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Performance of cylindrical leaf wetness duration sensors in a tropical climate condition; Desempenho de sensores cilíndricos para medida da duração do período de molhamento foliar em condições de clima tropical

SANTOS, Eduardo Alvarez; SENTELHAS, Paulo Cesar; GILLESPIE, Terry James; LULU, Jorge
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75811%
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) measurements are required for disease warning in several agricultural systems, since it is an important variable for the diagnose of plant disease epidemiology. The cylindrical sensor is an inexpensive and simple electronic LWD sensor initially designed to measure this variable for onions, however some studies show that it may be helpful for standard measurements in weather stations and also for different crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess their performance under tropical climate conditions, in Brazil, having as standard measurements those obtained by flat plate sensors, which have presented very good performance when compared with visual observations. Before field assessments, all LWD sensors used in our study (flat plates and cylinders) were white latex painted and submitted to a heat treatment. Laboratory tests were performed in order to determine the resistance threshold for the sensor to be considered wet and the time response of the sensors to wetness. In the field, all cylindrical sensors were initially deployed horizontally 30-cm above a turfgrass surface in order to assess the variability among them with respect to LWD measurements. The variability among the horizontal cylindrical sensors was reduced by using a specific resistance threshold for each sensor. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of LWD data measured by the cylindrical sensors was 9.7%. After that...

Projeto e otimização de filtros modais usando redes de sensores piezoelétricos; Design and optimization of modal filters using arrays of piezoelectric sensors

Pagani Júnior, Carlos do Carmo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2009 Português
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Filtros modais permitem que se identifique a contribuição de cada modo de vibrar na resposta dinâmica de uma estrutura, o que pode simplificar o projeto de sistemas dinâmicos em diversas aplicações como controle de vibrações, controle de forma, monitoramento de integridade estrutural e aproveitamento de energia. O objetivo desta dissertação é desenvolver uma metodologia para projetar e otimizar filtros modais a partir de uma rede de sensores piezelétricos discretos. É de especial interesse a relação entre a topologia da rede de sensores e o desempenho dos filtros modais obtidos pela soma ponderada dos sinais de tensão elétrica medida por cada sensor. A modelagem estrutural, usando o método dos elementos finitos com acoplamento eletromecânico, considera uma placa retangular de alumínio com trinta e seis sensores piezelétricos, em forma de pequenas pastilhas, colados sobre uma de suas superfícies. As topologias de rede consideradas neste trabalho consistem das possíveis combinações de trinta e seis sensores tomados doze a doze. Esta estratégia permite um amplo processo de otimização topológica a partir de um único modelo de elementos finitos. Duas funções-objetivo definem os índices de desempenho de cada topologia de rede avaliada...

Rede de sensores para engenharia biomédica utilizando o protocolo IEEE1451.; Sensors network for biomedical engineering using IEEE1451 protocol.

Becari, Wesley
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/01/2012 Português
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36.68167%
A utilização de sensores e de atuadores cresceu vertiginosamente nos últimos anos. As aplicações centralizadas em sensoriamento e controle avançaram com a instrumentação industrial, passando pela incorporação desses elementos em redes distribuídas até culminar, na atualidade, em redes integradas que possuem inúmeras funções e aplicações, dentre elas: controle, monitoramento, rastreamento e segurança. Entretanto o crescimento do número de sensores e atuadores conectados através de barramentos e redes não ocorreu de forma única, proliferando uma diversidade de formas de padronização na comunicação entre esses e seus respectivos monitores ou controladores. Dessa pluralidade de protocolos emergiu a necessidade de criação de um padrão que permitisse interoperabilidade entre transdutores e redes de controle, bem como a introdução do conceito de sensores e atuadores inteligentes. Nesse contexto foi proposto o protocolo IEEE1451 (Standards for Smart Transducer Interface for Sensors and Actuators). Nessa perspectiva o trabalho em questão apresenta os resultados do desenvolvimento e a utilização desse padrão em duas aplicações de engenharia biomédica. Primeiramente em um sistema embarcado capaz de realizar aquisição e processamento de biopotenciais...

Monitoramento da saúde humana através de sensores: análise de incertezas contextuais através da teoria da evidência de Dempster-Shafer.; Human health monitoring by sensors: analysis of contextual uncertainties through Dempster-Shafer evidence theory.

Silva, Kátia Cilene Neles da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2012 Português
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O monitoramento remoto da saúde humana envolve basicamente o emprego da tecnologia de rede de sensores como meio de captura dos dados do paciente em observação e todo ambiente em que este se encontra. Esta tecnologia favorece o monitoramento remoto de pacientes com doenças cardíacas, com problemas respiratórios, com complicações pós-operatórias e ainda pessoas em tratamento residencial, dentre outros. Um importante elemento dos sistemas de monitoramento remoto da saúde é a sua capacidade de interagir com o meio no qual está inserido possibilitando-lhe, por exemplo, agir como provedor de informação e serviços relevantes para o usuário. Essa interação com o ambiente imputa a esse sistema características relacionadas com uma aplicação sensível ao contexto, pois esses sistemas reagem e se adaptam às mudanças nos ambientes, provendo-lhes assistência inteligente e proativa. Outro aspecto observado em sistemas de monitoramento remoto da saúde humana está relacionado às incertezas associadas à tecnologia empregada como meio para obtenção e tratamento dos dados e, aos dados que serão apresentados aos usuários especialistas - médicos. Entende-se que incertezas são elementos inevitáveis em qualquer aplicação ubíqua e sensível ao contexto...

Sensores químicos com transdução microeletrônica e ótica utilizando polianilina nanoestruturada; Chemical sensors with optical and microelectronic transduction using nanostructured polyaniline

Mello, Hugo José Nogueira Pedroza Dias
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/10/2014 Português
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A área de sensores é uma das mais importantes do mundo tecnológico e científico moderno. O monitoramento contínuo de processos através de variáveis de diversas naturezas está presente em áreas como indústria, agricultura, biologia, meio ambiente, e centros de pesquisa. Os sensores químicos de pH fazem parte deste conjunto por analisar um dos parâmetros mais importantes em muitas áreas. Neste trabalho, o uso de filmes finos de polianilina (PANI) eletrodepositada em sensores de pH foi estudado. Duas configurações do sensor EGFET (Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor) foram estudadas: o sensor Single-EGFET (S-EGFET) e o sensor Instrumental Amplifier-EGFET (IA-EGFET). Os filmes foram analisados nos dois sistemas e a sensibilidade e linearidade de cada sensor, comparada. Valores iniciais de sensibilidade no sensor IA-EGFET foram reduzidas devido a protonação interna do polímero quando medidos no sensor S-EGFET. Observamos uma relação entre quantidade de material polimérico depositado e o grau de alteração dos parâmetros. Os filmes de PANI foram estudados em sensores IA-EGFET como passo inicial para aplica-los em sensores diferencias, Diferencial-IA-EGFET (D-IA-EGFET). Desenvolveu-se o sensor diferencial por esse apresentar a vantagem de ser insensível a ruído (temperatura...

Produção de Interferômetros Mach-Zehnder utilizando guias de onda do tipo pedestal e filmes finos de Bi₂O₃-WO₃-TeO₂ para aplicações em sensores ópticos integrados.; Production of Mach-Zehnder Interferometer using pedestal type optical waveguides and Bi₂O₃-WO₃-TeO₂ thin films for applications in integrated optical sensors.

Camilo, Mauricio Eiji
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Neste trabalho foram produzidos Interferômetros Mach-Zehnder (IMZ) a partir de guias de onda do tipo pedestal com filmes finos de Bi₂O₃-WO₃-TeO₂ (BWT) como camada de núcleo para aplicações em sensores ópticos integrados. A influência dos parâmetros e dos materiais utilizados nas etapas de processo foi verificada. Os valores de índice de refração efetivo e coeficiente de absorção em função do comprimento de onda foram obtidos para os filmes finos BWT. Os guias de onda pedestais foram caracterizados por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura, medidas de perda por propagação e perfis de campo próximo em 633 nm e 1050 nm. Os valores mínimos obtidos nas perdas por propagação foram de ~1,5 dB/cm em 633 nm e 3,0 dB/cm em 1050 nm. As medidas de perfis de campo próximo mostraram que guias de onda com larguras superiores a 7 m apresentaram comportamento multimodo. Foram obtidos IMZs que apresentaram guiamento de luz por toda a estrutura, com comportamento multimodo. Sensores ópticos de pressão e temperatura foram produzidos. A fabricação de diafragmas através do processo de corrosão úmida do silício é apresentada no sensor de pressão. Sensores ópticos de temperatura foram produzidos com filamentos metálicos. As cavidades ópticas não foram obtidas nesse sensor. A potência de luz na saída dos sensores de temperatura foi medida em função da diferença de potencial aplicada no filamento metálico. Os resultados apresentados mostram que guias de onda do tipo pedestal produzidos com núcleo de BWT são promissores para aplicações em sensores ópticos integrados.; In this work Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) were produced from the pedestal-type waveguides with Bi₂O₃-WO₃-TeO₂ (BWT) thin films as the core layer for applications in integrated optical sensors. The influence of the parameters and materials used in the process steps was verified. The values of the effective refractive index and absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength were obtained for the BWT thin films. The pedestal waveguides were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy...

DEVELOPMENT OF A SCADA SYSTEM FOR ACCESS, PROCESSING AND SUPERVISION OF DATA COMING FROM A WIRELESS SENSORS NETWORK IN AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

Navas, L.M.; Martin, E.; Ruiz, G.; Guimarães, A.; Gil, J.; González, F.; Baptista, F.J.; Fitas da Cruz, V.; Neto, M.
Fonte: Canadian Society for Bioengineering Publicador: Canadian Society for Bioengineering
Tipo: Aula
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.706401%
Wireless sensors networks appeared in the 1970’s for military and industrial use. They have since undergone a major evolution, particularly since the 90’s, thanks to the improvements in wireless communications. These changes have allowed them to participate in a wide variety of applications in different sectors such as agriculture and environment. This paper shows the development of a SCADA application programmed with LabVIEW® 8.6 (National Instruments), which allows management of data received by wireless sensors networks through a friendly interface for users. For the application shown in this paper we have worked with a MEP 510 sensors network (Crossbow). The functionalities implemented are the following: Network configuration; Data storage into database; Statistical processing of historical data with polynomial adjustment and spline interpolation; Visualization by data graphics in real time and historical data; Visualization of 2D intensity diagrams from the spatial distribution of sensors; and Creation of a users registry system that allows, depending on the category assigned, receiving or not access privileges in the application. As a complement we have developed the possibility of remote access. Sensors network implemented and the applications developed have been checked by operational tests for each functionality...

Performance of cylindrical leaf wetness duration sensors in a tropical climate condition

Santos,Eduardo Alvarez; Sentelhas,Paulo Cesar; Gillespie,Terry James; Lulu,Jorge
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.743699%
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) measurements are required for disease warning in several agricultural systems, since it is an important variable for the diagnose of plant disease epidemiology. The cylindrical sensor is an inexpensive and simple electronic LWD sensor initially designed to measure this variable for onions, however some studies show that it may be helpful for standard measurements in weather stations and also for different crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess their performance under tropical climate conditions, in Brazil, having as standard measurements those obtained by flat plate sensors, which have presented very good performance when compared with visual observations. Before field assessments, all LWD sensors used in our study (flat plates and cylinders) were white latex painted and submitted to a heat treatment. Laboratory tests were performed in order to determine the resistance threshold for the sensor to be considered wet and the time response of the sensors to wetness. In the field, all cylindrical sensors were initially deployed horizontally 30-cm above a turfgrass surface in order to assess the variability among them with respect to LWD measurements. The variability among the horizontal cylindrical sensors was reduced by using a specific resistance threshold for each sensor. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of LWD data measured by the cylindrical sensors was 9.7%. After that...

Optimum Wireless Power Transmission for Sensors Embedded in Concrete

Jiang, Shan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.743699%
Various nondestructive testing (NDT) technologies for construction and performance monitoring have been studied for decades. Recently, the rapid evolution of wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies has enabled the development of sensors that can be embedded in concrete to monitor the structural health of infrastructure. Such sensors can be buried inside concrete and they can collect and report valuable volumetric data related to the health of a structure during and/or after construction. Wireless embedded sensors monitoring system is also a promising solution for decreasing the high installation and maintenance cost of the conventional wire based monitoring systems. Wireless monitoring sensors need to operate for long time. However, sensor batteries have finite life-time. Therefore, in order to enable long operational life of wireless sensors, novel wireless powering methods, which can charge the sensors’ rechargeable batteries wirelessly, need to be developed. The optimization of RF wireless powering of sensors embedded in concrete is studied here. First, our analytical results focus on calculating the transmission loss and propagation loss of electromagnetic waves penetrating into plain concrete at different humidity conditions for various frequencies. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of an optimum frequency range within 20-80 MHz that is validated through full-wave electromagnetic simulations. Second...

Computational Intelligence Methodologies for Soft Sensors Development in Industrial Processes

Souza, Francisco Alexandre de
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68167%
Sensores virtuais são modelos inferenciais que utilizam sensores disponíveis online (e.g. temperatura, pressão, vazão, etc) para prever variáveis relacionadas com a qualidade do processo, que não podem ser medidas de forma automática, ou só podem ser medidas por um custo elevado, de forma esporádica, ou com longos atrasos (e.g. análises laboratoriais). Sensores virtuais são construídos usando usando os dados históricos de processo, geralmente fornecidos pelo sistema de controle de supervisão e aquisição de dados (SCADA) e pelas anotações das medições de laboratório. No desenvolvimento dos sensores virtuais, há muitas questões para lidar. As principais questões são o tratamento de dados em falta, a detecção de outliers, a selecção das variáveis de entrada, o treino do modelo, a validação, e a manutenção do sensor virtual. Esta tese centra-se em três destas questões, nomeadamente, a selecção de variáveis de entrada, o treino do modelo e a manutenção do sensor virtual. Novas metodologias são propostas em cada uma destas áreas. A selecção das variáveis de entrada é baseada na rede neuronal multilayer perceptron (o modelo de regressão não linear mais popular em aplicações de sensores virtuais). A segunda questão...

inContexto: framework to obtain people context using wearable sensors and social network sites

Blázquez Gil, Gonzalo
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68167%
Ambient Intelligent (AmI) technology is developing fast and will promote a new generation of applications with some characteristics in the area of context awareness, anticipatory behavior, home security, monitoring, Health Care and video surveillance. AmI Environments should be surrounded by multiples sensors in order to discover people needs. These kind of scenarios are characterized by intelligent environments, which are able to recognize inconspicuously the presence of individuals and react to their needs. In such systems, people are conceived as the main actor, always in control, playing multiple roles, and this is perhaps the new real facet of research related to AmI: it introduces a new dimension creating synergies between the user and the environment. The AmI paradigm sets the principles to design pervasive and transparent infrastructures being capable of observing people without prying into their lives, and also adapting to their needs. There are several basis concepts to consider for retrieving people context, however the most important for users is that sensors devices must be unobtrusive. Many technologies are conceived as hand-held or wearable, taking advantage of the intelligence embedded in the environment. Mobile technologies and Social Network Sites make it possible to collect people information anywhere at anytime...

Network-based control, monitoring and calibration of shipboard sensors

Silva, Eusebio Pedro da
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 63 p. : col. ill. ;
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The objective of this thesis is to develop a new calibration system for analog and smart digital pressure sensors, operable by only one person, and capable of calibrating local and remote sensors connected via RS232 cables, Bluetooth or an 802.11b wireless LAN. It is proposed that the operator uses a portable calibration standard and a tablet PC to conduct the sensor calibration. In order to handle local sensors directly connected to the tablet PC and remote sensors connected to the tablet PC via a network capable application processor (NCAP), a dual module application is proposed and developed using LabVIEW. The application has a Master Module and a Slave Module. Both modules are able to connect to multiple digital sensors at the same time. The Master Module was designed to run on the operator's tablet PC offering an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that allows the monitoring or calibration of any connected sensors. The Slave Module was designed to run on any networked PC, including the operator's tablet and an NCAP. A dedicated Virtual Instrument (VI) was designed for an iterative calibration process based on a least squares fitting method. This VI automatically computes the calibration constants that minimize the measurements errors...

Active control of sound in a small single engine aircraft cabin with virtual error sensors

Kestell, Colin David
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 5467949 bytes; 282230 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The harmful effects of aircraft noise, with respect to both comfort and occupational health, have long since been recognised, with many examples of sound control now implemented in commercial aircraft. However, the single engine light aircraft cabin is still an extremely noisy environment, which apparently has been side-lined by both cost and weight constraints, especially with respect to low frequency sound reduction. Consequently, pilots and passengers of these aircraft are still exposed to potentially damaging noise levels and hearing damage can only be avoided by the proper use of ear defenders. Minimisation of the noise around the occupants of the aircraft reduces the dependency of personal ear defenders and is conducive to a more comfortable, hygienic and less stressful environment. This thesis describes the basis of a theoretical and experimental project, directed at the design and evaluation of a practical active noise control (ANC) system suitable for a single engine light aircraft. Results from initial experiments conducted in a single engine aircraft demonstrated the viability of ANC for this application. However, the extreme noise, the highly damped cabin, the multiple tone excitation, the severe weight limitations and the requirement of air worthiness certification severely complicated the problem of achieving noise reduction throughout the entire aircraft cabin. Compromising the objective to only achieving local control around the occupants still presented difficulties because the region of attenuated noise around the error sensors was so small that a nearby observer experienced no sound level reduction whatsoever. The objective was therefore to move the control zone away from the error sensor and place a broad envelope of noise reduction immediately around the occupant's head...

Fiber optic sensors and self-reference techniques for temperature measurements in different industrial sectors

Tapetado Moraleda, Alberto
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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El objetivo de este trabajo se centra especialmente en el desarrollo de sensores de fibra óptica y técnicas de autoreferencia para la medida de la temperatura en diferentes entornos industriales. El primer objetivo de este trabajo consiste en el diseño y desarrollo de un sensor de fibra óptica de bajo coste para la medida de la temperatura en transformadores de potencia y aplicaciones biomédicas. En estas aplicaciones, el uso de sensores de temperatura tradicionales resulta inadecuado debido a la presencia de fuertes interferencias electromagnéticas que pueden perturbar la lectura de la temperatura. Uno de los requisitos fundamentales para diseñar un sensor de temperatura que pueda usarse en aplicaciones biomédicas es el uso de materiales biocompatibles en su fabricación. En este sentido, una configuración simple que permite cumplir con los requisitos mencionados anteriormente es la modulación por intensidad en fibras poliméricas. Este tipo de sensores basan la lectura de la temperatura en medir las variaciones de potencia óptica en función de los cambios de temperatura que se aplican sobre el sensor. En este contexto, el uso de la tecnología asociada con la fibra óptica de plástico ofrece ventajas competitivas frente a otros materiales...

Improvement of glassy sol-gel sensors for preventive conservation of historical materials against acidity; Mejora de sensores vítreos sol-gel para la conservación preventiva de materiales históricos frente a la acidez

García Heras, Manuel; Villegas Broncano, María Ángeles; Carmona, N.; Herrero, E.; Kromka, K.; Faber, J.
Fonte: Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio Publicador: Sociedad Española de Cerámica y Vidrio
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 449070 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.706401%
[ES] Los sensores a base de recubrimientos vítreos sol-gel dopados con ácido 2[4-(dimetil-amino) fenilazo] benzoico son capaces de cambiar su absorción óptica cuando se someten a distintas concentraciones de iones H3O+ y OH-. La respuesta de los sensores en ensayos de campo se estudió en Cracovia (Polonia) variando el procedimiento normal de uso, con el fin de mejorar su respuesta. Se midieron tanto los parámetros ópticos de los sensores como las condiciones ambientales (temperatura, humedad, presión y concentraciones de SO2 y de NOx). La respuesta de los sensores se analizó en términos de los cambios de su absorción visible. Dichos cambios se deben a reacciones locales de neutralización que tienen lugar en la superficie de los sensores, debido al efecto conjunto de los contaminantes de carácter ácido y a la humedad ambiental. Se establecieron correlaciones entre la concentración del contaminante principal (SO2) y la respuesta de los sensores para elaborar una calibración directa entre la absorción óptica y el pH ambiental. Los sensores pueden detectar y evaluar la acidez ambiental, así como alertar sobre la concentración de contaminantes ácidos que pueden dañar a la mayoría de los materiales históricos.; [EN] Sensors based on sol-gel glassy coatings doped with 2[4-(dimethyl-amino) phenylazo] benzoic acid are able to change their optical absorption when they are submitted to different concentration of H3O+ and OH-. The sensors behaviour in field tests was studied in Cracow (Poland)...

Advanced amperometric nanocomposite sensors based on carbon nanotubes and graphene: characterization, optimization, functionalization and applications

Muñoz Martín, Jose María
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.781243%
Dins de l'amplia gama de nanocompòsits, la incorporació de materials conductors de carboni nanoestructurats, entre els quals s'hi troben els nanotubs de carboni (NTCs) i el grafè, a dins d'una matriu polimèrica aïllant, és una forma molt atractiva de combinar les propietats mecàniques i elèctriques úniques del material de farciment amb els atributs dels plàstics. Concretament, els materials nanocompòsits basats en carboni han jugat un gran lideratge en el camp de l'electroquímica analítica, sobre tot en el desenvolupament de dispositius (bio)sensors, degut a les seves interessants avantatges respecte a un material conductor pur. Aquestes avantatges els hi proporcionen un alt valor afegit, com versatilitat, durabilitat, una fàcil regeneració de la superfície i integració, simplicitat a l'hora d'incorporar diferents (bio)modificadors o una baixa corrent de fons, entre d'altres. En aquest sentit, aquesta tesi aborda el desenvolupament de sensors nanocompòsits avançats de tipus amperomètrics que, havent sigut optimitzada la seva relació carboni/polímer, poden ser modificats amb un ampli ventall de nanopartícules (NPs) per millorar-ne la seva eficiència electroanalítica. Les propietats elèctriques d'aquests nanocompòsits i...

The Response of Embedded Strain Sensors in Concrete Beams Subjected to Thermal Loading

Ge, Yu; Elshafie, Mohammed Z. E. B.; Dirar, Samir; Middleton, Campbell R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
Português
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061814008642.; A wide range of commercially available sensors are frequently used to record the response of civil engineering structures that may be subjected to unexpected loading scenarios, changes of environmental conditions or material deterioration. However, a common problem faced when using these sensors is to distinguish strain changes experienced by the structure due to a temperature change from strain changes that occur due to other causes. Temperature effects on strain sensors are usually accommodated by allowing for temperature effects (temperature compensation); however, there is limited research in the literature that investigates the performance of strain sensor measurements when subjected to temperature change. Understanding the temperature effect on strain sensors will greatly enhance the ability of civil engineers to monitor the performance of structural materials. In this paper, different types of commonly used and advanced strain sensors have been installed in a reinforced concrete beam to measure the thermal strain response of concrete under different temperature conditions. The experimental results demonstrated a 25-30% difference in strain measurements from the different sensors. It is shown in this paper that this difference is due to the combined effects of sensor inaccuracy...

Desempenho de sensores cilíndricos para medida da duração do período de molhamento foliar em condições de clima tropical; Performance of cylindrical leaf wetness duration sensors in a tropical climate condition

Santos, Eduardo Alvarez; Sentelhas, Paulo Cesar; Gillespie, Terry James; Lulu, Jorge
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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36.75811%
Leaf wetness duration (LWD) measurements are required for disease warning in several agricultural systems, since it is an important variable for the diagnose of plant disease epidemiology. The cylindrical sensor is an inexpensive and simple electronic LWD sensor initially designed to measure this variable for onions, however some studies show that it may be helpful for standard measurements in weather stations and also for different crops. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess their performance under tropical climate conditions, in Brazil, having as standard measurements those obtained by flat plate sensors, which have presented very good performance when compared with visual observations. Before field assessments, all LWD sensors used in our study (flat plates and cylinders) were white latex painted and submitted to a heat treatment. Laboratory tests were performed in order to determine the resistance threshold for the sensor to be considered wet and the time response of the sensors to wetness. In the field, all cylindrical sensors were initially deployed horizontally 30-cm above a turfgrass surface in order to assess the variability among them with respect to LWD measurements. The variability among the horizontal cylindrical sensors was reduced by using a specific resistance threshold for each sensor. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) of LWD data measured by the cylindrical sensors was 9.7%. After that...

Potentiometric Membrane Sensors for Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride and Pramipexole Dihydrochloride Monohydrate

Merey,Hanan A.; Helmy,Marwa I.; Tawakkol,Shereen M.; Toubar,Safaa S.; Risk,Mohamed S.
Fonte: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica Publicador: Sociedade Portuguesa de Electroquímica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Five solid membrane sensors responsive to memantine hydrochloride (MEM) and pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate (PXL) are described for simple and fast determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical preparation and human plasma. The first and the second sensors are based on the formation of an ion association complex between MEM as a cationic drug with Na tetra phenyl borate and ammonium reineckate (as anionic exchanger), respectively. The third sensor is based on the formation of an ion association complex between PXL with ammonium reineckate. The produced electroactive material is dispersed in PVC matrix. While the other fourth and fifth sensors are based on using functionalized lipophilic cyclodextrin derivative (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) as sensor ionophore for the determination of MEM and PXL. The performance characteristics of these sensors-evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations-reveal fast, stable and near Nernstian response for 1 \D7 10-4 - 1 \D7 10-1 M and 1 \D7 10-6 - 1 \D7 10-2 M for (MEM) and (PXL), respectively. Many inorganic and organic substances such as drug excipients and diluents normally used in drug formulations do not interfere with drugs response. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by applying the proposed potentiometric method for the determination of the (MEM) and (PXL) in their pure powder forms and those obtained by applying the reported methods was done and no significant difference was found at p = 0.05. Validation of the method according to ICH guidelines shows the suitability of the sensors for quality control analysis of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and human plasma. The proposed sensors can also be used as a detector for HPLC.

Rapid procedure to calibrate EC-10 and EC-20 capacitance sensors in coir

van der Westhuizen,RJ; van Rensburg,LD
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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A rapid calibration procedure for EC-10 and EC-20 sensors is introduced to promote the commercial use of these sensors for hydroponic irrigation management in coir. The method is comprised of taking one sensor reading, by a sensor installed under hydroponic crop production conditions, and one gravimetric sample, both at field water capacity, to determine a correction factor for an accurate general laboratory calibration equation developed for coir. The rapid calibration procedure was evaluated by 4 separate sensors of EC-10 and EC-20. To verify the relative reliability of the rapid procedure, statistical analysis was performed separately for all data points and for data points between the drained upper limit and permanent wilting point of coir. From the statistical parameters used, it was observed that all of the predictions in the plant available water content range were good, with RMSE values < 0.030 m³-m-3 for the EC-10 and < 0.021 m³-m-3 for the EC-20 sensors. The D-index also pointed to a high accuracy of prediction in the plant available water content range, with values over 0.981 and 0.990 for the EC-10 and EC-20 sensors, respectively. Since a degree of variation remained between sensors, it was concluded that sensors should be calibrated individually. The rapid procedure proves a simple but scientifically sound method to calibrate sensors and is easy to apply to individual sensors in the field.