocation of land will occur in the following year. After first demonstrating that a village leader's support for administrative land reallocation carries with it the risk of losing a future election, the paper exploits election-timing and village heterogeneity in lineage group composition and demographic change to identify the effect of land security. In response to an expected land reallocation in the following year, the probability that a rural resident migrates out of the county declines by 2.8 percentage points, which accounts for 17.5 percent of the annual share of village residents, aged 16 to 50, who worked as migrants during the period. This finding underscores the potential importance of secure property rights for facilitating labor market integration and the movement of labor out of agriculture.

The Labor Supply and Retirement Behavior of China’s Older Workers and Elderly in Comparative Perspective

Giles, John; Wang, Dewen; Cai, Wei
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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This paper highlights the employment patterns of China's over-45 population and, for perspective, places them in the context of work and retirement patterns in Indonesia, Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. As is common in many developing countries, China can be characterized as having two retirement systems: a formal system, under which urban employees receive generous pensions and face mandatory retirement by age 60, and an informal system, under which rural residents and individuals in the informal sector rely on family support in old age and have much longer working lives. Gender differences in age of exit from work are shown to be much greater in urban China than in rural areas, and also greater than observed in Korea and Indonesia. Descriptive evidence is presented suggesting that pension eligible workers are far more likely to cease productive activity at a relatively young age. A strong relationship between health status and labor supply in rural areas is observed, indicating the potential role that improvements in access to health care may play in extending working lives and also providing some basis for a common perception that older rural residents tend to work as long as they are physically capable. The paper concludes with a discussion of measures that may facilitate longer working lives as China's population ages.

Peru : Impact of the Rural Roads Program on Democracy and Citizenship in Rural Areas; Impacto del programa caminos rurales sobre la democracia y la ciudadania en el ambito rural del Peru

Remy Simatovia, María Isabel
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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58.0248%
The rural roads program, overseen by Provias Descentralizado (subdivision of Peru's Ministry of Transportation and Communications), began in 1995, and has received funds from the Peruvian Government, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. It is a national program for the rehabilitation and maintenance of roads that link rural communities and villages with secondary and principal roads, and through these, with towns and cities of the interior, thus expanding Peru's road network to the rural village level, especially in regions with greater levels of poverty. In its twelve years of existence, the program has been evaluated several times in terms of its impact on the economy (income levels, market dynamics), on gender equity, on the culture of the high Andes, on access to basic roads, and on rural living conditions (access to education, health, etc.). However, no effort had been made to systematically understand its impacts on democracy and the quality of citizenship exercised in rural areas. The study that is presented here...

Chronic Conditions and Receipt of Treatment among Urbanized Rural Residents in China

Chen, Juan
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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While undergoing the unprecedented urbanization process in the past few decades, China has also experienced a major epidemiological shift from predominantly infectious diseases to chronic conditions. Using data from a national survey of 1,288 respondents in urban China, this study examines the prevalence of chronic conditions and receipt of treatment among urbanized rural residents who have experienced in situ urbanization. Negative binomial and logistic regressions were applied to estimate the differences in chronic conditions, receipt of treatment, and concern of seeking medical treatment among urbanized rural residents as compared to urban residents and rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate that urbanized rural residents have similar number or prevalence of chronic conditions with urban residents, but they are less likely to receive treatment particularly for cardiovascular conditions. The analysis further reveals that urbanized rural residents are more anxious about their potential inability to cover medical expenses than both urban residents and rural-to-urban migrants. The study stresses the converging prevalence of chronic conditions but the continuing divide in receipt of treatment between urban residents and urbanized rural residents. As China's urbanization continues with the epidemiological transition...

Sense of Place Impacts for Rural Residents in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

Smith, Natalie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2013 Português
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Physical and social changes can challenge residents’ sense of place, especially in rural areas. This research examines how proposed large-scale landscape changes may affect sense of place for rural residents within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta) and possible means of managing and conserving this sense of place during the proposed changes. To examine these questions, I conducted a content analysis of public comments from various planning processes since 2000 and interviews with “place” representatives to understand the current residents’ sense of place. Sense of place is described in terms of residents’ values and beliefs, and explained further in terms of place identity, place meanings, and place attachment. Among the attributes I found, which contribute to a deep sense of place for residents, were a high level of distinctiveness of place features, agricultural heritage, political exchanges, and very little physical change in the last 20 years due to land use restrictions. I also found that residents’ sense of place has been impacted by the reappearance of a past politically contested water infrastructure project, and the uncertainty of the potential loss of homes and agricultural land. The potential loss of agricultural land and degraded water quality were also found to impact the values that are interwoven into the social fabric of rural communities and local place identity. Strong emotional sentiments of multigenerational family ties...

Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among rural and urban groups and rural-to-urban migrants in Peru: a cross-sectional study

Creber,Ruth M. Masterson; Smeeth,Liam; Gilman,Robert H; Miranda,J. Jaime
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns of rural-to-urban migrants in Peru versus lifetime rural and urban residents and to determine any associations between low physical activity and four cardiovascular risk factors: obesity (body mass index > 30 kg/m²), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The PERU MIGRANT (PEru's Rural to Urban MIGRANTs) cross-sectional study was designed to measure physical activity among rural, urban, and rural-to-urban migrants with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). RESULTS: The World Health Organization (WHO) age-standardized prevalence of low physical activity was 2.2% in lifetime rural residents, 32.2% in rural-to-urban migrants, and 39.2% in lifetime urban residents. The adjusted odds ratios for low physical activity were 21.43 and 32.98 for migrant and urban groups respectively compared to the rural group. The adjusted odds ratio for being obese was 1.94 for those with low physical activity. There was no evidence of an association between low physical activity and blood pressure levels, hypertension, or metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: People living in a rural area had much higher levels of physical activity and lower risk of being overweight and obese compared to those living in an urban area of Lima. Study participants from the same rural area who had migrated to Lima had levels of physical inactivity and obesity similar to those who had always lived in Lima. Interventions aimed at maintaining higher levels of physical activity among rural-to-urban migrants may help reduce the epidemic of obesity in urban cities.