Página 1 dos resultados de 665 itens digitais encontrados em 0.026 segundos

Efeito da profundidade de semeadura e de rodas compactadoras submetidas a cargas verticais na temperatura e no teor de água do solo durante a germinação de sementes de milho

Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Corá, José Eduardo; Carvalho Filho, Alberto; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli; Lopes, Afonso
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 929-937
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.132373%
As rodas compactadoras das semadoras-adubadoras têm como principal função, propiciar o bom contato entre o solo e a semente para garantir a germinação das sementes e a emergência das plântulas. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar a influência de três modelos de rodas compactadoras, três profundidades de semeadura e três níveis de carga sobre a roda compactadora sob a temperatura e o teor de água do solo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na pista de ensaios de semeadura, localiza em Uberaba, MG, em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de parcelas sub-subdivididas, com 27 tratamentos e quatro repetições. As rodas com maior área de contato com o solo proporcionaram maiores valores do teor médio de água e da temperatura do solo. O nível de carga sobre a roda compactadora não afetou a temperatura e o teor de água do solo.; Press wheels were designed to improve soil-seed contact, thus promoting good seed germination and emergence of plantules. The present investigation was aimed at studying the influence of three models of press wheel, three sowing depths and three load levels on soil temperature and moisture contents. The experiment was carried out in Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais...

Efeito do preparo do solo e resíduo da colheita de cana-de-açúcar sobre a emissão de CO2

Moitinho, Mara Regina; Padovan, Milton Parron; Panosso, Alan Rodrigo; La Scala Jr, Newton
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1720-1728
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.287607%
The soil is one of the main C pools in terrestrial ecosystem, capable of storing significant C amounts. Therefore, understanding the factors that contribute to the loss of CO2 from agricultural soils is critical to determine strategies reducing emissions of this gas and help mitigate the greenhouse effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of soil tillage and sugarcane trash on CO2 emissions, temperature and soil moisture during sugarcane (re)planting, over a study period of 15 days. The following managements were evaluated: no-tillage with crop residues left on the soil surface (NTR); without tillage and without residue (NTNR) and tillage with no residue (TNR). The average soil CO2 emission (FCO2) was lowest in NTR (2.16 µmol m-2 s-1), compared to the managements NTNR (2.90 µmol m-2 s-1) and TNR (3.22 µmol m-2 s-1), indicating that the higher moisture and lower soil temperature variations observed in NTR were responsible for this decrease. During the study period, the lowest daily average FCO2 was recorded in NTR (1.28 µmol m-2 s-1), and the highest in TNR (6.08 µmol m-2 s-1), after rainfall. A loss of soil CO2 was lowest from the management NTR (367 kg ha-1 of CO2-C) and differing significantly (p<0.05) from the managements NTNR (502 kg ha-1 of CO2-C) and TNR (535 kg ha-1 of CO2-C). Soil moisture was the variable that differed most managements and was positively correlated (r = 0.55...

Leaf area expansion and dry matter accumulation during establishment of broad bean and sorghum at different temperatures and soil water contents in two types of soil in mediterranean Portugal

Andrade, José; Abreu, Francisco
Fonte: Deutscher Wetterdienst, 2005 Publicador: Deutscher Wetterdienst, 2005
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.188696%
Crop establishment is a major factor determining crop productivity in the field and is strongly controlled by soil temperature and soil moisture. Fast leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation during crop establishment are required for an adequate establishment. Leaf area expansion and accumulation of dry matter during the establishment of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) were studied at different soil temperatures and soil moisture contents in a Vertisol (Lisboa) and a Luvisol (Évora) from November 1993 to November 1996. Soil temperature was measured at 2 and 4 cm depth with thermocouples, air temperature was measured with a ventilated psychrometer and soil moisture was measured using the gravimetric method. Leaf area was estimated non-destructively. Above ground seedling dry matter was weighed after oven drying at 65ºC. Data analysis was based on the thermal time concept. For each crop no significant differences were found on leaf area at establishment in both soils under favourable water conditions, but significant differences were found on seedling dry matter. In moist soils, leaf area of both species increased linearly with accumulated temperature and dry matter increased exponentially with accumulated temperature. Low soil water during establishment reduced leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation of both crops...

Leaf area expansion and dry matter accumulation during establishment of broad bean and sorghum at different temperatures and soil water contents in two types of soil in mediterranean Portugal

Andrade, José; Abreu, Francisco
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.188696%
Crop establishment is a major factor determining crop productivity in the field and is strongly controlled by soil temperature and soil moisture. Fast leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation during crop establishment are required for an adequate establishment. Leaf area expansion and accumulation of dry matter during the establishment of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) were studied at different soil temperatures and soil moisture contents in a Vertisol (Lisboa) and a Luvisol (Évora) from November 1993 to November 1996. Soil temperature was measured at 2 and 4 cm depth with thermocouples, air temperature was measured with a ventilated psychrometer and soil moisture was measured using the gravimetric method. Leaf area was estimated non-destructively. Above ground seedling dry matter was weighed after oven drying at 65ºC. Data analysis was based on the thermal time concept. For each crop no significant differences were found on leaf area at establishment in both soils under favourable water conditions, but significant differences were found on seedling dry matter. In moist soils, leaf area of both species increased linearly with accumulated temperature and dry matter increased exponentially with accumulated temperature. Low soil water during establishment reduced leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation of both crops...

Tillage systems and nutrient sources affecting soil cover, temperature and moisture in a clayey oxisol under corn

Veiga,Milton da; Reinert,Dalvan José; Reichert,José Miguel
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.40173%
Tillage affects soil physical properties, e.g., porosity, and leads to different amounts of mulch on the soil surface. Consequently, tillage is related to the soil temperature and moisture regime. Soil cover, temperature and moisture were measured under corn (Zea mays) in the tenth year of five tillage systems (NT = no-tillage; CP = chisel plow and single secondary disking; CT = primary and double secondary disking; CTb = CT with crop residues burned; and CTr = CT with crop residues removed). The tillage systems were combined with five nutrient sources (C = control; MF = mineral fertilizer; PL = poultry litter; CS = cattle slurry; and SS = swine slurry). Soil cover after sowing was greatest in NT (88 %), medium in CP (38 %) and lowest in CT treatments (< 10 %), but differences decreased after corn emergence. Soil temperature was related with soil cover, and significant differences among tillage were observed at the beginning of the growing season and at corn maturity. Differences in soil temperature and moisture in the surface layer of the tilled treatments were greater during the corn cycle than in untilled treatments, due to differences in intensity of soil mobilization and mulch remaining after soil management. Nutrient sources affected soil temperature and moisture in the most intense part of the corn growth period...

Kinetic parameters of soil β-glucosidase response to environmental temperature and moisture regimes

Zhang,Yulan; Chen,Lijun; Wu,Zhijie; Sun,Caixia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.34138%
Soil β-glucosidase participates in the final step of cellulose biodegradation. It is significant in the soil C cycle and is used as an indicator of the biological fertility of soil. However, the response of its kinetic parameters to environmental temperature and moisture regimes is not well understood. This study tested the β-glucosidase response in the main agricultural soils (black soil, albic soil, brown soil, and cinnamon soil) of Northeast China. Incubation tests were conducted to measure the kinetic parameters Km, Vmax or Vmax/Km of soil β-glucosidase at environmental temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 ºC and at 10, 20 and 30 % soil moisture content. The insensitive response of the kinetic parameters to temperature changes indicates that soil β-glucosidase was present primarily in immobilized form. The significant response of the kinetic parameters of soil β-glucosidase to soil moisture rather than to environmental temperatures suggests that the catalytic ability of soil β-glucosidase was sensitive to changing soil moisture regimes.

Influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Rohde,Cristhiane; Moino Jr,Alcides; Silva,Marco A T da; Carvalho,Fabiano D; Ferreira,Cleidson S
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.93241%
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is considered one of the main pests that affect fruit production in the world. This insect spends part of its life cycle in the soil, making it a target for entomopathogenic nematodes. This work aimed at evaluating the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of Heterorhabditis sp. RSC01 and Steinernema carpocapsae ALL to third-instars of C. capitata, and to compare the efficiency of these isolates at five different soil temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28, and 31°C) and three levels of relative soil moisture (100, 75, and 50% of field capacity). Ten C. capitata larvae were transferred to plastic jars (12 cm × 6 cm) containing 100 g soil, followed by the application of an aqueous suspension containing 125 infective juveniles (IJ)/cm². In the control treatment, 3 ml of distilled water was applied. Mortality evaluations were made five days later and were confirmed by observations of the characteristic symptoms and cadaver dissection. The infectivity was directly proportional to temperature increase, with maximum percent mortality of 86.7% and 80.0% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively, at 31°C. At 25°C, the highest mortality for both species was obtained at 75% of field capacity (96.7% and 26.7% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp....

Survival of Cowpea Rhizobia in Soil as Affected by Soil Temperature and Moisture

Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Weaver, R. W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1982 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
79.12232%
Successful inoculation of peanuts and cowpeas depends on the survival of rhizobia in soils which fluctuate between wide temperature and moisture extremes. Survival of two cowpea rhizobial strains (TAL309 and 3281) and two peanut rhizobial strains (T-1 and 201) was measured in two soils under three moisture conditions (air-dry, moist (−0.33 bar), and saturated soil) and at two temperatures (25 and 35°C) when soil was not sterilized and at 40°C when soil was sterilized. Populations of rhizobia were measured periodically for 45 days. The results in nonsterilized soil indicated that strain 201 survived relatively well under all environmental conditions. The 35°C temperature in conjunction with the air-dry or saturated soil was the most detrimental to survival. At this temperature, the numbers of strains T-1, TAL309, and 3281 decreased about 2 logs in dry soil and 2.5 logs in saturated soil during 45 days of incubation. In sterilized soil, the populations of all strains in moist soil increased during the first 2 weeks, but decreased rapidly when incubated under dry conditions. The populations did not decline under saturated soil conditions. From these results it appears that rhizobial strains to be used for inoculant production should be screened under simulated field conditions for enhanced survival before their selection for commercial inoculant production.

Influences of pH, Temperature, and Moisture on Gaseous Tritium Uptake in Surface Soils

Fallon, Robert D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1982 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.908125%
In South Carolina surface soils, the uptake of gaseous tritium (T2, HT, or both) showed a broad optimal temperature response from about 20 to 50°C, with the highest rates at 35 to 45°C. The optimal pH was in the range of 4 to 7. Uptake rates declined at the wet and dry extremes in soil moisture content. Inhibition seen upon the addition of hydrogen or carbon monoxide to the soil atmosphere suggested that hydrogenase may be responsible for T2-HT uptake in soil. During the period of most rapid recovery in a 36-day incubation of reinoculated, sterilized soil, T2-HT uptake rates doubled every 2 to 4 days. Thus, T2-HT uptake appears to be biologically mediated. Soil uptake of T2-HT was not severely limited by pH, temperature, or moisture in the soils tested. Thus, rapid exchange of gaseous tritium into soil water must be expected and accounted for in modeling the isotope distributions around nuclear facilities.

The Effects of Soil Type, Particle Size, Temperature, and Moisture on Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus

Robbins, R. T.; Barker, K. R.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1974 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.723735%
Effects of soil type, particle size, temperature, and moisture on the reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Nematode increases occurred only in soils with a minimum of 80% sand and a maximum of 10% clay. Optimum soil particle size for reproduction of the Tarboro, N.C. and Tifton, Ga. populations of the nematode was near that of 120-370 μm (65-mesh) silica sand. Reproduction was greatest at 25-30 C. Some reproduction by the Tifton, Ga. population occurred at 35 C, whereas the Tarboro, N.C. population declined, as compared to the initial inoculum. Both populations reproduced slightly at 20 C. Nematode reproduction was greater at a moisture level of 7% than at a high of 30% or a low of 2%. Reproduction occurred at the high moisture level only when the nutrient solution was aerated.

Learning the dynamics of deformable objects and recursive boundary estimation using curve evolution techniques

Sun, Walter
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 176 p.; 13312623 bytes; 17797080 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.289893%
The primary objective of this thesis is to develop robust algorithms for the incorporation of statistical information in the problem of estimating object boundaries in image data. We propose two primary algorithms, one which jointly estimates the underlying field and boundary in a static image and another which performs image segmentation across a temporal sequence. Some motivating applications come from the earth sciences and medical imaging. In particular, we examine the problems of oceanic front and sea surface temperature estimation in oceanography, soil boundary and moisture estimation in hydrology, and left ventricle boundary estimation across a cardiac cycle in medical imaging. To accomplish joint estimation in a static image, we introduce a variational technique that incorporates the spatial statistics of the underlying field to segment the boundary and estimate the field on either side of the boundary. For image segmentation across a sequence of frames, we propose a method for learning the dynamics of a deformable boundary that uses these learned dynamics to recursively estimate the boundary in each frame over time. In the recursive estimation algorithm, we extend the traditional particle filtering approach by applying sample-based methods to a complex shape space.; (cont.) We find a low-dimensional representation for this shape-shape to make the learning of the dynamics tractable and then incorporate curve evolution into the state estimates to recursively estimate the boundaries. Experimental results are obtained on cardiac magnetic resonance images...

Ukraine : Soil Fertility to Strengthen Climate Resilience

Fileccia, Turi; Guadagni, Maurizio; Hovhera, Vasyl; Bernoux, Martial
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.117876%
Ukraine is renowned as the breadbasket of Europe thanks to its black soils ( Chernozem black because of the high organic matter content) which offer exceptional agronomic conditions. One-third of the worldwide stock of the fertile black soils, which cover more than half of Ukraine s arable land, a large variety of climatic zones, and favourable temperature and moisture regimes, offers attractive conditions for the production of a large range of crops including cereals and oilseeds. Ukraine s proximity to large and growing neighbouring markets the Russian Federation and the European Union and access to deep sea ports at the Black Sea, provide direct access to world markets, especially large grain importers in the Middle East and North Africa.

Monitoring near-surface thermal properties in conjunction with energy and moisture budgets to facilitate the optimization of ground-source heat pumps in the glaciated Midwest

Naylor, Shawn; Gustin, Andrew R.; Ellett, Kevin M.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.54977%
This poster was presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2011, San Francisco, Calif., on December 7, 2011. It was part of IN33C, Geothermal energy research and discovery II posters session.; By exploiting the near-surface heat reservoir, ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) represent an important renewable energy technology that can be further developed by establishing data sets related to shallow (<100m) thermal regimes. Although computer programs are available for GSHP installers to calculate optimal lengths and configurations of ground-coupling geothermal systems, uncertainties exist for input parameters that must first be determined for these models. Input parameters include earth temperatures and thermal properties of unconsolidated materials. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of sediments varies significantly depending on texture and moisture content, highlighting the need to characterize various unconsolidated materials under varying soil moisture regimes. Regolith texture data can be, and often are, collected for particular installations, and are then used to estimate thermal properties for system design. However, soil moisture and temperature gradients within the vadose zone are rarely considered because of the difficulty associated with collecting a sufficient amount of data to determine predominant moisture and temperature ranges. Six monitoring locations were chosen in Indiana to represent unique hydrogeologic settings and near-surface glacial sediments. The monitoring approach includes excavating trenches to a depth of 2 meters (a typical depth for horizontal GSHP installations) and collecting sediment samples at 0.3-meter intervals to determine thermal conductivity...

24-h variation in soil respiration after a long dry season in a Sudano-Sahelian region

Yemadje,Pierrot Lionel; Guibert,Hervé; Blavet,Didier; Olina,Jean-Paul; Chevallier,Tiphaine; Deleporte,Philippe; Bernoux,Martial
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.768394%
Soil respiration is a major component of the global carbon cycle which links ecosystems and the atmosphere. To evaluate the reaction of soil respiration after wetting, during a dry period, soil respiration and associated environmental factors were measured over a 24-h period, during the dry season in North Cameroon after wetting the soil. Over 24-h, soil respiration rates followed a quadratic curve during the day coming close to linear at night, while soil temperature and moisture together explained at least 73 % of the variations during the 24-h observed. These soil respiration rates increased during the morning, peaked between 11h00 and 13h00 and then decreased gradually to the minimum around 06h00. These observations were used to propose a method for estimating mean daytime and nighttime soil respiration after wetting the soil. The method proposed in this study has the advantage of being based on a small number of measurements and is, therefore, easier to implement for monitoring 24-h soil respiration after the first rains following a long dry period.

Étude de l’impact de la température et de l’humidité sur la survie et la dynamique de la ponte de la mouche du chou (Delia radicum L.)

Lepage, Marie-Pier
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.924863%
On dénombre divers modèles de simulation de la mouche du chou (Delia radicum L.), mais plusieurs comportent d’importantes lacunes au niveau des différences génotypiques de l’insecte et des paramètres utilisés. L’objectif principal de ce projet est de rassembler les informations manquantes afin de créer dans le futur un modèle bioclimatique permettant de simuler efficacement la dynamique des populations de ce ravageur. L’effet de la température et de l’humidité du sol a été mesuré sur les œufs et les larves de la mouche du chou. L’humidité n’influence la survie des œufs qu’en dessous de 25% [m/m]. L’exposition graduelle des œufs à des températures élevées au dessus de 33°C affecte également la survie. La survie des larves augmente avec la hausse des températures et de l’humidité. Nous croyons que la mouche du chou est bien adaptée aux conditions des sols organiques au Québec, et nous recommandons l’intégration de la température du sol pour les stades au sol plutôt que de l’air dans l’élaboration d’un nouveau modèle. La ponte a également été étudiée à partir de différents critères préétablis pour chacun des génotypes hâtifs et tardifs, à différentes températures. Excepté pour la pré-oviposition qui est plus longue chez les hâtifs...

Matéria orgânica, fluxo de CO2 e índice Q10 em dois latossolos com texturas contrastantes sob diferentes usos no cerrado; Organic matter, CO2 flux and Q10 index in two Typic acrustox with contrastant soil textures under different uses at savanna

Vinhal-Freitas, Isabel Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
69.480347%
A introdução de sistemas agrícolas no Cerrado, com o uso intensivo do solo causa impactos nos atributos químicos, físicos e biológicos do solo, acarretando rápida degradação e desbalanço nos processos biológicos e ciclagem de nutrientes. A textura do solo e a sazonalidade também interferem nesses processos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar as alterações causadas no metabolismo do solo em agroecossistemas sobre Latossolos de diferentes texturas, avaliar os efeitos da sazonalidade na atividade microbiana e no fluxo de CO2 com a aplicação de modelos, e avaliar a sensibilidade da respiração do solo em função do aumento da temperatura. A fração orgânica, a biomassa microbiana e as enzimas extracelulares (β-glicosidase, urease, fosfatase ácida e FDA) foram avaliadas. A respiração do solo, a temperatura do solo e a umidade gravimétrica do solo foram avaliadas em campo quinzenalmente, no ano de 2012. A precipitação pluviométrica e temperatura do ar também foram monitoradas. Bioensaios em laboratório foram realizados para determinação do C-CO2 liberado por incubação estática com temperaturas induzidas de 20, 25 e 30oC. Modelos lineares, quadráticos e exponenciais foram aplicados com o intuito de modelar como o fator umidade do solo e a combinação de umidade e temperatura na emissão de CO2. Para determinação do índice Q10...

Soil carbon balance in a tropical grassland: Estimation of soil respiration and its partitioning using a semi-empirical model

Caquet, B.; De Grandcourt, A.; M'bou, A. Thongo; Epron, D.; Kinana, A.; Saint Andre, L.; Nouvellon, Y.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV; AMSTERDAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.123105%
In savannah and tropical grasslands, which account for 60% of grasslands worldwide, a large share of ecosystem carbon is located below ground due to high root:shoot ratios. Temporal variations in soil CO2 efflux (R-S) were investigated in a grassland of coastal Congo over two years. The objectives were (1) to identify the main factors controlling seasonal variations in R-S and (2) to develop a semi-empirical model describing R-S and including a heterotrophic component (R-H) and an autotrophic component (R-A). Plant above-ground activity was found to exert strong control over soil respiration since 71% of seasonal R-S variability was explained by the quantity of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (APAR) by the grass canopy. We tested an additive model including a parameter enabling R-S partitioning into R-A and R-H. Assumptions underlying this model were that R-A mainly depended on the amount of photosynthates allocated below ground and that microbial and root activity was mostly controlled by soil temperature and soil moisture. The model provided a reasonably good prediction of seasonal variations in R-S (R-2 = 0.85) which varied between 5.4 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) in the wet season and 0.9 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) at the end of the dry season. The model was subsequently used to obtain annual estimates of R-S...

Response of Soil Respiration to Soil Temperature and Moisture in a 50-Year-Old Oriental Arborvitae Plantation in China

Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.56953%
China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (Rs) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO2 m−2s−1, with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly Rs and soil temperature (Ts), explaining 82% of the variation in Rs over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m−2 year−1. The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of Rs. The logistic model will potentially overestimate Rs at high Ts and low VWC. Seasonally, Rs increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November...

Temperature dependence of soil CO2 efflux is strongly modulated by seasonal patterns of moisture availability in a Mediterranean ecosystem

Almagro, María; López, J.; Querejeta Mercader, José Ignacio; Martínez-Mena García, M. Dolores
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.31785%
Extensive research has focused on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. However, in Mediterranean ecosystems, soil respiration may have a pulsed response to precipitation events, especially during prolonged dry periods. Here, we investigate temporal variations in soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (T) and soil water content (SWC) under three different land uses (a forest area, an abandoned agricultural field and a rainfed olive grove) in a dry Mediterranean area of southeast Spain, and evaluate the relative importance of soil temperature and water content as predictors of Rs. We hypothesize that soil moisture content, rather than soil temperature, becomes the major factor controlling CO2 efflux rates in this Mediterranean ecosystem during the summer dry season. Soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly between January 2006 and December 2007 using a portable soil respiration instrument fitted with a soil respiration chamber (LI-6400-09). Mean annual soil respiration rates were 2.06 ± 0.07, 1.71 ± 0.09, and 1.12 ± 0.12 μmol m−2 s−1 in the forest, abandoned field and olive grove, respectively. Rs was largely controlled by soil temperature above a soil water content threshold value of 10% at 0–15 cm depth for forest and olive grove...

Microbial soil respiration and its dependency on carbon inputs, soil temperature and moisture

Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Baldocchi, D; Gershenson, A; Goldstein, A.; Misson, L.; Wong, S.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.669453%
This experiment was designed to study three determinant factors in decomposition patterns of soil organic matter (SOM): temperature, water and carbon (C) inputs. The study combined field measurements with soil lab incubations and ends with a modelling framework based on the results obtained. Soil respiration was periodically measured at an oak savanna woodland and a ponderosa pine plantation. Intact soils cores were collected at both ecosystems, including soils with most labile C burnt off, soils with some labile C gone and soils with fresh inputs of labile C. Two treatments, dry-field condition and field capacity, were applied to an incubation that lasted 111 days. Short-term temperature changes were applied to the soils periodically to quantify temperature responses. This was done to prevent confounding results associated with different pools of C that would result by exposing treatments chronically to different temperature regimes. This paper discusses the role of the above-defined environmental factors on the variability of soil C dynamics. At the seasonal scale, temperature and water were, respectively, the main limiting factors controlling soil CO2 efflux for the ponderosa pine and the oak savanna ecosystems. Spatial and seasonal variations in plant activity (root respiration and exudates production) exerted a strong influence over the seasonal and spatial variation of soil metabolic activity. Mean residence times of bulk SOM were significantly lower at the Nitrogen (N)-rich deciduous savanna than at the N-limited evergreen dominated pine ecosystem. At shorter time scales (daily)...